Battle of Kufra (1941)
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (September 2010)|
|Battle of Kufra|
|Part of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War|
| Free French
|Commanders and leaders|
|Colonel Leclerc||Captain Colonna|
2 light armoured cars
1 75 mm mountain gun
26 LRDG trucks with 76 crew
310 men (280 of "askaris" colonial infantry)
1 Auto-Saharan Company (120 men)
|Casualties and losses|
| 4 killed
| 3 killed
The Battle of Kufra (also spelled Koufra, or Cufra) was part of the World War II Allies Western Desert Campaign in the colony of Italian Libya, in the Libyan Desert of present day southeastern Libya. The battle resulted in the 1941 capture of the important but isolated oasis of Kufra by Free French Forces and the British Long Range Desert Group from Italian Fascist Axis forces.
Between the World Wars
Kufra, in the Libyan Desert subregion of the Sahara, was an important trade and travel center for the nomadic desert peoples of the region, including the Berbers and Senussi. The Senussi made the oasis their capital at one point in response to British, Italian, and French designs on the region. In 1931, the Kingdom of Italy captured Kufra and incorporated it into their Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana) colonization of the Maghreb.
Battle for Kufra
After the defeat of France in 1940, the colony of French Equatorial Africa (FEA) declared its allegiance to the Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres), the exile army headed by Charles de Gaulle. Chad, the northern part of FEA, borders Libya. De Gaulle ordered the Free French in Chad to attack Italian positions in Libya. Kufra was the obvious target.
The Free French commander in Chad was Lieutenant-Colonel Jean Colonna d'Ornano. The troops available were 5,000 tirailleurs (riflemen) of the Senegalese Light Infantry Regiment of Chad (Régiment de Tirailleurs Sénégalais du Tchad; RTST) in 20 companies in different garrisons; also three detachments of méharistes (camel cavalry), in Borkou, Tibesti, and Ennedi.
Attacking Kufra would be very difficult for this motley force. The Free French had very little motor transport and needed to cross over 400 km (250 mi) of desert, much of which was sand dunes or the fine, powdery soil called Fech fech. The area was considered by some[who?] to be impassable to vehicles.
However, the French received assistance from the British Long Range Desert Group (LRDG), a reconnaissance and raiding unit formed to operate reconnaissance patrols and intelligence missions behind the Italian lines; they were experts in desert navigation. Major Pat Clayton of LRDG was keen to join with the Free French to test the Italians. Clayton commanded G (Guards) and T (New Zealand) patrols of LRDG, a total of 76 men in 26 vehicles.
To prepare for the attack on Kufra, the LRDG and Free French first raided the Italian airfield at Murzuk, in the Territorio Sahara Libico - Fezzan region in southwestern Libya. D'Ornano and 10 Free French (three officers, two sergeants, and five native soldiers) met Clayton′s LRDG patrols on 6 January 1941 at Kayouge. The combined force reached Murzuk on 11 January. In a daring daylight raid, they surprised the sentries and devastated the base. Most of the force attacked the main fort; a troop from T patrol under Lieutenant Ballantyne attacked the airfield, destroying three Caproni aircraft and capturing some prisoners.
D'Ornano was killed in this raid along with one trooper of T Patrol. A French officer cauterized his leg wound with a cigarette, much to the admiration of the LRDG. A diversionary raid by French camel cavalry failed after it was betrayed by local guides. These troops were therefore relegated to reconnaissance duties only.
Colonel Philippe Leclerc assumed overall command in place of d'Ornano. After the success of the Murzuk raid, Leclerc marshalled his forces to take on Kufra itself. The attacking column included about 400 men in 60 trucks, two Laffly S15TOE armored cars, four Laffly S15 all-terrain carriers and two 75 mm (2.95 in) mountain guns.
Kufra was protected by two defensive lines around the El Tag fort: barbed wire, trenches, machine guns and light AA guns. The Regio Esercito forces in the fort were two machine gun companies (the 59th and 60th) with a total of 280 "askari" colonial infantry and an Auto-Saharan Company: the Compagnia Sahariana di Cufra. The Saharan companies were a mixed force of motorized infantry with well-armed off-road vehicles (SPA AS37), which could also call on the Italian Air Force for support. The "Compagnia Sahariana" in Kufra was around 120-men strong (45 Italians and 75 Libyans).
Leclerc asked the LRDG to deal with the Saharan company based in El Tag fort in Kufra oasis. The LRDG was detected by a radio intercept unit at Kufra and the Italians organized a mobile column of 40 men, one AS37 and four FIAT 634 lorries to intercept them. G Patrol had been kept in reserve. On 31 January, Major Clayton was at Bishara (130 km (81 mi) SSW of Kufra) with T Patrol (30 men in 11 trucks). The patrol was spotted by an Italian plane in the morning. T Patrol took cover in a small wadi at Gebel Sherif, a few kilometers north. The plane directed the Saharan patrol to attack the LRDG force.
Due to superior Italian firepower– the Italian vehicles were armed with 20 mm (0.79 in) cannons– and constant air attack, T Patrol was driven off, losing four trucks and Major Clayton, who was captured with several others. Trooper Ronald Moore led other survivors to safety after a long foot march. The remaining LRDG force withdrew to Egypt for refitting, except for one vehicle of T Patrol, equipped for desert navigation. During the fight, the Italian Officer (1st Lt Caputo) in command of the Saharan company was killed, as were two Libyan soldiers.
Leclerc pressed on with his attack, even though the enemy had a copy of his plan which they had captured with Major Clayton. After conducting further reconnaissance, Leclerc reorganized his forces on 16 February. He abandoned his two armored cars and took with him the remaining serviceable artillery piece, a crucial decision. Only about 350 men reached Kufra, due to breakdowns of trucks on the march.
