Battle of San Jacinto
|Battle of San Jacinto|
|Part of the Texas Revolution|
The Battle of San Jacinto-1895 painting by Henry Arthur McArdle (1836–1908)
|Mexico||Republic of Texas|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Antonio López de Santa Anna (POW)
Manuel Fernández Castrillón †
Juan Almonte (POW)
Martín Perfecto de Cos (POW)
|Sam Houston W
Thomas J. Rusk
James C. Neill W
Mirabeau B. Lamar
|Casualties and losses|
|9 killed or fatally wounded
The Battle of San Jacinto, fought on April 21, 1836, in present-day Harris County, Texas, was the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution. Led by General Sam Houston, the Texian Army engaged and defeated General Antonio López de Santa Anna's Mexican army in a fight that lasted just 20 minutes. About 630 of the Mexican soldiers were killed and 730 captured, while only nine Texans died.
Santa Anna, the President of Mexico, was captured the following day and held as a prisoner of war. Three weeks later, he signed the peace treaty that dictated that the Mexican army leave the region, paving the way for the Republic of Texas to become an independent country. These treaties did not specifically recognize Texas as a sovereign nation, but stipulated that Santa Anna was to lobby for such recognition in Mexico City. Sam Houston became a national celebrity, and the Texans' rallying cries from events of the war, "Remember the Alamo!" and "Remember Goliad!," became etched into Texan history and legend.
Led by Moses Austin and later by his son Stephen F. Austin, European Americans began to settle in Texas, migrating from the United States, when the territory was still held by Spain and was under Spanish rule. In 1821 Mexico achieved independence from Spain. It encouraged American immigration into eastern Texas, as it was relatively undeveloped. It was a part of the state of Coahuila y Tejas. Many of the Americans who settled there were of Scots-Irish descent and from the American South. "GTT" (Gone to Texas) was carved on trees and painted on doors all across the southern United States although settlers came from as far away as the New England states.
Texians begin takeover of land
Mexican subjects for nine years, "Texians", as non-Hispanic residents called themselves, rebelled against the Mexican government of Santa Anna because he rescinded the democratic Constitution of 1824, dissolved Mexico's Congress and state legislatures, and asserted dictatorial control over the nation. After capturing military outposts and defeating the Mexican army garrisons in the area, the Texans drove the remaining Mexican forces from Texas after a siege and a major confrontation in San Antonio. Texans formed a provisional government and drafted a Declaration of Independence.
Hundreds of volunteers from the United States of America headed into the fledgling Republic of Texas to assist in its quest for independence. Two full regiments of these volunteers were soon organized to augment the regular Texas army. Other volunteers (including Tejano and Texian colonists) organized into companies to defend places that might be targets of Mexican intervention.
Some of the American volunteers at San Jacinto included the Kentucky Rifles, a company raised in Cincinnati and northern Kentucky by Sidney Sherman, and one of the few units in the Texian militia with formal uniforms. The New Orleans Greys, another company raised in the United States, had fought at the Battle of the Alamo while serving under a regular Texas army officer, while two companies from Alabama (one each from Huntsville and Mobile) fought at Goliad.
In 1836, Santa Anna led a force of about 6,000 Mexican troops into what is now Texas to put down the insurrection. He first entered San Antonio de Béxar and, after a 13-day siege, defeated and killed the Texan force on March 6, 1836 at the Alamo. The right wing of Santa Anna's offensive, under General José de Urrea, then defeated, captured, and executed the survivors of a second force near Goliad.
Santa Anna ordered the Goliad prisoners to be shot or bayoneted on March 27, a Palm Sunday. General Urrea resisted the orders at first and sent a special message to Santa Anna to confirm the order, which Santa Anna upheld. After granting clemency to those prisoners of war who had surrendered unarmed, Urrea approached the problem of how to execute over 300 prisoners. Those who were able to walk were told that they were being moved under guard to a new location. As the prisoners were being led down the road in three columns, between two lines of guards, the Mexican soldiers opened fire. Out of 303 Texian prisoners, 28 escaped, of which six carried the tale to Sam Houston's militia. Of the remaining 40 Texians who were unable to walk and remained held in the fort, 39 were shot and killed after the others had departed. This execution of 342 prisoners of war became known as the Goliad massacre. At the Battle of San Jacinto, Americans yelled "Remember the Alamo!" and "Remember Goliad!" to inspire themselves.
