Battle of Pusan Perimeter order of battle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is the order of battle for United Nations and North Korean forces during the Battle of Pusan Perimeter in August and September 1950 during the Korean War. The engagement brought each side to muster substantial ground, air and sea resources to fight across southeastern Korea.

The UN brought to bear hundreds of units from member countries South Korea, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Several other nations augmented the large naval task forces with ships of their own, including Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and The Netherlands. Opposing the UN force was the entirety of the North Korean military.

UN forces proved superior to the North Koreans in organization and numbers, but UN forces also suffered from a lack of equipment and training, particularly in their ground forces. As the battles around Pusan Perimeter continued, UN forces and equipment continued to flood into Korea, giving them overwhelming advantages in their land, air, and sea components. Though many nations would eventually contribute forces to the Korean War, the majority of troops at the battle were American and South Korean only.

North Korean forces were inferior to the UN forces in number, but in several cases they were able to make up for this in superior training. North Korean air and naval forces were small and poorly trained and equipped, thus playing a negligible role in the battle. However North Korean ground troops were often well trained and well equipped with modern weapons. The protracted battle around the perimeter severely depleted these troops forcing the North Koreans to rely increasingly on conscripts and replacements, diminishing their advantage in the battle and leading them to an eventual defeat.

UN Forces[edit]

Ground[edit]

General of the Army Douglas MacArthur (center) retained overall command of the UN forces during the fight at Pusan.

The United Nations forces were organized under the command of the United States Army. The Eighth United States Army served as the headquarters component for the UN forces, and was headquartered at Taegu.[1][2] Under it were three weak US Divisions; the 24th Infantry Division was brought to the country early in July, while the 1st Cavalry Division and 25th Infantry Division arrived between July 14 and July 18.[3] These forces occupied the western segment of the perimeter, along the Naktong river.[4]

The Republic of Korea Army, a force of 58,000,[5] was organized into two corps and five divisions; from east to west, ROK I Corps controlled the 8th Infantry Division and Capital Divisions, while the ROK II Corps controlled the 1st Division and 6th Infantry Division. A reconstituted ROK 3rd Division was placed under direct ROK Army control.[6][7] Morale among the UN units was low due to the large number of defeats at that point in the war.[1][8] US Forces had suffered over 6,000 casualties over the past month while the South Korean Army had lost an estimated 70,000.[9][10]

Men in trucks driving down a road
Troops of the 24th Infantry Division move to Pusan Perimeter.

Troop numbers at the beginning of the battle were initially difficult to estimate for US and North Korean forces. Subsequent research indicates that the North Korean army had around 70,000 combat troops committed to the Pusan Perimeter on August 5, with most of its divisions far understrength.[9][11] It likely had less than 3,000 personnel in mechanized units, and around 40 T-34 tanks at the front due to extensive losses so far in the war.[9][12] MacArthur reported 141,808 UN troops in Korea on August 4, of which 47,000 were in US ground combat units and 45,000 were in South Korean combat units. Thus the UN ground force outnumbered the North Koreans 92,000 to 70,000.[9][12]

Throughout September 1950 as the battle raged, more UN forces arrived from the US and other locations.[13] The 2nd Infantry Division, 5th Regimental Combat Team,[14] and 1st Provisional Marine Brigade and a British Army brigade arrived in Pusan later in the fighting, along with large numbers of fresh troops and equipment, including over 500 tanks.[4][15] By the end of the battle, Eighth Army's force had gone from three under-strength divisions to four fully manned formations which were well equipped and well prepared for war. By the end of the battle, the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade had arrived to assist the American and South Korean units.[16]

US 8th Army[edit]

Eighth Army SSI.svg Eighth United States Army
Commander: Lieutenant General Walton H. Walker[3]

Unit Sub-units Notes
1st Cavalry Division - Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.svg 1st Cavalry Division
Major General Hobart R. Gay
  • 5th Cavalry Regiment
  • 7th Cavalry Regiment
  • 8th Cavalry Regiment
  • 61st Field Artillery Battalion[17]
  • 77th Field Artillery Battalion
  • 82nd Field Artillery Battalion
  • 99th Field Artillery Battalion
  • 29th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion
  • 70th Medium Tank Battalion
  • 8th Combat Engineer Battalion
  • 16th Reconnaissance Company
  • 15th Medical Battalion
  • 13th Signal Company
  • 27th Ordnance Maintenance Battalion
  • 15th Quartermaster Company
  • 15th Military Police Company
  • 15th Replacement Company
Reported a strength of 10,276 August 4[12][18] Stood at 14,703 by September 1.[19]
2 Infantry Div SSI.svg 2nd Infantry Division
Major General Laurence B. Keiser
Reported a strength of 4,922 in Korea on August 4[12][21] Stood at 17,498 by September 1.[19]
24 Infantry Division SSI.svg 24th Infantry Division
Major General John H. Church
Reported a strength of 14,540 August 4[25] Stood at 14,739 by September 1.[19]
25th Infantry Division SSI.svg 25th Infantry Division
Major General William B. Kean
Reported a strength of 12,073 August 4[12][28] Stood at 15,007 by September 1.[19]
1st Provisional Marine Brigade
Brigadier General Edward A. Craig
Reported a strength of 4,725 on August 5.[30] Stood at 4,290 by September 1.[19]
United Kingdom 27th British Commonwealth Brigade
Brigadier Basil Coad
Arrived 26 August, having left one battalion in Hong Kong. Stood at 1,578 by September 1.[19]

