Battle of Zuunmod
|Battle of Zuunmod|
|Part of First Oirat-Manchu war|
The location of the battle within modern Mongolia.
|Qing Dynasty||Zunghar Khanate|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Casualties and losses|
The Battle of Zuunmod (Mongolian), also known as the Battle of Jao Modo, literally "Battle of the Hundred Trees", was one of the expeditions by the Qing Dynasty against the Dzungar Khanate to prevent the Dzungars from becoming a threat to the Qing Empire. The word "zuunmod", sinfified to Jao Modo, took place on the Terelj River outside the town of the same name. The battle concluded with a Qing victory.
In the second half of the 17th century, the nomadic warriors of the Oirat tribes in Mongolia found an skilled military leader in Galdan. They launched an assault on the Khalka Mongols which destroyed their forces and gave the Dzungar Khanate control of Mongolia. In China, the Qing imperial court feared the rise of a new Mongol Empire and decided to take preemptive action ; however, an earlier campaign failed to defeat the Oirats. In 1696 three Manchu armies marched westwards into Mongolia. The Qing ruler, the Kangxi Emperor, personally led an army across the Gobi Desert, achieving a remarkable feat of logistical organization to keep them adequately supplied for an 80-day journey, while the other two armies attempted to trap the Dzungars. Galdan, concealed with his army in the Hentei Mountains, decided not to engage the largest, central, column. Instead he moved south and met the smaller but still superior western coumn in battle at Zuunmod. The Qing seized a mountain so as to gain a more commanding possession for their artillery, dissuading Oirat troops from attacking. At noon Galdan sent all his troops at the centre of the Qing forces, hoping to break their army. The Qing threw dismounted cavalry into the melee, but nonetheless the centre began to collapse. Suddenly, a detachment of Manchu cavalry hit the Oirat camp from behind, capturing their supplies. As the Oirats wavered, the Qing launched a massive counterattack supported by artillery, and the Dzungars fell back. Now encircled, the Dzungars were destroyed. Galdan's wife, Anu, led a counterattack which enabled her husband to escape, but the OIrats had been destroyed. The Manchus captured 20,000 cattle and 40,000 sheep. Galdan fled with his remaining 40 or 50 men and he died near Khovd Province the following year.
- The Tea Road:China and Russia Meet Across the Steppe, pg. 110-, Martha Avery
- Kychanov EI " Lords of Asia", Moscow: Publishing House of the " Eastern Literature ", RAN, 2004 . ISBN 5-02-018328-8.