Battle of New Orleans

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Battle of New Orleans
Part of the War of 1812
The Battle of New Orleans. January 1815. Copy of engraving by H. B. Hall after W. Momberger., ca. 1900 - 1982 - NARA - 531091.tif
The Battle of New Orleans by Henry Bryan Hall after William Momberger
Date January 8, 1815
Location About five miles (8 km) south of New Orleans on the grounds of Chalmette Plantation
Result Decisive American victory;[1]
General Lambert abandons plans to capture New Orleans and orders a withdrawal of British troops from Louisiana.[2][3]
Belligerents
 United States  United Kingdom
Commanders and leaders
Andrew Jackson
William Carroll
John Coffee
Jean Lafitte
Walter H. Overton
Daniel Patterson
Edward Pakenham 
Alexander Cochrane
John Keane (WIA)
John Lambert
William Thornton
Thomas Mullins
Strength
4,732
16 guns
Mississippi River:
1 schooner
1 sloop-of-war
1 steamboat
11,000
Casualties and losses
55 killed
185 wounded
93 missing[4]
Total: 333
386 killed
1,521 wounded
552 missing
Total: 2,459

The Battle of New Orleans took place on January 8, 1815 and was the final major battle of the War of 1812.[5][6] American forces, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, prevented an invading British Army, commanded by General Edward Pakenham, from seizing New Orleans and the vast territory the United States had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase.[7][8][9] The Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24, 1814, but hostilities continued until mid-February when official dispatches announcing the peace reached the combatants, finally putting an end to the war.[10][11]

Battle of Lake Borgne[edit]

Eighteenth century map of southeast Louisiana

By December 12, 1814, a large British fleet under the command of Sir Alexander Cochrane with more than 8,000 soldiers and sailors aboard, had anchored in the Gulf of Mexico to the east of Lake Pontchartrain and Lake Borgne.[12] Preventing access to the lakes was an American flotilla, commanded by Lieutenant Thomas ap Catesby Jones, consisting of five gunboats. On December 14, around 1,200 British sailors and Royal Marines under Captain Nicholas Lockyer[13] set out to attack Catesby's force. Lockyer's men sailed in 42 longboats, each armed with a small carronade. Lockyer captured Catesby's vessels in a brief engagement known as the Battle of Lake Borgne. Seventeen British sailors were killed and 77 wounded,[14] while 6 Americans were killed, 35 wounded, and 86 captured.[14] The wounded included both Catesby and Lockyer. Now free to navigate Lake Borgne, thousands of British soldiers, under the command of General John Keane, were rowed to Pea Island, about 30 miles (48 km) east of New Orleans, where they established a garrison.

Night attack of December 23[edit]

On the morning of December 23, Keane and a vanguard of 1,800 British soldiers reached the east bank of the Mississippi River, 9 miles (14 km) south of New Orleans.[15] Keane could have attacked the city by advancing for a few hours up the river road, which was undefended all the way to New Orleans, but he made the fateful decision to encamp at Lacoste's Plantation[16] and wait for the arrival of reinforcements.[17] During the afternoon of December 23, after he had learned of the position of the British encampment, Andrew Jackson reportedly said, "By the Eternal they shall not sleep on our soil."[18] This intelligence had been provided by Colonel Thomas Hinds' Squadron of Light Dragoons, a militia unit from the Mississippi Territory.[19][20] That evening, attacking from the north, Jackson led 2,131[21] men in a brief three-pronged assault on the unsuspecting British troops, who were resting in their camp. Then Jackson pulled his forces back to the Rodriguez Canal, about 4 miles (6.4 km) south of the city. The Americans suffered 24 killed, 115 wounded, and 74 missing,[22] while the British reported their losses as 46 killed, 167 wounded, and 64 missing.[23]