ROK Army[edit]

South Korea Flag of the Republic of Korea Army.svg Republic of Korea Army

Minister of Defense: Shin Sung-mo
Chief of Staff: Major General Chung Il-kwon

Unit Commander Sub-units Notes
South Korea3rd Infantry Division (South Korea).png3rd Division Brigadier General Lee Jun Shik[32]
  • 1st Cavalry Regiment
  • 22nd Regiment
  • 23rd Regiment
Reported directly to ROK Army command. Reported a strength of 8,829 on July 26.[6][33] Stood at 7,154 September 1.[34]
South KoreaROK I Corp.gifI Corps Brigadier General Kim Hong Il Headquarters reported a strength of 3,014 on July 26.[6][33] Stood at 1,275 September 1.[34]
South KoreaCapital Division (South Korea).pngCapital Division Brigadier General Kim Suk-won[35]
  • 1st Regiment
  • 17th Regiment
  • 18th Regiment
Reported strength of 6,644 July 26.[6][33] Stood at 16,376 September 1[34]
South Korea8th Infantry Division (South Korea).png8th Division Colonel Lee Song Ga[35]
  • 10th Regiment
  • 16th Regiment
  • 21st Regiment
Reported strength of 8,864 July 26.[6][33] Stood at 9,106 September 1.[34]
South KoreaROK II Corp.gifII Corps Brigadier General Yu Jae Hung Headquarters reported a strength of 976 on July 26.[6][33] Stood at 499 September 1.[34]
South Korea 1st Rok Divsion.png1st Division Brigadier General Paik Sun-yup Reported a strength of 7,601 on July 26.[6][33] Stood at 10,482 September 1.[34]
South KoreaROK 6th Infantry Division.svg6th Division Colonel Kim Chong O[35]
  • 2nd Regiment
  • 7th Regiment
  • 19th Regiment
Reported a strength of 5,727 on July 26.[6][33] Stood at 9,300 September 1.[34]

Air[edit]

Bombs explode over a large area of land
US Air Force bombers drop heavy ordnance near Waegwan.

UN forces had a massive arsenal of air support at their disposal, provided by the US Air Force. This support was provided primarily by the Far East Air Forces (FEAF) and the Fifth Air Force, but US Navy and US Marine Corps aviation played a substantial role in supporting operations from the sea. UN Forces had complete control of the air and sea throughout the fight. and US Air Force and US Navy elements provided support for the ground units throughout the battle virtually unopposed.[36] By the end of the battle the Eighth Army had more air support than General Omar Bradley's Twelfth United States Army Group in Europe during World War II.[37][38]

By the end of July, the US had shipped a large number of aircraft of all types to Korea. On 30 July, the Far East Air Forces had 890 planes-626 F-80's and 264 F-51's-but only 525 of them were in units and available and ready for combat.[14]

Flight of F-82 Twin Mustangs heading to Korea in June 1950.

The Far East Air Force commanded a large contingent of long-range heavy bomber aircraft, and these assets were based in Japan, far from the North Koreans' striking range. Generally, the massive striking power was too unwieldy for the UN to use against the dispersed North Korean units, and the airpower of FEAF's B-29 Superfortresses was passed over in favor of smaller and more versatile fighter bombers of the Fifth Air Force. Under orders from MacArthur, however, the FEAF bomber command conducted one mission during the Pusan Perimeter fights.[39][40]

On August 16, in the midst of the fight around Taegu, conducted one large carpet bombing operation northwest of Waegwan, where up to 40,000 North Korean troops were believed to be massing. The bombers from 10,000 feet dropped approximately 960 tons of 500- and 1,000-pound bombs.[39][40] The attack had required the entirety of the FEAF bombing component, and they had dropped 3,084 500 pounds (230 kg) bombs and 150 1,000 pounds (450 kg) bombs. This comprised the largest Air Force operation since the Battle of Normandy in World War II.[41]

