Battle of Livno

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The Battle of Livno is the name of several battles fought over the town of Livno during World War II, which changed hands between the Independent State of Croatia and Partisan forces several times.

Operation Beta[edit]

Operation Beta
Part of World War II in Yugoslavia
Date 21 – 23 October 1942
Location Livno
Result Partisans withdraw, Axis takes Livno
Belligerents
 Italy
 Independent State of Croatia
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia Yugoslav partisans

Operation Beta followed on the heels of Operation Alfa in which Italian forces retook Prozor from the Partisans. Ten Italian battalions and two Ustaše battalions took the city from the Partisans with neither side suffering many casualties.[1]

Battle for Livno (late 1942)[edit]

Battle of Livno
Part of World War II in Yugoslavia
Date 5 - 15 December 1942
Location Livno
Result Ustaše withdrawal, Partisans take Livno
Belligerents
 Independent State of Croatia
5th Ustaše Brigade
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia Yugoslav partisans
2nd Proletarian Division
Commanders and leaders
Rafael Boban
Strength
1200 soldiers 3000 soldiers

The defence of the city was led by Rafael Boban and elements of his Black Legion. The battle resulted in Boban's forces retreating from Livno. Approximately 100 Croatian soldiers and 74 Partisan soldiers were killed in the battle.[2]

Operation Ziethen[edit]

Operation Ziethen
Part of World War II in Yugoslavia
Date 4 - 6 December 1943
Location Livno
Result Axis victory
Belligerents
 Nazi Germany
 Independent State of Croatia
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia Yugoslav partisans

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Operation Ziethen was a German-Croatian military operation which sought to reestablish control over the LivnoŠuicaDuvno area.[3] The entire operation was a great success for the Axis forces. A mass grave containing over 1000 bodies of people executed by the Partisans was subsequently discovered near Livno. The success of the operation resulted in over 1000 volunteers from the area to join the Croatian forces.[3]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Anti-Partisan Operations in Croatia: Operation "Beta" (1942-10-21)
  2. ^ “Livno mora pasti”: borbe dijelova V. ustaškog stajaćeg zdruga s II. proleterskom divizijom za Livno u prosincu 1942. godine (p. 965)
  3. ^ a b Anti-Partisan Operations in Croatia: Operation "Ziethen" (1943-12-04)

References[edit]

  • Marijan, Davor, “Livno mora pasti”: borbe dijelova V. ustaškog stajaćeg zdruga s II. proleterskom divizijom za Livno u prosincu 1942. godine, Croatian Institute of History, 2008.

Coordinates: 43°50′N 17°04′E / 43.833°N 17.067°E / 43.833; 17.067