Historian Robert Quimby says, "the British certainly did win a tactical victory, which enabled them to maintain their position".[24] However, Quimby goes on to say, "It is not too much to say that it was the battle of December 23 that saved New Orleans. The British were disabused of their expectation of an easy conquest. The unexpected and severe attack made Keane even more cautious...he made no effort to advance on the twenty-fourth or twenty-fifth".[25] As a consequence, the Americans were given time to begin the transformation of the canal into a heavily fortified earthwork.[26] On Christmas Day, General Edward Pakenham arrived on the battlefield and ordered a reconnaissance-in-force on December 28 against the American earthworks protecting the advance to New Orleans. That evening, General Pakenham met with General Keane and Admiral Cochrane for an update on the situation, angry with the position that the army had been placed in. General Pakenham wanted to use Chef Menteur Road as the invasion route but was overruled by Admiral Cochrane who insisted that his boats were providing everything that could be needed.[27] Admiral Cochrane believed that the British Army would destroy a ramshackle American army and allegedly said that if the Army would not do so his sailors would. Whatever Pakenham's thoughts on the matter, the meeting settled the method and place of the attack.[28] On December 28, groups of British troops made probing attacks against the American earthworks.

When the British troops withdrew, the Americans began construction of artillery batteries to protect the earthworks, which were then christened Line Jackson. The Americans installed eight batteries, which included one 32-pound gun, three 24-pounders, one 18-pounder, three 12-pounders, three 6-pounders, and a 6-inch (150 mm) howitzer. Jackson also sent a detachment of men to the west bank of the Mississippi to man two 24-pounders and two 12-pounders from the grounded warship USS Louisiana. Jackson's force was outnumbered by the attacking British forces. Jackson's army of 4,732 men comprised 968 US Army regulars,[29] 58 US Marines, 106 seamen of the US Naval battalion, 1,060 Louisiana Militia and volunteers (including 462 free people of color), 1,352 Tennessee Militia, 986 Kentucky Militia, 150 Mississippi Militia and 52 Choctaw warriors. Additionally, Jackson had the support of warships in the Mississippi River, including the USS Louisiana, the USS Carolina and the Enterprise, along with the pirate Jean Lafitte and his Baratarians.

The main British army arrived on New Year's Day, and attacked the earthworks using their artillery. An exchange of artillery fire began that lasted for three hours. Several of the American guns were destroyed or knocked out, including the 32-pounder, a 24-pounder, and a 12-pounder, and some damage was done to the earthworks. The British guns ran out of ammunition, which led Pakenham to cancel the attack. Unknown at the moment to Pakenham, the Americans on the left of Line Jackson near the swamp had broken and run from the position. Pakenham decided to wait for his entire force of over 8,000 men to assemble before launching his attack.[30]

Battle of January 8[edit]

1815 painting of the battle by participant Jean Hyacinthe de Laclotte of the Louisiana Militia based on his memories and sketches made at the site.
Early 19th century map of depicting the battlefield at Chalmette Plantation on January 8, 1815

In the early morning of January 8, Pakenham ordered a two-pronged assault against Jackson's position. Colonel William Thornton (of the 85th Regiment) was to cross the Mississippi during the night with his 780-strong brigade, move rapidly upriver and storm the batteries commanded by Commodore Daniel Patterson on the flank of the main American entrenchments and then open an enfilading fire on Jackson's line with howitzers and rockets.[31] Then, the main attack, directly against the earthworks manned by the vast majority of American troops,[32] would be launched in two columns (along the river led by Keane and along the swamp line led by Major General Samuel Gibbs). The brigade commanded by Major General John Lambert was held in reserve.

Preparations for the attack had floundered early, as a canal being dug by Cochrane's sailors collapsed and the dam made to divert the flow of the river into the canal failed, leaving the sailors to drag the boats of Col. Thornton's west bank assault force through deep mud and left the force starting off just before daybreak 12 hours late.[33]

The battlefield at Chalmette Plantation on January 8, 1815

The attack began under darkness and a heavy fog, but as the British neared the main enemy line the fog lifted, exposing them to withering artillery fire. Lt-Col. Thomas Mullins, the British commander of the 44th (East Essex) Regiment of Foot, had forgotten the ladders and fascines needed to cross a canal and scale the earthworks, and confusion evolved in the dark and fog as the British tried to close the gap. Most of the senior officers were killed or wounded, including General Gibbs, leading the main attack column on the right comprising the 4th, 21st, 44th and 5th West India Regiments, and Colonel Rennie leading a detachment of light companies of the 7th, 43rd, and 93rd on the left by the river.