General Walker reported to General MacArthur the next day that the damage done to the North Koreans by the bombing couldn't be evaluated because of smoke and dust, and ground forces couldn't reach it because of North Korean fire.[40] Information obtained later from North Korean prisoners revealed the enemy divisions the Far East Command thought to be still west of the Naktong had already crossed to the east side and were not in the bombed area.[42] No evidence was found that the bombing killed a single North Korean soldier.[41]

However, the bombing seems to have destroyed a significant number of North Korean artillery batteries. The UN ground and air commanders opposed future massive carpet bombing attacks against enemy tactical troops unless there was precise information on an enemy concentration and the situation was critical.[42] Instead, they recommended fighter-bombers and dive bombers would better support ground forces.[41] They subsequently canceled a second bombing of an area east of the Naktong scheduled for August 19.[39][42]

Far East Air Force and 5th Air Force[edit]

Pacific Air Forces.png Far East Air Forces

Commander: Lieutenant General George E. Stratemeyer

Unit Sub-units Aircraft Notes
19ARW.png 19th Bombardment Group B-29 Superfortress [39]
22doperationsgroup-emblem.svg 22nd Bombardment Group B-29 Superfortress [39]
92d Air Refueling Wing.png 92nd Bombardment Group B-29 Superfortress [39]
98thoperationsgroup-emblem.jpg 98th Bombardment Group B-29 Superfortress [39]
307bw.jpg 307th Bombardment Group B-29 Superfortress [39]
8th Fighter Wing.png 8th Fighter Group F-80 Shooting Star, F-82 Twin Mustang [43][44][45]
35thoperationsgroup-emblem.jpg 35th Fighter Group F-82 Twin Mustang, F-94 Starfire, F-86 Sabre [43]
49thoperationsgroup-patch.jpg 49th Fighter Group F-80 Shooting Star, F-86 Sabre [43]
Fifth Air Force - Emblem.png 543d Tactical Support Group RB-26 Invader, RF-80A Shooting Star, RF-51D Mustang [43]
31st Test and Evaluation Squadron.PNG 31st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron RB-29 Superfortress [43]
Fifth Air Force - Emblem.png 6204th Photo Mapping Flight RB-17G Flying Fortress [43]

Naval aircraft[edit]

The US Navy and Marine Corps aviation elements came to bear against the North Korean forces from five carriers during the battle: USS Valley Forge with Carrier Air Group 5, USS Philippine Sea with Carrier Air Group 11, HMS Triumph with two squadrons of the Fleet Air Arm, and two smaller carriers that supported Marine aircraft of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. Carrier Air Group 5 was the only Carrier-based air wing in the Far East at the time of the outbreak of war.[46] Many of the pilots operating these aircraft were World War II veterans, however budget cuts following the end of the war had greatly reduced their training and readiness in the months before the war.[47]

Early in the war, these aircraft were used primarily to conduct raids and gather intelligence on North Korean ground targets, focused on disrupting North Korean supply to the front lines.[48] However, as soon as UN forces retreated to Pusan Perimeter following the Battle of Taejon, the Naval aircraft were immediately re purposed for close-air support and airstrikes against North Korean ground troops on the front.[49] These missions were significantly more risky and the aircraft suffered much higher losses due to North Korean ground fire.[50]

Unit Sub-units Notes
United States Cvw-5.gif Carrier Air Group 5 Based on USS Valley Forge[51]
United States Cvw-11.gif Carrier Air Group 11 Based on USS Philippine Sea[47]
United Kingdom 13th Carrier Air Group (Fleet Air Arm) Based on HMS Triumph[51]
United States MATSG-33insignia.jpg Marine Aircraft Group 33 Part of 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. Based on USS Badoeng Strait and USS Sicily[52]

Sea[edit]

A large ship steaming through the ocean
HMS Triumph embarks for Korea.

The UN forces also had at their disposal a massive naval force of multi-national composition, which assisted in the defense of Pusan Perimeter at several crucial junctures. Ships of the fleet provided supporting artillery fire during pitched ground battles[53] and provided a route of resupply and evacuation during other junctures.[54][55] Multiple aircraft carriers provided bases for large contingents of aircraft that flew sorties and air strikes over North Korean ground forces.[56][57]

UN ships continued to stream into the theater during and after the Pusan Perimeter engagement, and they played varying roles in support of the battle.[52] The fleet was split into three primary groups; Task Force 77 formed the primary Aircraft carrier and striking component of the fleet, Task Force 96 consisted of a variety of smaller ships concerned with coastal bombardment, and Task Force 90 formed an attack transport squadron to assist in the evacuation and movement of ground troops.[58]

