Battle of Nasiriyah

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Battle of Nasiriyah
Part of the 2003 Invasion of Iraq
AAV-Nsry.jpg
A USMC Assault Amphibious Vehicle destroyed at Nasiriyah, Iraq, in a mantainance area. 11 April 2003.
Date 23 March 2003 - 29 March 2003
Location Nasiriyah, Iraq
Result Coalition victory
Belligerents
Iraq Iraq  United States
 United Kingdom
Commanders and leaders
Iraq Ali Hassan al-Majid United States Richard Natonski
Casualties and losses
359-431 killed
300+ captured
1,000+ wounded[1]
30 dead (1-9 by friendly fire)
6 captured (1 of whom died in captivity)
60 wounded
15 vehicles lost

The Battle of Nasiriyah was fought between the US 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade and Iraqi forces from 23 March to 2 April 2003 during the US-led invasion of Iraq. Nasiriyah is a city which lies along the banks of the Euphrates River in Dhi Qar Province, about 225 miles southeast of Baghdad. Its population is made up almost entirely of Shiite Muslims. On the night of 24–25 March, the bulk of the Marines of Regimental Combat Team 1 passed through the city over the bridges and attacked north towards Baghdad. However fighting continued in the city until 1 April when Iraqi resistance in the city was defeated.

The battle[edit]

Prelude[edit]

On the morning of 23 March, a US Army supply convoy from the 507th Maintenance Company had mistakenly veered off Highway 8 and then turned toward the city into enemy-held territory. The US vehicles ran into an ambush, drawing enemy fire from every direction. Eleven American soldiers were killed and several were taken prisoner. However, a few soldiers held off the enemy attack for almost an hour. At that time a company from the 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade (Task Force Tarawa) under the command of Major William Peeples, rapidly came to assist the ambushed US Army soldiers.[2]

The original plan was for Task Force Tarawa to take & hold the two bridges inside Nasiriyah, creating a corridor for the RCT1 and 6th Engineer Support Battalion from Battle Creek, MI to pass north through the city along Route 7.[2]

Nasiriyah was the headquarters of the Iraqi Army's 3d Corps, composed of the 11th ID, 51st Mech ID, and 6th Armored Division — all at around 50 percent strength. The 51st operated south covering the oilfields, and the 6th was north near Al Amarah, which left three brigade-sized elements of the 11th ID to guard the An Nasiriyah area.[2]

U.S. Army convoy ambushed[edit]

At around 0600 on the morning of 23 March, an 18-vehicle convoy of 31 soldiers of the United States Army's507th Maintenance Company and two soldiers of the 3rd Forward Support Battalion of the 3rd Infantry Division[3] made a wrong turn along Highway 7 into the city. The convoy was led by Captain Troy King, a supply officer with no training as a combat officer.[4] Iraqi technical vehicles began shadowing the convoy as it passed an Iraqi checkpoint near the Euphrates River.[5] After passing the Al-Quds headquarters on the northern outskirts of the city, King realized that he was lost and the convoy began turning around to retrace its steps through the city.

At around 0700 the convoy began taking small arms, RPG, mortar fire, and fire from Iraqi tanks, and in the resulting ambush 11 soldiers were killed and a number of soldiers, including Specialist Shoshana Johnson and Private Jessica Lynch, became prisoners of war. At least 15 of the 18 American transport vehicles in the convoy, ranging from Humvees to Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Trucks (HEMTTs), were destroyed by small-arms fire, RPGs, mortar rounds, and tank gunfire. Some of them swerved out of the road or crashed while attempting to avoid incoming Iraqi fire. One truck was crushed by the traversing gun barrel of a Type 69-QM tank.[6]

