List of banners in the Battle of Grunwald

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The following tables list the banners of the forces participating in the Battle of Grunwald, (1410)

Poland[edit]

The exact Order of Battle of the Polish forces is unknown. However, Ioannes Longinus in his Historiæ Polonicæ written after 1455 recorded 51 Polish banners, together with their descriptions, blazoning and commanders.

This list also has some obvious errors: at the time of the battle several of the banners attributed to Poland were constituents of the Lithuanian army (e.g. Lwów, Podolia, Halicz); Coat of Arms of Lithuania (Pahonia) was a banner exclusively of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; arrows, axes and horseshoes are typical to Lithuanian heraldry, but not the Polish one, etc.

It is not certain whether the list is complete.

Banner of Battle sign Origin Remarks
  Army of The Crown - Court Banners
Great Banner of Kraków and the Kingdom of Poland The Crown Arms of Poland Elite troops, under Zyndram of Maszkowice
"Gończa" Court Banner Goncza Coat of Arms under Andrzej of Ochocice of Osorya
Coat of Arms of Lithuania Court Banner Alex K Grundwald flags 1410-03.svg Coat of Arms of Lithuania under Andrzej Ciołek of Żelechów and Jan of Sprowa of Odrowąż
Saint George Bohemian and Moravian mercenaries, under Sokol and Zbyslavek
  Army of The Crown - Regional Banners
Land of Poznań Coat of Arms of Poznań
Land of Sandomierz Sandomierz Flag of Sandomierz
Land of Kalisz Kalisz Flag of Kalisz
Land of Sieradz Flag of Sieradz
Land of Lublin Lublin Jeleń
Land of Łęczyca Flag of Łęczyca
Land of Kuyavia Coat of Arms of Cuyavia
Land of Lwów Banner of Lwów
Land of Wieluń Wielun Flag of Wieluń Reinforced with mercenaries from Silesia
Land of Przemyśl Flag of Przemyśl
Land of Dobrzyń Coat of Arms of Dobrzyń
Land of Chełm Coat of Arms of Chełm
Three banners of Podolia Podolia Coat of Arms of Podolia Split up due to large number of knights
Land of Halicz Coat of Arms of Halicz
  Army of The Crown - Masovian Banners
Two banners of
Duke Siemowit IV of Masovia
Coat of Arms of Masovia Masovia, mostly Płock area Dukes of Masovia
Duke Janusz I of Masovia Banner of Masovia as flown by the forces of Janusz I own Masovia, mostly Warsaw area Dukes of Masovia
  Army of The Crown - Personal Banners
Archbishop of Gniezno
Mikołaj Kurowski
Sreniawa Śreniawa
Bishop of Poznań
Wojciech Jastrzębiec
Jastrzębiec Jastrzębiec under Jarand of Brudzewo
Castellan of Kraków
Krystyn of Ostrów
Rawicz Rawicz
Voivod of Kraków
Jan of Tarnów
Leliwa Leliwa
Voivod of Poznań
Sędziwój of Ostroróg
Nałęcz Nałęcz
Voivod of Sandomierz
Mikołaj of Michałowo
Poraj Poraj
Voivod of Sieradz
Jakub of Koniecpol
Pobóg Pobóg
Castellan of Śrem
Iwo of Obiechów
Wieniawa Wieniawa
Voivod of Łęczyca
Jan Ligęza
Półkozic Półkozic
Castellan of Wojnice
Andrzej of Tęczyn
Topór Topór
Marshal of The Crown
Zbigniew of Brzezie
Zadora Zadora
Chambelain of Kraków
Piotr Szafraniec
Starykon Starykoń
Castellan of Wiślica
Klemens of Moskorzów
Pilawa Piława
Castellan of Śrem and mayor of Greater Poland
Wincenty of Granów
Leliwa Leliwa
Dobko of Oleśnica Dębno Dębno
Spytko of Tarnów Leliwa Leliwa
Lord High Steward of Kalisz
Marcin of Sławsko
Zaremba Zaremba
Dobrogost Świdwa of Szamotuły Nałęcz Nałęcz
Krystyn of Koziegłowy Lis Lis
Master King's Cup-Bearer
Jan Mężyk
Wadwicz Wadwicz
Deputy Chancellor of the Crown
Mikołaj Trąba
Trąby Trąby
Mikołaj Kmita of Wiśnicz Sreniawa Śreniawa
Gryf Clan Gryf Gryf Family of Gryf, under Zygmunt of Bobowa
Zaklika of Korzkiew Syrokomla Syrokomla
Clan of Koźlerogi Kozlerogi Koźlerogi Family, under Castellan of Wiślica Florian of Korytnica
Jan of Jičín Odrowaz Odřivous Benešovici Moravia Volunteers from Moravia, commanded by Jan Helm, the hejtman in the duty of aristocratic family of Kravaře
Steward of the Crown and starost of Lwów
Gniewosz of Dalewice
Strzegomia Strzegomia Czech lands Only volunteers and mercenaries from Silesia, Bohemia and Moravia
Duke of Lithuania Sigismund Korybut Pogoń Coat of Arms of Lithuania