Overall command of the naval force was taken by the US Seventh Fleet, and the bulk of the naval power provided was also from the US.[58] The United Kingdom also provided a small naval task force including an aircraft carrier and several cruisers. Eventually, Australia, Canada and New Zealand provided ships as well.[59] The Republic of Korea Navy itself was almost negligible during the battle. The South Koreans had a very small navy consisting of a few dozen minesweepers, LSTs, PT boats and other small craft donated to them by other UN member states. Compared to the larger UN fleet these craft played a very small role in the engagement, but North Korean naval ships, which were also very small, tended to target the ROK fleet more often.[60]

US 7th Fleet[edit]

Under Vice Admiral Arthur D. Struble, Task Force 77 formed the core Carrier striking force of the UN forces. The force contained the UN aircraft carriers as well as a number of attendant escorts.[58] The lineup of the escorts differed as ships were assigned roles in Task Force 96 during the course of the battle.[59]

Ship name Class Notes
United States USS Valley Forge (CV-45) Essex-class aircraft carrier Arrived in theater in early July with Carrier Air Group 5.[52][61]
United States USS Philippine Sea (CV-47) Essex-class aircraft carrier Arrived in theater August 5 with Carrier Air Group 11. Served as Task Force 77 flagship.[52]
United Kingdom HMS Triumph (R16) Colossus-class aircraft carrier 1st Aircraft Carrier Squadron, Far East Fleet. Arrived in theater July 1 with two squadrons of UK Fleet Air Arm.[59]
United States USS Badoeng Strait (CVE-116) Commencement Bay-class escort carrier [52][61]
United States USS Sicily (CVE-118) Commencement Bay-class escort carrier [52][62]
United States USS Rochester (CA-124) Oregon City-class heavy cruiser [62]
United States USS Saint Paul (CA-73) Baltimore-class heavy cruiser [62]
United States USS Manchester (CL-83) Cleveland-class light cruiser [62]
United States USS Worcester (CL-144) Worcester-class light cruiser [62]
United Kingdom HMS Ceylon (C30) Crown Colony-class light cruiser Arrived in theater August 29.[63]
United Kingdom HMS Belfast (C35) Town-class light cruiser Arrived in theater July 1.[59]
United States USS Hollister (DD-788) Gearing-class destroyer [64]
United States USS Borie (DD-704) Allen M. Sumner-class destroyer [62]
United States USS John A. Bole (DD-755) Allen M. Sumner-class destroyer [62]
United States USS Taussig (DD-746) Allen M. Sumner-class destroyer Arrived in theater July 2010[65]
United States USS Doyle (DMS-34) Gleaves-class destroyer [62]
United States USS Endicott (DD-495) Gleaves-class destroyer [65]
United States USS Eversole (DD-789) Gearing-class destroyer [65]
United States USS George K. MacKenzie (DD-836) Gearing-class destroyer [65]
United States USS Gurke (DD-783) Gearing-class destroyer [65]
United States USS Hamner (DD-718) Gearing-class destroyer [65]
United States USS Henderson (DD-785) Gearing-class destroyer Arrived in theater August 19[65]
United States USS Herbert J. Thomas (DD-833) Gearing-class destroyer Arrived in theater July 1950[65]
United States USS Higbee (DDR-806) Gearing-class destroyer Arrived in theater June 1950[65]
United States USS Ozbourn (DD-846) Gearing-class destroyer Arrived in theater August 1950[65]
United States USS Wiltsie (DD-716) Gearing-class destroyer Arrived in theater August 1950[65]
United States USS Fletcher (DDE-445) Fletcher-class destroyer Arrived in theater July 3.[65]
United Kingdom HMS Cossack (R57) C-class destroyer Arrived in theater June 29.[59]
United Kingdom HMS Consort (R76) C-class destroyer Arrived in theater June 29.[59]
United Kingdom HMS Unicorn (I72) Unicorn-class 1st Aircraft Carrier Squadron, Far East Fleet. Arrived in theater August 29. Although able to operate as an aircraft carrier, she served in her usual role as an aircraft repair and maintenance carrier and was not actively engaged in combat.[66]

Task Force 96, under Vice Admiral C. Turner Joy, was the largest organization of UN forces by number of ships. The force consisted primarily of cruisers, destroyers, and other smaller ships, which were used to blockade North Korean waterways and conduct coastal bombardments. Ships in this role would also periodically switch to Task Force 77, acting as a screen and escort for the UN aircraft carriers. This force was also the most diverse of the forces, as ships from five nations would eventually be assigned to it.[59]

