Battle of Ruxu (213)

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Battle of Ruxu
Part of the wars at the end of the Han dynasty
Date 213
Location Ruxu, Yang Province, on the eastern side of present-day Lake Chaohu, Anhui.
Result Sun Quan overall victory; Cao Cao retreat
Belligerents
Cao Cao Sun Quan
Commanders and leaders
Cao Cao
Sun Guan ?
Sun Quan
Lü Meng
Strength
400,000[citation needed] 70,000[citation needed]
Battle of Ruxu (213)
Traditional Chinese 濡須之戰
Simplified Chinese 濡须之战
Battle of Ruxukou
Traditional Chinese 濡須口之戰
Simplified Chinese 濡须口之战

The Battle of Ruxu, also known as the Battle of Ruxukou, was fought between the warlords Cao Cao and Sun Quan in 213 in the late Eastern Han dynasty. The battle consisted of multiple attacks led by Cao Cao, but all were eventually lifted after efforts by Sun Quan's forces.

Background[edit]

Before 213, Cao Cao was undergoing war with Ma Chao and Sun Quan following his defeat during the Battle of Red Cliffs. One of the movements that Cao wanted to make in his war against Sun Quan was to intimidate Sun by placing general Xie Qi (謝奇) in Huangcheng, (皖城; present-day Huaining, Anhui) and spread his forces to Qichun (蕲春) in order to agitate Sun Quan.[1]

In order to stop Cao's harassment, Sun sent his general Lü Meng to demand Xie Qi to surrender at once. However, Xie Qi refused, therefore Lü then was forced to respond in means of an attack. Xie Qi went down easily and retreated.[2] Two of Xie Qi's subordinates, Sun Zicai and Song Hao, quickly surrendered to Lü Meng, fishing up morale. Cao Cao then began to mobilize troops to attack Ruxu (濡須) and captured a captain general named Gongsun Yang under Sun Quan. Sun Quan, in response, ordered Lü Meng to follow his personal lead of his forces to stop Cao's march onto Ruxu.

The battle[edit]

While Sun Quan was setting up a plan for the defense of Ruxu, Lü Meng had schemed a defense against Cao consisting of warships readied at a quickly established dock,[3] to be used to backfire Cao Cao's advance after a flood that was supposed to occur not long into the battle.

Sun Guan, who died in battle at Ruxu in either 213 or 217, was perhaps fatally injured in his attack onto Sun Quan's line of defense by Xu Sheng. Sun Guan died not long after his rescue at Cao's camp.[4]

Lü Meng's prediction quickly was proven correct,[5] Sun Quan then started to send out his warships onto Cao's army, but a few of their ships were blown off course, but not much.[6] (This could have been the death of Dong Xi) Having realized the experience of Sun's army, Cao Cao eventually decided to withdraw.

In a momentum burst, a few other generals of Sun Quan joined Lü Meng in a following assault onto Wan and Lujiang.

Aftermath[edit]

Zhang Liao, following this withdraw, stationed his troops at Hefei,[7] where in 215 he played a major role in the Battle of Xiaoyao Ford.[8]

Order of battle[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (魏使廬江謝奇為蘄春典農,屯皖田鄉,數為邊寇) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms. Volume 54, Biography of Lü Meng.
  2. ^ (伺隙襲擊,奇遂縮退). Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms. Volume 54, Biography of Lü Meng.
  3. ^ (權特為案行至濡須塢,因會諸將,大為酣樂) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms. Volume 55, Biography of Zhou Tai.
  4. ^ (盛獨將兵,上突斫敵,敵披退走,有所傷殺) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms. Volume 55, Biography of Xu Sheng.
  5. ^ (後從權拒曹公於濡須,數近奇計,又勸權夾水口立塢,所以備御甚精) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms. Volume 54, Biography of Lü Meng.
  6. ^ (時乘蒙沖,遇迅風,船落敵岸下) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms. Volume 55, Biography of Xu Sheng.
  7. ^ (权守合肥十馀日,城不可拔,乃引退) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms. Volume 17, Biography of Zhang Liao.
  8. ^ (辽率诸军追击,几复获权. 太祖大壮辽,拜征东将军. 建安二十一年,太祖复征孙权,到合肥,循行辽战处,叹息者良久.) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms. Volume 17, Biography of Zhang Liao.
  9. ^ (後從攻皖,為升城督. 寧手持練,身緣城,為吏士先,卒破獲朱光.) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms. Volume 55, Biography of Gan Ning.
  10. ^ (後曹公出濡須,寧為前部督,受敕出斫敵前營) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms. Volume 55, Biography of Gan Ning.
  11. ^ (曹公出濡須,從權御之) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms. Volume 55, Biography of Xu Sheng.
  12. ^ (魏嘗大出橫江,盛與諸將俱赴討) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms. Volume 55, Biography of Xu Sheng.