General Andrew Jackson stands on the parapet of his makeshift defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders, as imagined by painter Edward Percy Moran in 1910.

Possibly because of Thornton's delay in crossing the river and the withering artillery fire that might hit them from across the river, the 93rd Highlanders were ordered to leave Keane's assault column advancing along the river and move across the open field to join the main force on the right of the field. Keane fell wounded as he crossed the field with the 93rd. Rennie's men managed to attack and overrun an American advance redoubt next to the river, but without reinforcements they could neither hold the position nor successfully storm the main American line behind. Within minutes, the American 7th Infantry arrived, moved forward, and fired upon the British in the captured redoubt: within half an hour, Rennie and most of his men were dead. In the main attack on the right, the British infantrymen either flung themselves to the ground, huddled in the canal, or were mowed down by a combination of musket fire and grapeshot from the Americans. A handful made it to the top of the parapet on the right but were either killed or captured. The 95th Rifles had advanced in open skirmish order ahead of the main assault force and were concealed in the ditch below the parapet, unable to advance further without support.

The two large main assaults on the American position were repulsed. Pakenham and his second-in-command, General Gibbs, were fatally wounded, while on horseback, by grapeshot fired from the earthworks. With most of their senior officers dead or wounded, the British soldiers, having no orders to advance further or retreat, stood out in the open and were shot apart with grapeshot from Line Jackson. After about 20 more minutes of bloodletting, General Lambert assumed command and eventually ordered a withdrawal.

The only British success was on the west bank of the Mississippi River, where Thornton's brigade, comprising the 85th Regiment and detachments from the Royal Navy and Royal Marines,[34][35][36][37][38] attacked and overwhelmed the American line.[39][40] Though both Jackson and Commodore Patterson reported that the retreating forces had spiked their cannon, leaving no guns to turn on the Americans' main defense line, this is contradicted by Major Mitchell's diary which makes it clear this was not so, as he states he had "Commenced cleaning enemy's guns to form a battery to enfilade their lines on the left bank".[41] General Lambert ordered his Chief of Artillery, Colonel Alexander Dickson, to assess the position. Dickson reported back that no fewer than 2,000 men would be needed to hold the position. General Lambert issued orders to withdraw after the defeat of their main army on the east bank and retreated, taking a few American prisoners and cannon with them.[42][43]

At the end of the day, the British had 2,042 casualties: 291 killed (including Generals Pakenham and Gibbs), 1,267 wounded (including General Keane) and 484 captured or missing.[44] The Americans had 71 casualties: 13 dead; 39 wounded, and 19 missing.[4]

Siege of Fort St. Philip[edit]

Battle of New Orleans, January 1815

On January 9, British naval forces attacked Fort St. Philip which protected New Orleans from an amphibious assault from the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. American forces within the fort withstood ten days of bombardment by cannon before the British ships withdrew on January 18, 1815.

Withdrawal of the British[edit]

Three days after the battle, General Lambert held a council of war where he concluded that despite his request for reinforcements as well as a siege train, capturing New Orleans and continuing the Louisiana campaign would be too costly and thus agreed with his officers to withdraw.[citation needed] On February 4, 1815, the fleet, with all of the British troops aboard, set sail toward Mobile Bay, Alabama.[2][45][46]

