Battle of Richmond

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For battles involving Richmond, Virginia, see Raid of Richmond, Peninsula Campaign, and Siege of Petersburg.
Battle of Richmond
Part of the American Civil War
Date August 29–30, 1862
Location Madison County,
near Richmond, Kentucky

Coordinates: 37°41′05″N 84°15′34″W / 37.6848°N 84.2594°W / 37.6848; -84.2594
Result Confederate victory
Belligerents
United States United States (Union) Confederate States of America CSA (Confederacy)
Commanders and leaders
William "Bull" Nelson E. Kirby Smith
Strength
6,500[1] 6,850[1]
Casualties and losses
5,353 total
206 killed
844 wounded
4,303 captured/missing[2]
451 total
78 killed
372 wounded
1 missing[2]

The Battle of Richmond, Kentucky, fought August 29–30, 1862, was a stunning Confederate victory by Maj. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith against Union Maj. Gen. William "Bull" Nelson's forces, defending the town. It was the first major battle in the Kentucky Campaign. The battle took place on and around what is now the grounds of the Blue Grass Army Depot, outside Richmond, Kentucky.

Background[edit]

In the fall of 1862, two Confederate armies moved on separate paths into Kentucky, hoping to restore the Confederate government of that state into power, threaten Union cities along the Ohio River, and recruit men to join the army. First to move was Kirby Smith, leading the Confederate Army of Kentucky, whose ideas provided the initiative for the offensive. Gen. Braxton Bragg, commanding the Army of Mississippi, moved on a roughly parallel track to the west. Smith departed Knoxville on August 13, Bragg Chattanooga on August 27.[citation needed]

Battle[edit]

Brig. Gen. Patrick Cleburne led Smith's advance with Col. John S. Scott's cavalry out in front. The Confederate cavalry, while moving north from Big Hill on the road to Richmond, Kentucky, on August 29, encountered Union troopers and began skirmishing. After noon, Union artillery and infantry joined the fray, forcing the Confederate cavalry to retreat to Big Hill.[3]

At that time, Brig. Gen. Mahlon D. Manson, who commanded Union forces in the area, commanded a brigade to march to Rogersville, toward the Rebels. Fighting for the day stopped after pursuing Union forces briefly skirmished with Cleburne's men in late afternoon. That night, Manson informed his superior, Bull Nelson, of his situation, and he ordered another brigade to be ready to march in support, when required.[3]

Kirby Smith ordered Cleburne to attack in the morning and promised to hurry reinforcements (Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Churchill's division). Cleburne started early, marching north, passed through Kingston, dispersed Union skirmishers, and approached Manson's battle line near Zion Church. As the day progressed, additional troops joined both sides. Following an artillery duel, the battle began, and after a concerted Confederate attack on the Union right, the Union troops gave way. Retreating into Rogersville, they made another futile stand at their old bivouac.[3]

By now, Smith and Nelson had arrived and taken command of their respective armies. Nelson rallied some troops in the cemetery outside Richmond, but they were routed.[3]

Aftermath[edit]

Nelson and some of his men escaped, but the Confederates captured over 4,300 Union troops. Total casualties were 5,353 (206 killed, 844 wounded, 4,303 captured/missing) on the Union side, 451 (78 killed, 372 wounded, 1 missing) Confederate.[2] The way north towards Lexington and Frankfort was open.[3]

Civil War historian Shelby Foote remarked that Smith "accomplished in Kentucky the nearest thing to a Cannae ever scored by any general, North or South, in the course of the whole war."[4]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Values of Union strength given by various sources are: 6,500 engaged by Livermore (1900) (p. 89), 16,000 by Bodart (1908) (p. 526); for Confederate strength: 6,850 engaged by Livermore (1900) (p. 89), and 8,000 by Bodart (1908) (p. 526).
  2. ^ a b c Eicher, p. 316.
  3. ^ a b c d e NPS
  4. ^ Foote, p. 650.

References[edit]

External links[edit]