After learning of the Goliad massacre, soldiers and militia were assembled in Gonzales. Colonel James Neill had taken charge and started to organize the troops. Houston soon arrived and assumed command of what was now the main Texian Army. Seeking a more defensible position, he slowly retreated eastward. To President David G. Burnet, no admirer of Houston's, Houston appeared unwilling to fight his pursuer, despite Burnet's frequent orders for Houston to do so. Texas settlers jeered Houston as he passed, and his officers threatened to seize command. Houston responded that he would shoot anyone who tried. Concerned that the Mexican Army was rapidly approaching unchecked, Burnet and the Texas government abandoned the provisional capital at Washington-on-the-Brazos and moved towards the Gulf of Mexico, re-establishing key governmental functions in Harrisburg and later Galveston. In their wake, thousands of panicked colonists (both Texian and Tejano) fled in what became popularly known as the "Runaway Scrape".
Houston initially headed toward the Sabine River, the border with the United States, where a Federal army under General Pendleton Gaines had assembled to protect Louisiana if Santa Anna decided to invade the US. However, Houston soon turned to southeast toward Harrisburg.
After the Battle of the Alamo, while still at Bexar, Santa Anna had devised his three-pronged plan, pursuing Houston’s army directly from the center with flanks to the north and south. However, in mid-April, Santa Anna abandoned the plan in an attempt to capture the fleeing Texas government at Morgan's Point, about a half-day’s March below Lynch's Ferry. Santa Anna personally led a picket column of about 900 troops, but failed to encounter the sought-after leaders. On April 20, he then countermarched toward Lynch's Ferry, where Houston’s army had, earlier that morning, established a position in the woods along the confluence of the San Jacinto River and Buffalo Bayou. Santa Anna began setting up camp and defenses on a grassy field 1,000 yards (914 m) below the Texans’ position.
Prelude to battle
Believing Houston to be cornered, Santa Anna decided to rest his army on April 19 and attack on April 22. On April 20, Texian and Mexican patrols clashed at New Washington. Santa Anna knew Houston was nearby and sent a probe into the woods to find his army. Colonel James C. Neill commanded the Twin Sisters (a matching pair of identical cannon given to the Texians by the citizens of Cincinnati, Ohio) during the battle, and sent the Mexicans into retreat, saving the Texians from discovery. Neill was seriously wounded when a fragment of a Mexican grapeshot caught him in the hip. J.C. Neill was replaced by G. W. Hockley. Mexican Captain Urizza was also wounded.
On the afternoon of April 20, Colonel Sidney Sherman, accompanied by a detachment of cavalry, engaged the Mexican infantry, almost bringing on some major action when they were counter-attacked by Mexican Lancers. Captain Jesse Billingsley came to their aid, and the entire regiment under Colonel Burleson promptly joined in. The Mexicans were repulsed and Houston called for the Texians to fall back. Two Texans were wounded, Walter Lane and Olwyn J. Trask (who later died), with several horses also being killed. Private Mirabeau B. Lamar, from Georgia (a future President of the Republic of Texas), performed so bravely, first saving Thomas J. Rusk and later Walter Lane (with help from Henry Karnes), that he was promoted to colonel and placed in command of the cavalry.
On the morning of April 21, Santa Anna received roughly 500 reinforcements under General Martín Perfecto de Cos. His total strength now approached 1,400 men. Santa Anna posted Cos to his right, near the river, and posted his last artillery in the center, erecting a five-foot-high barricade of packs and baggage as hastily constructed protection for his infantry. He placed his veteran cavalry on his left flank and settled back to plan the following day's attack.
At noon on April 21, Houston held a council of war. Pro-Houston versions of the meeting say the majority of his officers favored waiting for Santa Anna's eventual assault. The conference lingered on for two hours. Houston decided to make a surprise attack of his own that afternoon, concerned that Santa Anna might otherwise use the extra time to concentrate his scattered army. Most of the assault would have to be staged over open ground, where the Texan infantry would be vulnerable to Mexican gunfire. Houston took a risk in deciding to outflank the Mexicans with his cavalry, stretching his troops even thinner. Santa Anna made a crucial mistake when, during his army's afternoon siesta, he failed to post sentries or skirmishers around his camp.