Iraqi Type 69QM tank destroyed near Nasiriyah hospital

With the help of two AH-1 Cobra attack helicopters, Peeples and his men rescued 10 soldiers of the 507th that were pinned down by heavy fire, including four who were wounded. However, 11 had already been killed. Others were captured, including Private First Class Jessica D. Lynch, Specialist Shoshana Johnson and Private First Class Lori Piestewa. Having rescued the soldiers, the Marines of 1st Battalion, 2nd Marines (part of 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade), attacked Nasiriyah from the south, using amphibious assault vehicles (AAV's) and Cobra gunships. During this action, the Marines captured two bridges spanning the Euphrates River that were defended by Fedayeen and Ba’ath Party guerrilla soldiers. The remaining able-bodied troops formed a screen around their wounded and fought off further Iraqi attacks. At 07:30, King's three surviving vehicles made contact with the tanks of Major Bill Peeples' Alpha Company, 8th Tank Battalion on Highway 7, about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) south of Nasiriyah.[7] One of Peeples' tankers noticed American vehicles in the road ahead. Peeples ordered his tanks forward to rescue as many soldiers as possible. They rolled up on ten beleaguered soldiers from the five disabled vehicles of the second element of the convoy (known in the official U.S. Army report as Group 2) which had also managed to escape the ambush and set up a defensive perimeter about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) south of the city. In heavy fighting, several Iraqi platoon-sized units, two ZSU-23-4 "Shilka" anti-aircraft weapons and several mortar and artillery positions were destroyed by a combined force of M1 Abrams tanks, Cobra helicopter gunships and the artillery of 1st Battalion, 10th Marines.[8]

Ambush Alley[edit]

The bloodiest day of the operations for the Marines was also 23 March, when 18 men of Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 2nd Marines, were killed and eight Amphibious Assault Vehicles disabled in heavy fighting with Iraqi forces around the Saddam Canal.[9] The Marines were engaged by RPGs, mortar and artillery fire, as well as four Iraqi tanks hidden behind a building.[10]

A friendly-fire incident occurred when two A-10s from the Pennsylvania Air National Guard strafed the Amphibious Assault Vehicles of Charlie Company by mistake, killing at least one Marine and perhaps as many as seventeen over the course of multiple passes at the canal and in Ambush Alley proper.[11][12] An article in Salon magazine put the friendly-fire death toll at ten.[13] The A-10 strike was cleared by the battalion's forward air controller, who was with Bravo Company, bogged down on the eastern outskirts of the city and did not have contact with Charlie Company and was unaware that Marines were so far north.[2][14]

Two other Marines, from the 6th Engineer Support Battalion Corporal Evans James[15] and Sgt. Bradley S. Korthaus[16] drowned while trying to cross the Saddam Canal under fire the following day.

RCT-1 pushes through Ambush Alley[edit]

The advance of Regimental Combat Team 1 (RCT-1) through Nasiriyah was delayed by fighting there. On the evening of 24 March, LAVs of the 2nd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion (2nd LAR, commanded by Lt. Col. Eddie Ray) pushed north of the Saddam Canal, leading RCT-1 through Ambush Alley. With Apache Company in the lead, 2nd LAR attacked north on Highway 7, coming under fire from a heavily defended compound north of the city. Two anti-aircraft guns protected the approach to the compound. After coming under fire from LAVs, M1A1 tanks, Cobra gunships and artillery, Iraqi resistance subsided. That evening 2nd LAR 81mm mortar-gun crews took positions and eliminated known sniper positions which previously had elements pinned down throughout the city. At dusk, 2nd LAR established a perimeter 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) north of Nasiriyah. However, a huge sandstorm rolled in, cutting off communication with main elements to the south in Nasiriyah. As 2nd LAR set up a defensive perimeter for the evening, Iraqi reinforcements were mobilized and sent south to Nasiriyah from Kut, unaware of 2nd LARs defensive position. When the Iraqi force ran into 2nd LAR they surrounded them from every direction, taking positions among the surrounding hillside. Using a combination of overwhelming direct firepower by a platoon of M1A1 tanks, battalion LAV-25s, LAV ATs, and LAV AD vehicles, the battalion engaged the Iraqi forces. Simultaneously, 81mm mortar gun crews eliminated Iraqi positions throughout the hillside by indirect fire as well as a strategic ammo supply point (ASP) utilized by Iraqi forces during the first half of the attack. There was no air support on station until just before dawn and as a result Captain Bell, who previously in the night under heavy fire, lead a team of LAV Scout Snipers on motorcycles south to reestablish communications. The last Iraqi attack was beaten off just after dawn and a large number of Iraqi prisoners taken afterwards. The battalion estimated that around 300 Iraqi soldiers were killed along with an unknown number of civilians who were loaded by force onto buses while Iraqi troops occupied the rear sections in hopes of breaking LAR’s defensive position. There were no U.S. casualties. The battle would later be called, "The Battle of the Coil" and was, to that point in time, regarded as the longest sustained battle by US Marines since the Vietnam War. [13][14] Meanwhile, the 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines (the "Thundering Third", commanded by Lt. Col. Craparotta) held open Ambush Alley as the rest of RCT-1 passed through Nasiriyah on the night of 24–25 March.[15] Partly as a result of RCT-1's delay, Colonel Joe Dowdy was later relieved of command of RCT-1.[17]