Ship name Class Notes
United States USS Helena (CA-75) Baltimore-class heavy cruiser [67]
United States USS Juneau (CL-119) Atlanta-class light cruiser [52]
United Kingdom HMS Jamaica (C44) Crown Colony-class light cruiser [68]
United Kingdom HMS Kenya (C14) Crown Colony-class light cruiser Arrived in theater June 30.[68]
United Kingdom HMS Belfast (C35) Town-class light cruiser Flagship of 1st Aircraft Carrier Squadron, Far East Fleet.[69] Arrived in theater June 31.[68]
United States USS De Haven (DD-727) Allen M. Sumner-class destroyer [70]
United States USS Mansfield (DD-728) Allen M. Sumner-class destroyer [70]
United States USS Lyman K. Swenson (DD-729) Allen M. Sumner-class destroyer [70]
United States USS Soley (DD-707) Allen M. Sumner-class destroyer [65]
United States USS Collett (DD-730) Allen M. Sumner-class destroyer [70]
United States USS Samuel N. Moore (DD-747) Allen M. Sumner-class destroyer Arrived July 1950[65]
United States USS Strong (DD-758) Allen M. Sumner-class destroyer Arrived in theater July 1[65]
United States USS Shelton (DD-790) Gearing-class destroyer [65]
United States USS Theodore E. Chandler (DD-717) Gearing-class destroyer [46]
United States USS Wiltsie (DD-716) Gearing-class destroyer [46]
United States USS Frank Knox (DDR-742) Gearing-class destroyer Arrived in theater July 1950.[65]
United States USS Ernest G. Small (DD-838) Gearing-class destroyer [65]
United States USS James E. Kyes (DD-787) Gearing-class destroyer [65]
United States USS Hanson (DD-832) Gearing-class destroyer [65]
United States USS Keppler (DD-765) Gearing-class destroyer Arrived in theater August 1950[65]
United States USS Southerland (DD-743) Gearing-class destroyer Arrived in theater July 19.[65]
United States USS Shields (DD-596) Fletcher-class destroyer [62]
United Kingdom HMS Cockade (R34) C-class destroyer Arrived in theater July 1950.[71]
United Kingdom HMS Charity (R29) C-class destroyer Arrived in theater July 1950.[71]
United Kingdom HMS Comus (R43) C-class destroyer Arrived in theater July 1950.[72]
Australia HMAS Bataan (I91) Tribal-class destroyer [71]
Canada HMCS Sioux (R64) V-class destroyer [71]
Canada HMCS Cayuga (R04) Tribal-class destroyer [71]
Canada HMCS Athabaskan (R79) Tribal-class destroyer [71]
Netherlands HNLMS Eversten (G01) S-class destroyer [71]
Australia HMAS Shoalhaven (K535) River-class frigate [73]
New Zealand HMNZS Pukaki (F424) Loch-class frigate [74]
New Zealand HMNZS Tutira (F420) Loch-class frigate [75]
United Kingdom HMS Mounts Bay (K627) Bay-class anti-aircraft frigate Arrived in theater September 1950. Served primarily as an escort during the Battle of Inchon.[76]
United Kingdom HMS Whitesand Bay (K633) Bay-class anti-aircraft frigate Arrived in theater September 11. Served primarily as a troop transport during the Battle of Inchon.[76]
United Kingdom HMS Black Swan (L57) Black Swan-class sloop (convoy escort) Arrived in theater June 30.[71]
United Kingdom HMS Alacrity (U60) Black Swan-class sloop Arrived in theater June 30.[71]
United Kingdom HMS Hart (U58) Black Swan-class sloop Arrived in theater June 30.[71]
United Kingdom HMS Alert (K647) modified Bay-class frigate An "Admiralty Yacht" or despatch vessel. Served as a headquarters ship.[77]
United Kingdom HMHS Maine Hospital ship Served as the UN fleet's primary hospital ship[78]
United States USS Remora (SS-487) Tench-class submarine Patrolled extreme north of Korean theater in the Soya Strait
United States USS Pickerel (SS-524) Tench-class submarine [79]
United States USS Chatterer (AMS-40) YMS-1-class minesweeper [79]
United States USS Mockingbird (AMS-27) YMS-1-class minesweeper [80]
United States USS Osprey (AMS-28) YMS-1-class minesweeper [80]
United States USS Redhead (AMS-34) YMS-1-class minesweeper [80]

Task Force 90, under Rear Admiral James H. Doyle, was primarily concerned with amphibious operations in the theater. As such, it contained no combat ships, only attack transports and a large number of LSTs. The force consisted entirely of US ships.[59] At least 15 LSTs were assigned to the force during the battle to support the attack transports.[81]