The 900-strong Texan army was ready to meet the enemy. Houston, urged by Texas Secretary of War Rusk, who had caught up with the militia to consult with the general at the insistence of President Burnet, began the action. By 3:30 p.m., Houston had formed his men into battle lines for the impending assault, screened from Mexican view by trees and by a slight ridge that ran across the open prairie between the opposing armies. Santa Anna's failure to properly post lookouts proved fatal to his chances of victory.
At 4:30 p.m. on April 21, scout Deaf Smith announced the burning of Vince's Bridge, which cut off the only avenue of reinforcement and retreat for both armies without having to cross water more than 10 feet (3.0 m) deep. The main Texan battle line moved forward with their approach screened by the trees and rising ground. As they emerged from the woods, the order was given to "advance" and a fifer began playing the popular tune "Will you come to the bower I have shaded for you?"
General Houston personally led the infantry, posting the 2nd Volunteer Regiment of Colonel Sidney Sherman together with Juan Seguín's men on his far left, with Colonel Edward Burleson's 1st Volunteer Regiment next in line. In the center, the "Twin Sisters", two small brass (or iron) smoothbore artillery pieces, were wheeled forward under the command of Major George W. Hockley. They were supported by four companies of infantry under Captain Henry Wax Karnes. Colonel Henry Millard's regiment of Texas regulars made up the right wing. To the extreme far right, 61 Texas cavalrymen under newly promoted Colonel Mirabeau B. Lamar planned to circle into the Mexicans' left flank.
The Texan militia moved quickly and silently across the high-grass plain, and then, when they were only a few dozen yards away, charged Santa Anna's camp, shouting "Remember the Alamo!" and "Remember Goliad!," not stopping to open fire until only a few yards from the Mexicans. Manuel Flores is credited for taking the lead in the charge against Santa Anna's army. José Maria Rodriquez says in his book, Memoirs of Early Texas, that during the charge, the Texans fired and fell to the ground expecting a volley from the Mexican camp, but Flores remained standing and challenged the Texian Army to "get up" and advance, for "Santa Anna's men are running"! Thomas Rusk also galloped up to the men shouting, "Don't stop... give 'em hell!"
The Texans achieved complete surprise. A bold attack in broad daylight, their success can be attributed in good part to Santa Anna's relaxed vigilance due to the superior number of forces he possessed. Santa Anna's army primarily consisted of professional soldiers, but they were trained to fight in ranks, exchanging volleys with their opponents. The Mexicans were ill-prepared and unarmed at the time of the sudden attack. Most were asleep with their soldaderas (i.e., wives and female soldiers), worn out from building fortifications. Some were out gathering wood, and cavalrymen were riding bareback fetching water. Not all were unaware; Colonel Delgado was concerned with the laxness and General Manuel Fernández Castrillón, who at the Alamo had tried to save a small band of Texian defenders, desperately tried to mount an organized resistance. His panicked troops fled (the general himself was soon shot down and killed), and Santa Anna's defensive line quickly collapsed.
Hundreds of the demoralized and confused Mexican soldiers were routed, with many being driven into the marshes along the river to drown. The Texans chased after the fleeing enemy, Deaf Smith shouting "take prisoners like the Meskins do!", in reference to the burning of bodies after the Alamo and the mass murder of Texans at Goliad. Some of the Mexican cavalry plunged into the flooded stream by Vince's Bridge, but they were shot as they struggled in the water. Houston tried to restrain his men, but was ignored. Gen. Juan Almonte, commanding what was left of the organized Mexican resistance, soon formally surrendered his 400 remaining men to Rusk. The rest of Santa Anna's once-proud army had disintegrated into chaos. From the moment of the first charge, the battle was a slaughter, "frightful to behold", with most of the Texan casualties coming in the first minutes of battle from the first Mexican volley.
During the short but furious fighting, Houston was shot in the left ankle, two of his horses were shot from under him, and Santa Anna briefly escaped. The combat lasted 18 minutes, but the slaughter of the Mexicans continued for "another hour or so". The Texan militia had won a stunning victory, killing about 700 Mexican soldiers, wounding 208, and taking 730 prisoners, including Santa Anna (the Texans did not know they had captured Santa Anna until one of the prisoners called him El Presidente), while suffering 9 killed and 30 wounded.
