Battle of Kumsong

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Battle of Kumsong
Part of the Korean War
Date 13–27 July 1953
Location Kumsong, Korea
Result Chinese victory[1][2]
Belligerents
 United Nations  China
Commanders and leaders
United States Mark W. Clark
United States Maxwell D. Taylor
United States Reuben E. Jenkins
South Korea Chung Il-kwon[3]
China Deng Hua
China Yang Yong[4]
Units involved
South Korea II Corps

United States IX Corps

China 20th Army

China 9th Army

Strength
90,000
two corps
210,000
two field armies
Casualties and losses
South Korean sources: 2,689 killed
7,548 wounded
4,136 missing[7]
Chinese estimation: 78,000[8]
Chinese sources: 32,253[8]
South Korean estimation: 66,000[9]

The Battle of Kumsong, also known as the Jincheng Campaign (Chinese: 金城战役; pinyin: Jīn Chéng Zhàn Yì), was one of the last battles of the Korean War. In July 1953, after the Republic of Korea (ROK) refused to participate in peace negotiations between the Communist and UN forces, the Chinese forces launched an attack on the Kumsong River Salient at the south of the town of Kumsong, scoring a victory over the UNC forces.

Prelude[edit]

During the ceasefire negotiations seeking to end the Korean War, the UN and Communist forces were unable to agree on the issue of prisoner repatriation. ROK President Syngman Rhee, who refused to sign the armistice, released 27,000 North Korean prisoners. This action caused an outrage among Chinese and North Korean commands and threatened to derail the ongoing negotiations. As a result, the Chinese decided to launch an offensive aimed at the Kumsong River Salient, which was held by the ROK II Corps.

Battle[edit]

The battle was the only engagement of the war in which the Chinese forces had a clear superiority in firepower. After concentrating overwhelming strength in the Kumsong sector, the Chinese forces launched an offensive which broke the UNC defenses of the Kumsong River Salient. By July 16, the salient was largely destroyed, along with the elite "White Tiger" regiment of the ROK Capital Division, and thousands of ROK soldiers were taken prisoner.

After July 16, the ROK 4th, 6th and 8th divisions supported by UNC air power and artillery counter-attacked the Chinese forces but were unable to retake the area. Fighting in the area did not stop until July 27, 1953, the day the Korean Armistice Agreement was signed.

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  • Chae, Han Kook; Chung, Suk Kyun; Yang, Yong Cho (2001), Yang, Hee Wan; Lim, Won Hyok; Sims, Thomas Lee; Sims, Laura Marie; Kim, Chong Gu; Millett, Allan R., eds., The Korean War, Volume III, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 978-0-8032-7795-3 
  • (Chinese) Chinese Military Science Academy (2000), History of War to Resist America and Aid Korea (抗美援朝战争史), Volume III, Beijing: Chinese Military Science Academy Publishing House, ISBN 7-80137-390-1 
  • Hermes, Walter G. (1992), Truce Tent and Fighting Front, Washington, DC: Center of Military History, United States Army, ISBN 0-16-035957-0 
  • Malkasian, Carter (2001), The Korean War 1950–1953, New York, NY: Osprey Publishing Ltd., ISBN 1-84176-282-2 
  • Paik, Sun Yup (1992), From Pusan to Panmunjom, Riverside, NJ: Brassey Inc, ISBN 0-02-881002-3 
  • (Chinese) Xue, Yan (徐焰) (1990), First Confrontation: Reviews and Reflections on the History of War to Resist America and Aid Korea (第一次较量:抗美援朝战争的历史回顾与反思), Beijing: Chinese Radio and Television Publishing House, ISBN 7-5043-0542-1 
  • Zhang, Shu Guang (1995), Mao's Military Romanticism: China and the Korean War, 1950–1953, Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, ISBN 0-7006-0723-4