Ship name Class Notes
United States USS Mount McKinley (AGC-7) Mount McKinley-class command ship [59]
United States USS Cavalier (APA-37) Bayfield-class attack transport [59]
United States USS Titania (AKA-13) Arcturus-class attack cargo ship [81]
United States USS Oglethorpe (AKA-100) Andromeda-class attack cargo ship [81]
United States USS Diphda (AKA-59) Andromeda-class attack cargo ship [82]
United States USS Alshain (AKA-55) Andromeda-class attack cargo ship [82]
United States USS Union (AKA-106) Tolland-class attack cargo ship [59]
United States USS Arikara (AT-98) Abnaki-class tug [59]
United States USS Diachenko (APD-123) Crosley-class high speed transport [83]
United States USS Horace A. Bass (APD-124) Crosley-class high speed transport [83]
United States USS Kite (AMS-22) YMS-1-class minesweeper Arrived in theater July 1950.[65]

Additionally, a number of other combat ships were used to ferry weapons and supplies to the growing UN force during the battle. These ships were not deployed in a combat role in this battle, though some would later be moved to combat service later on in the war.[59]

Ship name Class Notes
United Kingdom HMS Warrior (R31) Colossus-class aircraft carrier Carried additional aircraft for other carriers.[84]
United States USS Boxer (CV-21) Essex-class aircraft carrier Carried aircraft for US Air Force units.[14]
United States USS Segundo (SS-398) Balao-class submarine Ferried torpedoes and other weapons[59]
United States USS Catfish (SS-339) Balao-class submarine Ferried torpedoes and other weapons[59]
United States SS Luxembourg Victory Liberty Ship Carried tanks for UN ground forces.[85]
United States USNS Sgt. George D Keathley (T-APC-117) Cargo ship [70]

North Korean Forces[edit]

Land[edit]

The North Korean People's Army forces were organized into a mechanized combined arms force of ten divisions, originally numbering some 90,000 well-trained and well-equipped troops in July, with hundreds of T-34 Tanks.[86] However, defensive actions by US and South Korean forces had delayed the North Koreans significantly in their invasion of South Korea, costing them 58,000 of their troops and a large number of tanks.[4] To recoup these losses, the North Koreans had to rely on less experienced replacements and conscripts, many of whom they took from the conquered regions of South Korea.[87] During the course of the battle, the North Koreans raised a total of 13 infantry divisions and one armored division to the fight at Pusan Perimeter.[4]

From south to northeast, the North Korean units initially positioned opposite the UN units were the 83rd Motorized Regiment of the 105th Armored Division and then the 6th,[7] 4th, 3rd, 2nd, 15th,[3] 1st, 13th, 8th, 12th, and 5th Divisions and the 766th Independent Infantry Regiment.[8]

North Korean People's Army[edit]

North Korean People's Army

Commander-in-chief: Choi Yong-kun
Commander, Advanced General Headquarters: Kim Chaek [3]