Santa Anna disappeared during the battle and evaded discovery by shedding his ornate uniform for that of a common soldier. A search party consisting of James A. Sylvester, Washington H. Secrest, Sion R. Bostick, and a Mr. Cole was sent out the next morning. When surrounded in high grass and compelled to surrender, Santa Anna was initially thought to be a common soldier. However, when saluted as "El Presidente" by other prisoners, his true identity was discovered by the Texans. Houston spared his life, preferring to negotiate an end to the overall hostilities and the withdrawal from Texas of Santa Anna's remaining columns.
On May 14, 1836, Santa Anna (dictator and de facto head of government) signed the Treaties of Velasco, in which he agreed to withdraw his troops from Texan soil and, in exchange for safe conduct back to Mexico, lobby there for recognition of the new republic. There were two treaties, a private treaty and a public treaty. In the private treaty, Santa Anna pledged to try to persuade Mexico to acknowledge Texas' independence, in return for an escort back to Mexico. The treaty also set the Texas/Mexico boundary at the Rio Grande River. This was one of the issues later contributing to the 1846 Mexican War. Santa Anna was held by the United States for six months as a prisoner of war and finally taken to Washington, D.C. There he met with President Andrew Jackson, before finally returning in disgrace to Mexico in early 1837. The independent Republic of Texas received diplomatic recognition from the United States, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the Republic of Yucatán, all sovereign nations recognizing the new nation and its independence from Mexico. Even after the Republic joined the United States in 1845, Mexico maintained claims on Texas to the mid-19th century, until it was defeated in war with the United States of America and forced to sign the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848.
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It was reported that when on campaign, Santa Anna would send aides to kidnap the prettiest women for his pleasure. According to legend, he was "entertaining" (exploiting) Emily Morgan, a mulatto woman, at the time of opening salvo. A song titled "The Yellow Rose of Texas" was later written about Emily Morgan's purported role in the battle. (Mixed-race African Americans were sometimes referred to as "High Yellow" in color.) No primary source evidence corroborates this story, however, and historians have dismissed it as legend.
Today, the San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site commemorates the battle. The grounds include the San Jacinto Monument, the world's tallest memorial column, at 570 feet (170 m). The park is located in La Porte, about 25 miles (40 km) southeast of downtown Houston. The monument contains an inscription, part of which reads:
"Measured by its results, San Jacinto was one of the decisive battles of the world. The freedom of Texas from Mexico won here led to annexation and to the Mexican–American War, resulting in the acquisition by the United States of the states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, California, Utah and parts of Colorado, Wyoming, Kansas and Oklahoma. Almost one-third of the present area of the American Nation, nearly a million square miles of territory, changed sovereignty."
The annual Fiesta celebration in San Antonio with three large parades, banquets, and numerous other events, celebrates the victory of San Jacinto and Texas independence.
In September 2001, Park Road 1836, connecting Battleground Road (formerly Texas State Highway 134) to the San Jacinto Monument Grounds near Houston, was renamed in Juan Seguin's honor and Interstate 610/Texas State Highway 225 interchange in southeast Houston was named the "Juan N. Seguin Memorial Interchange."
In the 20th century, the state of Texas erected various monuments and historical wayside markers to mark the path and campsites of Houston's militia as it marched to San Jacinto.
- "Picture and Key for "The Battle of San Jacinto" – Texas State Library and Archives Commission". Tsl.state.tx.us. Retrieved 2013-04-21.
- The official report of the battle claims 783. The more detailed roster published after the battle lists 845 officers and men but failed to include Captain Wyly's Company, giving a total of around 910.
- Texas State Historical Commission. "Battle of San Jacinto Historical Marker".
- T. R. Fehrenbach
- Hardin (1994), pg. 5
- Hardin (1994), pg. 6
- Todish et al. (1998), p. 26.
- Todish et al. (1998), p. 46.
- Todish et al. (1998), p. 13.
- Hardin (1994), pg. 102
- Hardin (1994), pg. 173
- Ward, Geoffrey C. (1996), The West: An Illustrated History, Orion Publishing, ISBN 0-297-82181-4
- One settler recalled: "We passed a house with all the doors open, the table had been set, all the victuals on the table....a plate of biscuits, a plate of potatoes, a plate of chicken..."
- Edmonson (2000), p. 382.
- Moore (2004), p. 254f.
