Battle of Okhmativ (1655)

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For other uses, see Battle of Ochmatów.
Battle of Okhmativ
Part of Russo-Polish War (1654–67)
Date January 19 - January 22, 1655 (O.S)
January 29 - February 1, 1655 (N.S.)
Location Okhmativ, modern Cherkasy Oblast
Result Polish–Tatar victory
Belligerents
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Crimean Khanate
Ukrainian Cossacks
Russian Tsardom
Commanders and leaders
Stanisław Potocki
Mehmed IV Giray
Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Vasily Sheremetev
Strength
53 000[1] 34 000[2]
30 guns
Casualties and losses
9,000 killed

Battle of Okhmativ or battle of Ochmatów (Russian: Битва под Ахматовом, Ukrainian: Охматівська битва, Polish: Bitwa pod Ochmatowem) took place around 19 January - 22 January 1655 (January 29 - February 1, N.S) during the Russo-Polish War (1654–67) between the armies of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Crimean Khanate on the one hand and of Russian Tsardom and Cossacks on the other.

Russian-Cossack army led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky and Vasily Sheremetev went to the relief of besieged by the Polish–Lithuanian army Uman. When commander of the Polish army Stanisław Potocki and Stanisław Lanckoroński learned about the march of the Russians and Cossacks, discontinued siege and together with an army of Crimean Khanate went out to meet them. Part of Polish troops led by Szemberg was to guard trapped in Okhmativ, numbering 2000 soldiers, Puszkarenko group. While the main force moved on January 29 in the north. The entire Polish–Tatar army marched in expanded battle array. Russian-Cossack army went in laager formation.

On the first day of the battle Polish and Tatar cavalry clashed with Russian and Cossack cavalry. Cavalry battle was won by Polish–Tatar side, so that standing in laager Russian-Cossack troops have lost their flank cover. Russian-Cossack army was besieged. Polish infantry, cavalry and artillery interacting with each other led to the breach in the laager Russian-Cossack army. Khmelnytsky desperate counterattack saved the Russians and Cossacks from disaster. Under the cover of artillery fire from the four survivors guns (the rest of the guns, Poles took during the assault) Khmelnytsky moved laager in the direction of hills. In the days January 30 and January 31 Russians and Cossacks conducted two attacks which, however, were repulsed. On the morning of February 1 Khmelnytsky managed to break through to Okhmativ and save Puszkarenko. After this success, retreated to Buky. Deprived of support from the Tatars, Poles were unable to stop marching Russian-Cossack laager. Ultimately, the battle was won by Polish–Tatar side, however Cossacks and Russians managed to get out of the trap. Through action in this battle the Poles managed to stop a major offensive Cossacks-Muscovite and forced them to retreat to the east. Russian-Cossack troops suffered heavy losses about 9,000 killed. Losses of Polish–Tatar army was smaller. After the battle Potocki of infantry and artillery retreated to Lviv. And the cavalry under the command of Stefan Czarniecki moved with the Tatars in Ukraine for the purpose of pacification.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wimmer J. Wojsko polskie w drugiei polowie XVII w. Warszawa, 1965. S. 83
  2. ^ Вернадский Г.В. Московское царство. В 2-х чч. Ч. 2. Тверь—М.: «Леан»; «Аграф», 1997. — ISBN 5-85929-017-9

Further reading[edit]

  • Історія Української РСР. Т.2, Київ, 1979. стор.78-79.
  • Малов А. В. Русско-польская война 1654—1667 гг. М.: Цейхгауз, 2006 г. ISBN 5-94038-111-1