Aware of the advancing enemies, the Italians organized once more a strong mobile column from the Saharan company (70 men, 10 AS37 and 5 trucks). On 17 February, Leclerc's forces met the "Sahariana" north of Kufra. Despite losing many trucks to the 20 mm guns of the Italian AS37 cars, the French drove the Saharianas off, as the Kufra garrison failed to intervene.
The French surrounded El Tag and laid siege to the fort, despite another attack by the Saharianas and harassment from the air. Their single 75 mm gun was placed 3,000 m (3,300 yd) from the fort, beyond range of the defenders, and accurately delivered 20 shells per day at regular intervals (but from very different places to be believed far much numerous than single). Some 81 mm (3.2 in) mortars were placed at 1,500 m (1,600 yd) from the fort and shelled the Italian positions in order to add pressure on the defenders.
The fort, at that time, was under the command of an inexperienced reserve Captain who lacked the will and the determination to fight. Surrender negotiations began on 28 February. On 1 March 1941, the Italians (11 officers, 18 NCO and 273 Libyan soldiers according to Italian sources, 12, 47 and 273, according to French sources) surrendered El Tag and the Kufra oasis to the Free French. During the siege, the Italian garrison suffered only three Libyan soldiers killed and four wounded. The French had four dead and 21 wounded.
The Italian garrison was permitted to withdraw to the northwest. French forces captured in Kufra a goodly amount of vehicles, ammunitions and weapons: eight Sahariana AS37 cars, six lorries, four 20 mm cannons and 53 machine guns. Everything that was captured was immediately used by the French forces.
Orders of battle
The order of battle for the French force in the battle of Kufra.
- HQ: 1 Matford truck, 2 Chevrolet light trucks, 2 Bedford 1.5 ton trucks, 1 ER26bis radio
- 1 reduced infantry company (Captain Rennepont):, 23 Bedford 1.5 ton trucks
- 2 platoons, GN Ennedi (Captain Barboten): 120 men, 1 Dodge truck, 16 Matford V8 3 ton trucks
- 1 platoon, 7th Company, RTST (Captain Florentin): 60 men, 1 Dodge truck, 2 Matford V8 3 ton trucks
- Artillery platoon (Lieutenant Ceccaldi): 2 75 mm Mle1928 Schneider mountain guns, 4 Laffly S15 carriers, 1 Dodge truck, 2 Matford V8 3 ton trucks
- Armored car detachment (Adjudant Detouche): 2 Laffly S15TOE, 1 Matford V8 3 ton truck, 1 ER26bis/39 radio.
The order of battle for the Italian forces in the battle of Kufra.
- HQ forces Settore Cufra (Kufra sector)
- 59th "Compagnia mitraglieri": 3 officers, 1 NCO, 3 Italian enlisted, 110 colonial troops enlisted, 13 MG (8 mm Schwarzlose 07/12 or 6.5 mm FIAT mod. 14)
- 60th "Compagnia mitraglieri": 3 officers, 1 NCO, 3 Italian enlisted, 110 colonial troops enlisted, 13 MG (8 mm Schwarzlose 07/12 or 6.5 mm FIAT mod. 14)
- "Compagnia Sahariana di Cufra" (LT Caputo - KIA): 4 officers, 7 NCO, 32 Italian enlisted, 77 colonial troops enlisted, 16 AS 37 off-road vehicles, 4 FIAT 634 trucks
- "Sezione aeroplani": 4 officers, 4 NCO, 32 Italian enlisted, four aircraft
Oath of Kufra
After the fall of Kufra, Leclerc and his troops swore an oath to fight until "our flag flies over the Cathedral of Strasbourg":
Jurez de ne déposer les armes que lorsque nos couleurs, nos belles couleurs, flotteront sur la cathédrale de Strasbourg. (translating literally as, "Swear not to lay down arms until our colors, our beautiful colors, float on the Strasbourg Cathedral."
The oath was fulfilled on 23 November 1944, when the 2nd French Armored Division under Leclerc′s command liberated Strasbourg.
- Mortimer 2010, p. 44
- Molinari 2007, p. 27-29.
- Le General Leclerc vue par ses compagnon de combat 1948, p.100.
- Molinari 2007, p.52.
- Molinari 2007, p.57.
- Le General Leclerc vu par ses compagnons de combat 1948, p.111.
- Martel 1994, p.108.
- Molinari 2007, p.57.
- Martel 1994, p.108.
- Martel 1994, p.108.
- Association des Amis du Musée Mémorial de la Bataille de Normandie à Caen, "Cemin de l'Est au cœur de l'histoire", Libération et Mémoire, p.2
- The Battle for Kufra[dead link]
- Morgan, M. (2000). Sting of the Scorpion. Gloucestershire, UK: Sutton Publishing Lt. ISBN 0-7509-2481-0.
- Histoire de Guerre Issue 30; November 2002.
- Kelly, Saul (2002). The Hunt for Zerzura, the Lost Oasis and the Desert War. London: John Murray (Publishers) Ltd. ISBN 0-7195-6162-0.
- Molinari, Andrea (2007). Desert raiders: Axis and Allied Special Forces 1940-43. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-006-2.
- Martel, Andre' (1994). Histoire militaire de la France. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 2-13-046074-7.
- Le general Leclerc vu par ses compagnons de combat. Paris: Editions Alsatia. 1948.
- "World War II", issue July/August 2010, "Pirates of the sea sand", G. MORTIMER.