The British army then attacked and captured Fort Bowyer at the mouth of Mobile Bay on February 12. The following day, the British army was making preparations to attack Mobile when news arrived of the peace treaty. The treaty had been ratified by the British Parliament but would not be ratified by Congress and the President until mid-February. It did, however, resolve that hostilities should cease, and the British abandoned Fort Bowyer and sailed home to their base in the West Indies.[47] Although the Battle of New Orleans had no influence on the terms of the Treaty of Ghent, the defeat at New Orleans did compel Britain to abide by the treaty.[48] However, it would have been problematic for the British to continue the war in North America, due to Napoleon's escape from Elba on February 26, 1815, which ensured their forces were needed in Europe.[49] Also, since the Treaty of Ghent did not specifically mention the vast territory America had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase, it only required both sides to give back those lands that had been taken from the other during the war.[50]

Aftermath[edit]

Battle of New Orleans postage stamp depicting Andrew Jackson. Issued in 1965 to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Battle of New Orleans, Chalmettte Plantation, Jan. 8–18.

From December 25, 1814, to January 26, 1815, British casualties during the Louisiana Campaign, apart from the assault on January 8, were 49 killed, 87 wounded and 4 missing.[51] These losses, together with those incurred on December 23 and January 8, added up to 386 killed, 1,521 wounded and 552 missing for the whole campaign. General Jackson reported a grand total of 55 killed, 185 wounded and 93 missing for the entire siege, including December 23 and January 8.[4]

Six currently active battalions of the Regular Army (2-7 Inf, 3-7 Inf, 1-5 FA, 1-6 FA, 1-1 Inf and 2-1 Inf) and one Mississippi Army National Guard regiment (155th Inf) are derived from American units that fought at the Battle of New Orleans.

Although the engagement was small compared to other contemporary battles such as the Battle of Waterloo, it was important for the meaning applied to it by Americans in general and Andrew Jackson in particular.[52]

Americans believed that a vastly powerful British fleet and army had sailed for New Orleans (Jackson himself thought 25,000 troops were coming), and most expected the worst. The news of victory, one man recalled, "came upon the country like a clap of thunder in the clear azure vault of the firmament, and traveled with electromagnetic velocity, throughout the confines of the land."[53] The battle boosted the reputation of Andrew Jackson and helped to propel him to the White House. The anniversary of the battle was celebrated as a national holiday for many years, and continues to be commemorated in south Louisiana.

In honor of Jackson, the newly organized Louisiana Historical Association dedicated its new Memorial Hall facility on January 8, 1891, the 76th anniversary of the Battle of New Orleans.[54]

A federal park was established in 1907 to preserve the battlefield; today it features a monument and is part of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve.

"The 8th of January" became a traditional American fiddle tune, honoring the date of the battle. More than a century later, the melody was used by Jimmie Driftwood to write the song "The Battle of New Orleans", which was a hit for Johnny Horton and Lonnie Donegan.

Victory attributed to a miracle[edit]

Mosaic of Our Lady of Prompt Succor. Old Ursulines Convent complex, French Quarter, New Orleans.

With the Americans outnumbered it seemed as though the city of New Orleans was in danger of being captured. Consequently, the Ursuline nuns along with many faithful people of New Orleans gathered in the Ursuline Convent's chapel before the statue of Our Lady of Prompt Succor. They spent the night before the battle praying and crying before the holy statue, begging for the Virgin Mary's intercession.

On the morning of January 8, the Very Rev. William Dubourg, Vicar General, offered Mass at the altar on which the statue of Our Lady of Prompt Succor had been placed. The Prioress of the Ursuline convent, Mother Ste. Marie Olivier de Vezin, made a vow to have a Mass of Thanksgiving sung annually should the American forces win. At the very moment of communion, a courier ran into the chapel to inform all those present that the British had been defeated.