Aftermath[edit]

By 27 March, most Iraqi resistance in the city had been subdued and the focus of the battle shifted from full combat to cordon-and-search operations. Small groups of Fedayeen Saddam militia were hiding throughout the city and launched attacks on Marine patrols with small arms and RPGs. These attacks were uncoordinated and the resulting firefights were lop-sided, with large numbers of militiamen killed.[18]

During the morning of 27 March, two recon Marines found a sunken M1 tank at the bottom of the river. The tank had been missing since the night of 24–25 March. Navy Seabees spent two days retrieving the flooded tank and the three Marines from the 1st Tank Battalion who were found inside.[19]

According to a captain in the Republican Guard, morale amongst Republican Guard units was bolstered by the resistance offered by the regular army's 45th brigade in the city.[20]

Iraqi casualties were 359-431 dead. More than 300 were wounded and 1,000 captured. U.S. losses were 32 dead, 60 wounded, and 6 captured.

Private First Class Lynch[edit]

Initial reporting of the battle emphasized the supposed heroism of Private First Class Jessica Lynch. On 3 April, The Washington Post ran a front-page story which read: "Lynch, a 19-year-old supply clerk, continued firing at the Iraqis even after she sustained multiple gunshot wounds and watched several other soldiers in her unit die around her". The Post quoted an unnamed official who said "She was fighting to the death [...] She did not want to be taken alive."[21]

This description soon came under question. On 4 April, the Associated Press ran a story which stated that Lynch's father had heard from the doctors attending her, who said that "she had not been shot or stabbed during her ordeal." 15 April, the Post ran a story questioning the accuracy of its own account from 3 April, saying "Lynch's story is far more complex and different than those initial reports [...] She was neither shot nor stabbed."[21]

On 24 April, Private Lynch testified before Congress. She called the earlier reports a "lie", and said that she had in fact never fired her weapon, because she was knocked unconscious when her vehicle crashed.[22]

Participating units[edit]

U.S. military & U.K. support[23][edit]

3rd Marine Aircraft Wing Marine Wing Support Squadron 371

3rd Low Altitude Air Defense Battalion

Ba'athist Iraqi forces[edit]

  • Iraqi Army 11th Division[29]
    • 23rd Brigade
    • 45th Brigade
    • 47th Brigade
    • 21st Tank Regiment (elements)
    • Unidentified Commando battalion
  • Fedayeen Saddam paramilitary forces[29][30]
  • Al Quds Army[30]

In popular culture[edit]

