Battle of Rasil

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Battle of Rasil
Part of the Muslim conquest of Sassanid empire
Mohammad adil rais-battle of rasil.PNG
Map detailing location of Battle field according to present day geography.
Date Early 644
Location Indus river, Rasil (Sindh) Pakistan.
Result Rashidun victory
Makran coast up to Indus river and western territories of Rai Kingdom annexed by Rashidun Caliphate
Rai Dynasty Rashidun Caliphate
(Rashidun army)
Commanders and leaders
Raja Rasil Suhail ibn Adi
Usman ibn Abi al-'As
Hakam ibn Amr
Unknown Unknown
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown

The Battle of Rasil was fought between the Raif Kingdom of Sindh and Rashidun Caliphate in early 644. It was first encounter of Rashidun Caliphate in the South Asia. The exact location of Battle is not known but historians suggest it was fought at the western bank of River Indus.

Caliph Umar (634-644) launched an offensive against the Sassanid Persian Empire in 642 and by mid 644 almost the entire Persian empire was conquered. An expedition to Kerman took place roughly at the same time as an expedition to Sistan and Azerbaijan. Suhail ibn Adi was given command of this expedition. Suhail marched from Busra in 643. Passing Shiraz and Persepolis he joined with other Muslim armies and marched against Kerman, which was subdued after a pitch battle with local garrisons. Further east of Kerman laid Makran, what is now a part of present day Pakistan. It was a traditional territory of Sassanids but was then a domain of the Rai Kingdom, who annexed it in 636-637 although they acted as a vassal of Sassanid Persians in past.

Raja Rasil, the king of Baluchistan, concentrated huge armies in Sindh and Balochistan to halt the advance of the Muslims. Suhail was reinforced by Uthman ibn Abi al-'As from Persepolis, and Hakam ibn Amr from Busra. The combined forces defeated Raja Rasil at a pitch Battle of Rasil, who retreated to the eastern bank of River Indus. Further east from Indus River laid Sindh, which was domain of Rai kingdom.[1] Umar, after learning that Sindh was a poor and relatively barran land, disapproved Suhail’s proposal to cross Indus River.[2] For the time being, Umar declared the Indus River, a natural barrier, to be the easternmost frontier of his domain. This campaign came to an end in mid 644.[3]


This was the first confrontation between Rashidun Caliphate and a Hindu kingdom in Baluchistan. In response to Caliph Umar’s question about the Makran region, the Messenger replied:

Umar looked at the messenger and said: "Are you a messenger or a poet? He replied “Messenger”.

Thereupon Caliph Umar, after learning that Baluchistan was a barren land and the unfavorable for sending an army, instructed Hakim bin Amr al Taghlibi that for the time being Makran should be the easternmost frontier of the Rashidun Caliphate, and that no further attempt should be made to extend the conquests. This was mainly because of Umar's policy of consolidating the rule before conquering more land. The same year, in 644, Umar had already rejected the proposal by Ahnaf ibn Qais, conqueror of Khurasan, of crossing Oxus river in the north to invade central Asia. In the west he similarly had called back 'Amr ibn al-'As who had marched to north Africa and had captured Tripoli .[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The Muslim Conquest of Persia By A.I. Akram. Ch:13 ISBN 0-19-597713-0,
  2. ^ The History of Al-Tabari: The Challenge to the Empires, Translated by Khalid Yahya Blankinship, Published by SUNY Press, 1993, ISBN 0-7914-0852-3
  3. ^ Al Farooq, Umar By Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter 19 page no:130
  4. ^