Battle of Kashgar (1934)

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Battle of Kashgar
Part of the Kumul Rebellion
Date January–February 1934
Location Kashgar, Xinjiang
Result Chinese Muslim victory
Belligerents
Taiwan Republic of China 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army) First East Turkestan RepublicFirst East Turkestan Republic Taiwan Xinjiang Provincial Government
Commanders and leaders
Taiwan Ma Zhongying

Taiwan Ma Zhancang
Taiwan Ma Fuyuan
Taiwan Ma Hushan
[1]

First East Turkestan RepublicNur Ahmad Jan Bughra

First East Turkestan RepublicAbdullah Bughra

Khoja Niyas Hajji
Strength
Several hundred Hui troops and Han chinese who converted to Islam Thousands Turkic Muslim Uighur and Kirghiz fighters Thousands of Turkic Uyghur fighters
Casualties and losses
light 2,000 or 4,500[2][3] Heavy

The Battle of Kashgar was a military confrontation that took place in 1934 during the Xinjiang Wars. Turkic Muslim Uighur and Kirghiz fighters under Emir Abdullah Bughra and other Turkic separatists began four separate attacks over a six-day period on Hui and Han Chinese soldiers led by Gen. Ma Zhancang, trapping them inside Kashgar. Khoja Niyas Hajji joined the attack with his own Kumul Uyghur fighters after a 300-mile trek from Aksu - from which he was driven out by a force of Chinese Muslims — appearing at the walls of Kashgar on January 13. The Chinese Muslim and Chinese forces repulsed the Turkic fighters, inflicting severe casualties upon them.[4]

Gen. Ma Fuyuan of the 36th Division then stormed Kashgar and attacked the Uighur and Kirghiz rebels of the First East Turkestan Republic. He freed Ma Zhancang and the trapped Chinese troops. Ma Zhancang and Ma Fuyuan then defeated and drove out the remaining Turkic fighters. Estimates are that 2,000 to 8,000 Uighur civilians were killed in revenge for the Kizil massacre.[5] In April 1934, Gen. Ma Zhongying personally gave a speech at Idgah mosque, telling the Uighurs to be loyal to the Republic of China government at Nanjing.[6][7] Several British citizens at the British consulate were killed by troops of the 36th Division in two separate incidents in March 1934.[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] The Chinese Muslims were referred to as "Tungan tribesmen"; initial reports were that 2,000 Uighurs and several members of the British consulate were killed. The Uighurs were reinforced by troops from Yark and Hotan and Kirghiz tribesmen.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chahryar Adle, Madhavan K. Palat, Anara Tabyshalieva (2005). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Towards the contemporary period : from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century. UNESCO. p. 395. ISBN 92-3-103985-7. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  2. ^ S. Frederick Starr (2004). Xinjiang: China's Muslim borderland. M.E. Sharpe. p. 79. ISBN 0-7656-1318-2. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  3. ^ Christian Tyler (2004). Wild West China: the taming of Xinjiang. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. p. 116. ISBN 0-8135-3533-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  4. ^ AP (1 February 1934). "REPULSE REBELS AFTER SIX DAYS". Spokane Daily Chronicle. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
  5. ^ Christian Tyler (2004). Wild West China: the taming of Xinjiang. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. p. 116. ISBN 0-8135-3533-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  6. ^ S. Frederick Starr (2004). Xinjiang: China's Muslim borderland. M.E. Sharpe. p. 79. ISBN 0-7656-1318-2. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  7. ^ James A. Millward (2007). Eurasian crossroads: a history of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. p. 200. ISBN 0-231-13924-1. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  8. ^ AP (17 March 1934). "TUNGAN RAIDERS MASSACRE 2,000". The Miami News. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
  9. ^ Associated Press Cable (17 March 1934). "TUNGANS SACK KASHGAR CITY, SLAYING 2,000". The Montreal Gazette. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
  10. ^ The Associated Press (17 March 1934). "British Officials and 2,000 Natives Slain At Kashgar, on Western Border of China". The New YorkTimes. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
  11. ^ AP (17 March 1934). "2000 Killed In Massacre". San Jose News. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
  12. ^ Frederick Kuh (11 May 1934). "ASIA MILITARY KEY SOUGHT BY GREAT POWERS". The Pittsburgh Press. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
  13. ^ "BRITISH SUBJECTS SLAIN Two Killed When Tungan Tribesmen Attack Enemies". The Montreal Gazette. 3 March 1934. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
  14. ^ "Kashgar Repulses Attacks of Tribes". The Christian Science Monitor. 1 February 1934. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
  15. ^ Kenneth Bourne, Ann Trotter (1996). British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print. From the First to the Second World War. Asia 1914–1939. China, April 1934-December 1935, Part 2, Volume 43. University Publications of America. p. 167. ISBN 0-89093-613-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  16. ^ India. Intelligence Bureau, Sir Horace Williamson, John Felix Cowgill (1976). India and communism. Editions Indian. p. 53. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  17. ^ The China monthly review, Volume 68. J.W. Powell. 1934. p. 287. Retrieved 2010-06-28.