General Jackson went to the convent himself to thank the nuns for their prayers: "By the blessing of heaven, directing the valor of the troops under my command, one of the most brilliant victories in the annals of war was obtained." [55] The vow made by Mother Ste. Marie has been faithfully kept throughout the years.[56]

Portrayal in Popular Culture[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812: People, Politics, and Power, Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 209.
  2. ^ a b Gleig, George Robert (1827), pp. 184-192
  3. ^ Smith, Zachary F., pp. 126-132
  4. ^ a b c James, p. 563
  5. ^ Also known as the "Battle of Chalmette Plantation".
  6. ^ Britain's Louisiana Campaign consisted of several military engagements that were less important than the epic battle of January 8, 1815, widely known as the Battle of New Orleans. The first, the Battle of Lake Borgne, occurred on December 14, 1814, when British forces captured an American flotilla protecting Lake Borgne. The next occurred on December 23 when Andrew Jackson led a bold night attack on the British camp. The last, which began on January 9, ended on January 18 when the British terminated their unsuccessful bombardment of Fort St. Philip and began to withdraw the last of their troops and ships, signalling the end of their Louisiana Campaign.
  7. ^ Reilly, Robin (1974). The British at the gates - the New Orleans campaign in the War of 1812. New York: Putnam.
  8. ^ Rodriguez, Junius P. (2002). The Louisiana Purchase: a historical and geographical encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 348: "The Battle of New Orleans settled once and for all the question over the Louisiana Purchase. Neither the British nor the Spanish government had recognized the legality of the transfer, and, in consequence, the British planned either to retain the region or return Louisiana to Spain had they won the battle."
  9. ^ Thomas, Gregory M. (2005). The Battle of New Orleans. Master of Arts dissertation, Louisiana State University. p. 88: "[The Battle of] New Orleans also eliminated vague British designs on a second colonization of America by expanding Canadian possessions down the Mississippi to the Gulf."
  10. ^ Remini, Robert V. (1999). The battle of New Orleans. New York: Penguin Books. p. 193-194: "Then in mid-February dispatches arrived from Europe announcing that the commissioners in Ghent had signed a treaty of peace with their British counterparts and that the War of 1812 had ended." "...the Senate of the United States unanimously (35-0) ratified the Treaty of Ghent on February 16, 1815. Now the war was officially over."
  11. ^ Reilly 1974, pp. 311–325.
  12. ^ Refer to the map of Louisiana.
  13. ^ Quimby, p. 824
  14. ^ a b Quimby,p. 826
  15. ^ Remini (1999), p. 62-64
  16. ^ Quimby, p. 836
  17. ^ Thomas, p. 61
  18. ^ Remini, Robert V. (1977), Andrew Jackson and the course of American empire, 1767-1821. pp. 259-263
  19. ^ Remini, Robert V. (1999), The Battle of New Orleans. p. 74
  20. ^ Hind's Dragoons became the 155th Infantry Regiment of the Mississippi Army National Guard, one of only 19 Army National Guard units with campaign credit for the War of 1812.
  21. ^ Quimby, p. 843
  22. ^ James, pp. 535-536
  23. ^ Thomas, pp. 61-64
  24. ^ Quimby, p. 852
  25. ^ Quimby, pp. 852-853
  26. ^ Groom, p. 145-147.
  27. ^ Patterson, Benton Rain, p.214-215
  28. ^ Patterson, Benton Rain, p.215-216
  29. ^ http://www.frenchcreoles.com/CreoleCulture/battalion%20creoles/battalion%20creoles.htm