  • The ambush of the 507th Maintenance Company was re-created at the beginning of the 2003 NBC television film Saving Jessica Lynch. The ongoing Battle of Nasiriyah is the backdrop for the rest of the events of the film.
  • Much of playwright and Iraq War veteran Sean Huze’s play The Sandstorm draws on his experiences and those of his comrades during and immediately following their unit’s (2nd LAR) involvement in the Battle of Nasiriyah.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 war | Commonwealth Institute of Cambridge
  2. ^ a b c d Rohr, Karl. "Fighting Through the Fog of War". Marine Corps Gazette. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2008. [dead link]
  3. ^ a b "Attack on the 507th Maintenance Company". U.S. Army. Retrieved 1 January 2009. 
  4. ^ Lowry, p. 88
  5. ^ Lowry, p. 131
  6. ^ Lowry, p. 139
  7. ^ Lowry, p. 143
  8. ^ Lowry, p. 146
  9. ^ Connell, R.; Lopez, R.J. (26 August 2003). "Deadly Day for Charlie Company". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 31 December 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2009. 
  10. ^ Deadliest battle of war so far Sarasota Herald-Tribune, from New York Times News Service, 24 March 2003
  11. ^ Krakauer, Jon, "Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman." Doubleday, New York (2009).
  12. ^ Connell, R.; Lopez, R.J. (26 August 2003). "Deadly Day for Charlie Company". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 31 December 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2009. 
  13. ^ http://www.salon.com/2004/04/05/friendly_fire_7/
  14. ^ Lowry, pp.198-199
  15. ^ DefenseLink News Release: DOD IDENTIFIES MARINE CASUALTIES
  16. ^ Defenselink News Release: Dod Announces Change In Marine Casualty Status
  17. ^ Ricks, Thomas (5 April 2003). "Key Marine Commander Is Removed; No Explanation Given for Decision". Washington Post. Retrieved 29 December 2008. 
  18. ^ Lowry, pp. 354-355
  19. ^ Lowry, p. 256
  20. ^ Branigin, William (27 April 2003). "A Brief, Bitter War for Iraq's Military Officers". Washington Post. pp. A25. Retrieved 5 January 2009. 
  21. ^ a b "Jessica Lynch: Media Myth-Making in the Iraq War". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on 9 November 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2010. 
  22. ^ MacAskill, Ewen (25 April 2007). "Rambo image was based on lie, says US war hero Jessica Lynch". London: guardian.co.uk. Archived from the original on 9 November 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2010. 
  23. ^ Lowry, pp. 395-399
  24. ^ West, Bing (2003). The March Up. Random House. p. 46. ISBN 1-84413-425-3. 
  25. ^ Lowry, p. 309
  26. ^ The Iraq war: a military history By Williamson Murray, Robert H. Scales
  27. ^ U.S. Marines in Iraq, 2003, History and Museums Division, United States Marine Corps, 2006, anthology, page 109
  28. ^ Marine Artillery in the Battle of An Nasiriyah, Field Artillery November–December 2003, Major Walker M. Field USMC, page 28
  29. ^ a b Gregory Fontenot, E. J. Degen, David Tohn, United States Army. Operation Iraqi Freedom Study Group (2005). On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Naval Institute Press. p. 139. ISBN 1-59114-279-2. 
  30. ^ a b Lowry, p.43

Bibliography[edit]

  • "The battle of an Nasiriyah" (PDF). Marine Corps Gazette 87 (9): 40, 42, 44, 46. September 2003. 411172841. Retrieved 6 January 2009, from Career and Technical Education database. 
  • Dunfee, David R. (March 2004). "Ambush Alley Revisited" (PDF). Marine Corps Gazette 88 (3): 44–46. 583358751. Retrieved 6 January 2009, from Career and Technical Education database. 
  • Lowry, Richard S. (2006). Marines in the Garden of Eden: The Battle for An Nasiriyah. Berkley Hardcover. ISBN 0-425-20988-1. 
  • Livingston, Gary (2004). An Nasiriyah: The Fight for the Bridges. Caisson Press. ISBN 1-928724-04-3. 
  • Pritchard, Tim (2007). Ambush Alley: The Most Extraordinary Battle of the Iraq War. Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-911-X. 

Further reading[edit]

Coordinates: 31°03′N 46°16′E / 31.050°N 46.267°E / 31.050; 46.267