Battle of Majdel Anjar

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Battle of Majdel Anjar
Date 1622
Location Ottoman Syria
Result Lebanese Victory, Pasha of Damascus was captured.
Territorial
changes
The Lebanese Emirate takes over Syria, Galilee, and parts of Transjordan.
Belligerents
Maanid Flag.png Mount Lebanon Emirate
Flag of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1840).svg Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire , Ottoman Empire Ottoman Syria
Commanders and leaders
Maanid Flag.png Fakhr-al-Din II Ottoman Empire Mustafa Pasha
Strength
10,000 Lebanese
2,000 Tuscans
45,000
Casualties and losses
1,200 - 1,800 6,000 - 6,500

Background[edit]

In 1608 Fakhr-al-Din forged an alliance with the Italian Grand Duchy of Tuscany. The alliance contained both a public economic section and a secret military one.

Fakhr-al-Din's popularity alarmed the Ottomans who authorized Hafiz Ahmed Pasha, Muhafiz of Damascus, to mount an attack on Lebanon in 1613 to reduce Fakhr-al-Din's growing power.

Faced with Hafiz's army of 50,000 men, Fakhr-al-Din chose exile in Tuscany, leaving affairs in the hands of his brother Emir Yunis and his son Emir Ali Beg. Fakhr-al-Din's exile did not prompt the Lebanese army to surrender to Hafiz Ahmed Pasha's army. They maintained their positions while the military operations raged until Prince Yunus managed through negotiations and persuasion to bring an end to the killings, securing the retreat of the Ottoman army.

In 1618, political changes in the Ottoman sultanate had resulted in the removal of many of Fakhr-al-Din's enemies from power, signaling the prince's triumphant return to Lebanon soon after, upon which he was able quickly to reunite all the lands of Lebanon beyond the boundaries of its mountains; and having revenge from Emir Yusuf Pasha ibn Siyfa, attacking his stronghold in Akkar, destroying his palaces and taking control of his lands, and regaining the territories he had to give up in 1613 in Sidon, Tripoli, Bekaa among others.

The Battle[edit]

The Ottomans seemed uncomfortable with the prince's increasing powers and extended relations with Europe. The promise they had made to the Medici family, regarding the Prince of Lebanon, was ignored. In 1632, Mustafa Pasha was named Muhafiz of Damascus, being a rival of Fakhr-al-Din and a friend of Sultan Murad IV, who ordered him to attack Lebanon and depose Fakhr-al-Din.

Aftermatch[edit]

The Lebanese major victory came on October 31, 1622 against the Ottoman army of the Pasha of Damascus in the Battle of Majdel Anjar. Although Turkish troops outnumbered the Lebanese forces by more than two to one, Fakher el-Din was nevertheless victorious and was able to capture the Pasha of Damascus himself, and forced the Ottoman army to retreat back to Egypt and northern Syria until they were able to take over back the control over the area in 1633 in Galilee, and 1634 in Syria and Transjordan.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 33°42′44″N 35°55′06″E / 33.712321°N 35.918216°E / 33.712321; 35.918216