  30. ^ The British regulars included the 4th, 7th, 21st, 43rd, 44th, 85th, 93rd (Highland) Regiments, a 500-man "demi-battalion" of the 95th Rifles, 14th Light Dragoons, and the 1st and 5th West Indies Regiments of several hundred black soldiers from the British West Indies colonies. Other troops included Native American members of the Hitchiti tribe, led by Kinache.
  31. ^ Quimby, pp. 892-893
  32. ^ United States forces (3,500 to 4,500 strong) were composed of U.S. Army troops; state militiamen from Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Louisiana; U.S. Marines; U.S. Navy sailors; Barataria Bay pirates; Choctaw Indians; "freemen of color" and freed black slaves (a large amount of the work building the parapet however was done by local black slaves). Major Gabriel Villeré commanded the Louisiana Militia, and Major Jean Baptiste Plauché headed the New Orleans uniformed militia companies.
  33. ^ Patterson, Benton Rain, p.236
  34. ^ Patterson, Benton Rain, p.230
  35. ^ The London Gazette: no. 16991. p. 450. March 9, 1815. - "Correspondence from Cochrane, ADM 1/508 folio 757, states 'the whole amounting to about six hundred men'"
  36. ^ Gleig, George (1840). "Recollections of the Expedition to the Chesapeake, and against New Orleans, by an Old Sub". United Service Journal (2). "Gleig, on p340, uses the source document a report from Thornton to Pakenham 'we were unable to proceed across the river until eight hours after the time appointed, and even then with only a third part of the force which you had allotted for the service * viz 298 of the 85th, and 200 Seamen and Marines'" 
  37. ^ The Navy detachment and the Marine detachment were led by Captain Rowland Money and Brevet Major Thomas Adair respectively. Money was the ship's captain of HMS Trave, and Adair was the commanding officer of HMS Vengeur (1810)'s detachment of Marines.
  38. ^ The Navy List, Corrected to the end of January 1815, pg 72. John Murray. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  39. ^ London Gazette. March 9, 1815. "Pg 444, Army casualties among the 85th Foot were: 2 deaths, 1 man taken prisoner, and 41 wounded" 
  40. ^ London Gazette. March 9, 1815. "Pg 445, Royal Navy casualties were 2 deaths, Captain Rowland Money and 18 seamen wounded. Royal Marine casualties were 2 deaths, with 3 officers, 1 sergeant and 12 other ranks wounded." 
  41. ^ Reilly, Robin p.296
  42. ^ Patterson, Benton Rain, p.253
  43. ^ The London Gazette: no. 16991. pp. 440–446. March 9, 1815.
  44. ^ Quimby, p. 906
  45. ^ James, p. 391
  46. ^ Smith, Zachary F., p. 132
  47. ^ Fraser, p. 297, quote:'Rear Admiral Cockburn, at the end of February, was making preparations for a move on Savannah in March when official intelligence that the treaty of peace had been signed by the American President reached him and all proceedings were stopped. The force continued on Cumberland Island until, early in April, it was notified that the treaty had been ratified, on which all withdrew to Bermuda prior to returning to England.'
  48. ^ Remini (1999) p. 5, 195
  49. ^ Lambert, p. 381 "While Napoleon remained in power, few British soldiers could be spared for North America. Wellington was always looking for more manpower."
  50. ^ Text of the Treaty of Ghent
  51. ^ James, pp. 542, 543 and 568
  52. ^ Empire of Liberty, episode 20/30, "The Second War of Independence"
  53. ^ Ward 1962, pp. 4–5.
  54. ^ "Kenneth Trist Urquhart, "Seventy Years of the Louisiana Historical Association", March 21, 1959, Alexandria, Louisiana". lahistory.org. Retrieved July 21, 2010. 
  55. ^ Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia, Volume 23, By American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia, pg 128 (1912)
  56. ^ Arthur, pp. 239-242.