Lithuania[edit]

Due to different system of feudal overlordship, as well as lack of heraldic traditions, the units of Grand Duchy of Lithuania were all grouped under banners of two types: the Coat of Arms of Lithuania and the Columns of Gediminas. The only difference between various lands using the same emblem was the blazon. The hareness and the colour of the horse on the Coat of Arms of Lithuania differed.

Note that the number of Lithuanian banners is uncertain. According to Ioannes Longinus there were 40 banners on the right flank of the Polish-Lithuanian forces, 10 flying the Columns of Gediminas and 30 flying Coat of Arms of Lithuania. However, he also mentions that there might have been 2 additional banners from Smolensk and up to six additional banners of Samogitia. German authors also mention that there were three auxiliary banners of Moldavia flying their own flags. In addition, it is probable that the units from Trakai, Volhynia, Smolensk, Kiev and Navahrudak used their own emblems.

Banner of Battle sign Origin Remarks
  Army of the Grand Duchy - Flying the Coat of Arms of Lithuania Banners
Vytautas the Great Coat of arms of Lithuania Coat of arms of Lithuania
Minsk Coat of arms of Lithuania Pahonia
Polack Coat of arms of Lithuania Pahonia
Hrodna Coat of arms of Lithuania Pahonia
Kreva Coat of arms of Lithuania Pahonia
Kryčaŭ Coat of arms of Lithuania Pahonia
Mahilioŭ Coat of arms of Lithuania Pahonia
Niaśviž Coat of arms of Lithuania Pahonia
Navahrudak Coat of arms of Lithuania Pahonia
Novhorod-Siverskyi Coat of arms of Lithuania Coat of arms of Lithuania
Orša Coat of arms of Lithuania Pahonia
Slonim Coat of arms of Lithuania Pahonia
Sluck Coat of arms of Lithuania Pahonia
Viciebsk Coat of arms of Lithuania Pahonia
Volodymyr-Volynskyi Coat of arms of Lithuania Coat of arms of Lithuania
  Army of the Grand Duchy - Flying the Columns Banners
Sigismund Kestutaitis Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Albertas Manvydas Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Yurij, son of Lengvenis Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Trakai Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Vilnius Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Hrodna Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Kaunas Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Lida Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Medininkai Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Three (?) Banners of Smolensk Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas under Lengvenis (Simon Lingwen)
Viciebsk Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Kiev Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Pinsk Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Navahrudak Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Brest Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Vaŭkavysk Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Drohiczyn Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Mielnik Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Krzemieniec Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
Starodub Columns of Gediminas Columns of Gediminas
  Auxiliary Units
Crimean Tatars approximately 1000 skirmishers under Jalal ad-Din
Three Banners of Moldavia Moldavia Aurochs of Moldavia approximately 900 foot soldiers and 25 knights under logofăt Mihaiu Alexandrel

References[edit]

  • Sven Ekdahl Die "Banderia Prutenorum" des Jan Długosz: Eine Quelle zur Schlacht bei Tannenberg 1410 : Unters. zu Aufbau, Entstehung u. Quellenwert d. Hs. : mit e. ... Klasse ; Folge 3, Nr. 104). ISBN 3-525-82382-7