Unit Commander Sub-units Notes
I Corps Lieutenant General Kim Ung [8]
2nd Infantry Division Major General Lee Ch'ong Song
  • 4th Infantry Regiment
  • 6th Infantry Regiment
  • 17th Infantry Regiment
Estimated strength of 7,500 August 5[8] Stood at 6,000 September 1.[88]
3rd Infantry Division Major General Lee Yong Ho
  • 7th Infantry Regiment
  • 8th Infantry Regiment
  • 9th Infantry Regiment
Estimated strength of 6,000 August 5[8] Stood at 7,000 September 1.[88]
4th Infantry Division Major General Lee Kwon Mu
  • 5th Infantry Regiment[89]
  • 16th Infantry Regiment
  • 18th Infantry Regiment
Estimated strength of 7,000 August 5[8] Reduced to 3,500 by August 19 after fighting at Naktong Bulge and did not recover until later in the war.[90] Stood at 5,500 September 1.[88]
6th Infantry Division Major General Pang Ho San
  • 13th Infantry Regiment[91]
  • 14th Infantry Regiment
  • 15th Infantry Regiment
Estimated strength of 3,600 August 5[8] Stood at 10,000 September 1.[88]
7th Infantry Division Major General Paek Nak Chil
  • 30th Infantry Regiment
  • 31st Infantry Regiment
  • 32nd Infantry Regiment
Committed to Pusan around September 1 with a strength of 9,000.[88]
9th Infantry Division Major General Kim T'ae Mo
  • 1st Infantry Regiment
  • 2nd Infantry Regiment
  • 3rd Infantry Regiment
Arrived in the battle around August 25. Stood at 9,350 September 1.[88]
10th Infantry Division Major General Kim Tae Hong
  • 25th Infantry Regiment
  • 27th Infantry Regiment
  • 29th Infantry Regiment
Stood at 7,500 September 1.[88]
II Corps Lieutenant General Kim Mu Chong [8]
1st Infantry Division Major General Hong Rim[92]
  • 20th Infantry Regiment
  • 22nd Infantry Regiment
  • 24th Infantry Regiment
Reported a strength of 5,000 August 5[8] Stood at 5,000 September 1.[88]
5th Infantry Division Major General Ma Sang Ch'ol
  • 10th Infantry Regiment
  • 11th Infantry Regiment
  • 12th Infantry Regiment
Estimated strength of 6,000 August 5[8] Stood at 7,000 September 1.[88]
8th Infantry Division Major General Oh Paek Ryong
  • 81st Infantry Regiment
  • 82nd Infantry Regiment
  • 83rd Infantry Regiment
Estimated strength of 8,000 August 5[8] Stood at 6,500 September 1.[88]
12th Infantry Division Major General Ch'oe Hyon
  • 1st Infantry Regiment
  • 2nd Infantry Regiment
  • 3rd Infantry Regiment
Estimated strength of 6,000 August 5[8] Reduced to 1,500 men after fighting at P'ohang-dong, and re-formed August 19 by merging with the 766th Regiment to stand at 5,000 men.[93] Stood at 5,000 September 1.[88]
13th Infantry Division Major General Choi Yong Chin[92]
  • 19th Infantry Regiment[94]
  • 21st Infantry Regiment
  • 23rd Infantry Regiment
Estimated strength of 9,500 August 5[8] Stood at 9,000 September 1.[88]
15th Infantry Division Major General Paik Son Choi
  • 45th Infantry Regiment[95]
  • 48th Infantry Regiment
  • 50th Infantry Regiment
Estimated strength of 5,000 August 5[8] Stood at 7,000 September 1.[88]
105th Armored Division Major General Ryu Kyong Su
  • 107th Tank Regiment
  • 109th Tank Regiment
  • 203rd Tank Regiment
  • 206th Infantry Regiment
  • 83rd Motorized Regiment
The 105th's units formed the core of North Korea's mechanized and armored forces, and was dispersed supporting the other divisions in the line.[8] Its total strength was estimated at 4,000 August 5.[11] Stood at 1,000 September 1 as assets were transferred to the 104th Security Brigade, and 16th and 17th Armored Brigades.[88]
766th Independent Infantry Regiment Senior Colonel Oh Jin Woo
  • 1st Battalion
  • 2nd Battalion
  • 3rd Battalion
Estimated strength of 1,500 August 5[8] Disbanded August 19 after fighting in P'ohang-dong and merged with NK 12th Division.[93]

Air and Sea[edit]

The Korean People's Navy controlled a very small force of around 50 or 60 ships, all of which were small ships. The navy possessed a few torpedo boats and gunboats among others, some of which were donated by the Soviet Union, but these ships were no match for the UN naval forces. Following the Battle of Chumonchin Chan, a one-sided engagement in which UN forces ambushed and crushed a small North Korean flotilla, North Korean ships generally avoided UN ships completely, leaving the UN naval forces virtually unopposed. North Korean torpedo boats may have conducted isolated attacks against similarly small South Korean ships but they did not oppose larger UN ships during the fight around the Pusan Perimeter. They could also not find resupply from Soviet or China as neither had a large standing navy in the region.[96] This is seen by historians as one of the largest disadvantages North Korea had during the battle, as it allowed the UN complete sea and air superiority.[60]