References[edit]

  • Arthur, Stanley Clisby (1915), The story of the Battle of New Orleans, New Orleans: Louisiana Historical Society, OCLC 493033588 
  • Borneman, Walter H. (2004), 1812: The War that forged a nation, New York: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-06-053112-6 
  • Brooks, Charles B. (1961), The Siege of New Orleans, Seattle: University of Washington Press, OCLC 425116 
  • Brown, Wilburt S (1969), The Amphibious Campaign for West Florida and Louisiana, 1814-1815, Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, ISBN 0-8173-5100-0 
  • Cooper, John Spencer (1996) [1869], Rough Notes of Seven Campaigns in Portugal, Spain, France and America During the Years 1809-1815, Staplehurst: Spellmount, ISBN 1-873376-65-0 
  • Forrest, Charles Ramus (1961), The Battle of New Orleans: a British view; the journal of Major C.R. Forrest; Asst. QM General, 34th. Regiment of Foot, New Orleans: Hauser Press, OCLC 1253280 
  • Fraser, Edward, & L. G. Carr-Laughton (1930). The Royal Marine Artillery 1804-1923, Volume 1 [1804-1859]. London: The Royal United Services Institution. OCLC  4986867
  • Gleig, George Robert (1827), The Campaigns of the British Army at Washington and New Orleans, 1814-1815, London: J. Murray, ISBN 0-665-45385-X 
  • Groom, Winston. Patriotic Fire: Andrew Jackson and Jean Laffite at the Battle of New Orleans. New York: Vintage Books, 2006. ISBN 1-40004-436-7
  • Hickey, Donald R (1989), The War of 1812 : a forgotten conflict, Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press, ISBN 0-252-01613-0 
  • James, William (1818), A full and correct account of the military occurrences of the late war between Great Britain and the United States of America; with an appendix, and plates. Volume II, London: Printed for the author and distributed by Black et al., ISBN 0-665-35743-5, OCLC 2226903 
  • Lambert, Andrew (2012), The Challenge: Britain Against America in the Naval War of 1812, London: Faber and Faber, ISBN 0-571-27319-X 
  • Latour, Arsène Lacarrière (1999) [1816], Historical Memoir of the War in West Florida and Louisiana in 1814-15, with an Atlas, Gainesville: University Press of Florida, ISBN 0-8130-1675-4, OCLC 40119875 
  • Maass, Alfred R (1994), "Brownsville's steamboat Enterprize and Pittsburgh's supply of general Jackson's army", Pittsburgh History 77: 22–29, ISSN 1069-4706 
  • Caffrey, Kate (1977), The Twilight's Last Gleaming, New York: Stein and Day, ISBN 0-8128-1920-9 
  • Owsley, Frank (1981), Struggle for the Gulf borderlands: the Creek War and the battle of New Orleans 1812-1815, Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, ISBN 0-8173-1062-2 
  • Patterson, Benton Rains (2008), The Generals, Andrew Jackson, Sir Edward Pakenham, and the road to New Orleans, New York: New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-6717-6 
  • Pickles, Tim (1993), New Orleans 1815, Osprey Campaign Series 28, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-150-8, OCLC 52914335 .
  • Quimby, Robert S. (1997), The U.S. Army in the War of 1812: an operational and command study, East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, ISBN 0-87013-441-8 
  • Reilly, Robin (1974), The British at the gates - the New Orleans campaign in the War of 1812, New York: Putnam, OCLC 839952 
  • Remini, Robert V. (1977), Andrew Jackson and the course of American empire, 1767-1821, New York: Harper & Row, ISBN 0-06-013574-3 
  • Remini, Robert V. (1999), The Battle of New Orleans, New York: Penguin Putnam, Inc., ISBN 0-670-88551-7 
  • Rowland, Eron (1971) [1926], Andrew Jackson's Campaign against the British, or, the Mississippi Territory in the War of 1812, concerning the Military Operations of the Americans, Creek Indians, British, and Spanish, 1813-1815, Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, ISBN 0-8369-5637-0 
  • Smith, Gene A. (2004), A British eyewitness at the Battle of New Orleans, the memoir of Royal Navy admiral Robert Aitchison, 1808-1827, New Orleans: The Historic New Orleans Collection, ISBN 0-917860-50-0 
  • Smith, Sir Harry "Various Anecdotes and Events of my Life - The Autobiography of Lt. Gen. Sir Harry Smith, covering the period 1787 to 1860" First published in 2 volumes, edited by G.C. Moore, London (1901)
  • Smith, Zachary F. (1904), The battle of New Orleans, Louisville, Kentucky: John P. Morton & Co. 
  • Stanley, George F. G. (1983), The War of 1812 - Land Operations, MacMillan & National Museum of Canada 
  • Surtees, W. (1996) [1833], Twenty-Five Years in the Rifle Brigade (Reprint ed.), London: Greenhill Books, ISBN 1-85367-230-0 
  • Ward, John William (1962), Andrew Jackson: Symbol for an Age, New York: Oxford University Press 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 29°56′27″N 89°59′09″W / 29.94073°N 89.98592°W / 29.94073; -89.98592