At the start of the Korean War in July, the Korean People's Air Force consisted of about 150 combat aircraft. This force was a mixture of Russian-built models and generally were in poor maintenance and repair. Fighter aircraft included Yakovlev Yak-7s, Yak-3s and a few Yak-9s, 70 in total. They controlled a handful of Ilyushin Il-10 for air-to-surface combat, and used Polikarpov Po-2 biplanes for training. These craft were poorly maintained and their pilots were eager but mostly untrained.[97] However, the North Korean ground forces had much more modern equipment, including Anti-aircraft weapons and vehicles, which were more effective in threatening UN aircraft.[98] North Korean aircraft engaged US aircraft in small, isolated dogfights throughout the battle, but the North Koreans were unable to muster a sufficient force of fighters to the front to seriously oppose the massive UN air component.[99]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Fehrenbach 2001, p. 108
  2. ^ Catchpole 2001, p. 19
  3. ^ a b c d Appleman 1998, p. 254
  4. ^ a b c d Stewart 2005, p. 226
  5. ^ Catchpole 2001, p. 20
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Fehrenbach 2001, p. 109
  7. ^ a b Appleman 1998, p. 253
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Appleman 1998, p. 255
  9. ^ a b c d Fehrenbach 2001, p. 113
  10. ^ Appleman 1998, p. 262
  11. ^ a b Appleman 1998, p. 263
  12. ^ a b c d e Appleman 1998, p. 264
  13. ^ Alexander 2003, p. 133
  14. ^ a b c Appleman 1998, p. 257
  15. ^ Appleman 1998, p. 258
  16. ^ Alexander 2003, p. 134
  17. ^ a b Varhola 2000, p. 91
  18. ^ Ecker 2004, p. 18
  19. ^ a b c d e f Appleman 1998, p. 382
  20. ^ Varhola 2000, p. 93
  21. ^ Ecker 2004, p. 20
  22. ^ Ecker 2004, p. 13
  23. ^ Varhola 2000, p. 97
  24. ^ Varhola 2000, p. 98
  25. ^ Ecker 2004, p. 26
  26. ^ Ecker 2004, p. 27
  27. ^ Varhola 2000, p. 99
  28. ^ Ecker 2004, p. 29
  29. ^ Varhola 2000, p. 106
  30. ^ Appleman 1998, p. 256
  31. ^ Varhola 2000, p. 135
  32. ^ Chae, Chung & Yang 2001, p. 395
  33. ^ a b c d e f g Appleman 1998, p. 191
  34. ^ a b c d e f g Appleman 1998, p. 384
  35. ^ a b c Chae, Chung & Yang 2001, p. 299
  36. ^ Fehrenbach 2001, p. 114
  37. ^ Alexander 2003, p. 127
  38. ^ Alexander 2003, p. 126
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h Fehrenbach 2001, p. 137
  40. ^ a b c Appleman 1998, p. 352
  41. ^ a b c Alexander 2003, p. 143
  42. ^ a b c Appleman 1998, p. 353
  43. ^ a b c d e f Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units Of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-89201-092-4.
  44. ^ Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings Lineage and Honors Histories 1947–1977. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-12-9.
  45. ^ USAF Organizations in Korea 1950–1953 United States Air Force Office of Historical Research, Maxwell AFB, Alabama
  46. ^ a b c Bruning 1999, p. 22
  47. ^ a b c Bruning 1999, p. 24
  48. ^ Bruning 1999, p. 28
  49. ^ Bruning 1999, p. 31
  50. ^ Bruning 1999, p. 37
  51. ^ a b Bruning 1999, p. 23
  52. ^ a b c d e f g Bruning 1999, p. 40
  53. ^ Appleman 1998, p. 327
  54. ^ Fehrenbach 2001, p. 136
  55. ^ Appleman 1998, p. 330
  56. ^ Alexander 2003, p. 130
  57. ^ Appleman 1998, p. 275
  58. ^ a b c Marolda 2007, p. 14
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Marolda 2007, p. 15
  60. ^ a b Marolda 2007, p. 16
  61. ^ a b Rottman 2001, p. 96
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rottman 2001, p. 97
  63. ^ Cocker 2003, p. 26
  64. ^ Bruning 1999, p. 38
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Rottman 2001, p. 98
  66. ^ Cocker 2003, p. 29
  67. ^ Marolda 2007, p. 23
  68. ^ a b c Marolda 2007, p. 21
  69. ^ "The Forgotten Cruise" HMS Triumph and the 13th Carrier Air Group in Korea
  70. ^ a b c d e Marolda 2007, p. 18
  71. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Marolda 2007, p. 20
  72. ^ Cocker 2003, p. 36
  73. ^ Cocker 2003, p. 97
  74. ^ Cocker 2003, p. 123
  75. ^ Cocker 2003, p. 127
  76. ^ a b Cocker 2003, p. 50
  77. ^ Cocker 2003, p. 55
  78. ^ Cocker 2003, p. 59
  79. ^ a b Rottman 2001, p. 99
  80. ^ a b c Rottman 2001, p. 100
  81. ^ a b c Marolda 2007, p. 27
  82. ^ a b Rottman 2001, p. 101
  83. ^ a b Marolda 2007, p. 24
  84. ^ Cocker 2003, p. 8
  85. ^ Appleman 1998, p. 259
  86. ^ Stewart 2005, p. 225
  87. ^ Fehrenbach 2001, p. 116
  88. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Appleman 1998, p. 395
  89. ^ Appleman 1998, p. 304
  90. ^ Appleman 1998, p. 317
  91. ^ Appleman 1998, p. 287
  92. ^ a b Paik 1992, p. 53
  93. ^ a b Catchpole 2001, p. 27
  94. ^ Appleman 1998, p. 337
  95. ^ Appleman 1998, p. 338
  96. ^ Marolda 2007, p. 17
  97. ^ Bruning 1999, p. 1
  98. ^ Bruning 1999, p. 11
  99. ^ Bruning 1999, p. 10

Sources[edit]