- Edmonson (2000), p. 383.
- Hardin (1994), p. 204.
- Davis (2006), p. 269.
- Hardin (1994), p. 207.
- Edmonson (2000), p. 384.
- de la Teja (1991), p. 83.
- Winkler, EW (2006-01-23), "The "Twin Sisters" Cannon, 1836–1865", Southwestern Historical Quarterly (The Texas State Historical Association) 21 (1): 61–8, retrieved 2009-03-06
- Some primary accounts (veterans of the battle) insist that the fifer's tune was "Yankee Doodle". Battle of San Jancinto
- Description of the Battle of San Jacinto
- Rodriquez (2010), pg. 3–15
- Stephen L. Moore (1 November 2003). Eighteen Minutes: The Battle of San Jacinto and the Texas Independence Campaign. Taylor Trade Publications. pp. 326–. ISBN 978-1-58907-009-7. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
- Hardin (1994), pg. 211
- Hardin (1994), pg. 209
- Edmonson (2000), p. 386.
- Fehrenbach, T. R. (2000). Lone Star: A History of Texas and Texans. Cambridge: Da Capo Press. p. 232.
- "The Battle of San Jacinto", tamu.edu
- From an account of the battle by a Texian Sergeant: "A young Mexican boy, a drummer I suppose, (was) lying on his face. One of the volunteers pricked the boy with his bayonet. The boy grasped the man around the ankles and cried out in Spanish, "Hail Mary most pure, for God's sake spare my life". I begged the man to spare him, both of his legs being broken already. The man looked at me and put his hand on his pistol, so I passed on. As I did so he blew the boy's brains out."
- Casualty figures, tamu.edu
- L. W. Kemp. title=San Jacinto, Battle of. Handbook of Texas Online. Tshaonline.org http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/qes04. Retrieved 2013-04-21. Missing or empty
- Rodríguez, Juan Carlos (2007-12-20), "The Yellow Rose of Texas", Handbook of Texas Online, Texas State Historical Society, retrieved 2009-03-06
- San Jacinto Day Festival and Battle Reenactment: Festival celebrates 170th anniversary of battle, Houston: San Jacinto Museum, January 2006, archived from the original on 2007-09-27, retrieved 2009-03-06
- "CDA archives". Chron.com. Retrieved 2013-04-21.
- Davis, William C (2004). Lone Star Rising: The Revolutionary Birth of the Texas Republic. Free Press. ISBN 9780684865102.
- del la Teja, Jesus (1991). A Revolution Remembered: The Memoirs and Selected Correspondence of Juan N. Seguin. Austin, TX: State House Press. ISBN 0-938349-68-6.
- Edmondson, J.R. (2000). The Alamo Story-From History to Current Conflicts. Plano, Texas: Republic of Texas Press. ISBN 1-55622-678-0.
- Fehrenbach, T.R. (2000). Lone Star: A History of Texas and Texans. Cambridge: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80942-7.
- Hardin, Stephen L. (1994). Texian Iliad – A Military History of the Texas Revolution. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-73086-1. OCLC 29704011.
- Maher, Ramona; Gammell, Stephen; Rohr, John A. (1974). The Glory Horse: A Story of the Battle of San Jacinto and Texas in 1836. Coward, McCann & Geoghegan. ISBN 0-698-20294-5.
- Moore, Stephen L. (2004). Eighteen Minutes: The Battle of San Jacinto and the Texas Independence Campaign. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-58907-009-7.
- Pohl, James W. (1989). The Battle of San Jacinto. Texas State Historical Association. ISBN 978-0-87611-084-3.
- Rodriguez, José María (2010) . Rodriguez Memoirs of Early Texas. Charleston, SC: Nabu Press. ISBN 978-1-149-53168-6.
- Todish, Timothy J.; Todish, Terry; Spring, Ted (1998). Alamo Sourcebook, 1836: A Comprehensive Guide to the Battle of the Alamo and the Texas Revolution. Austin, TX: Eakin Press. ISBN 978-1-57168-152-2.
- Tolbert, Frank X. (1969). The Day of San Jacinto. Jenkins Publishing Company.
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|Wikisource has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article about Battle of San Jacinto.|
- Battle of San Jacinto – Handbook of Texas Online
- Santa Anna's Account of the Battle
- San Jacinto
- Vince's Bridge
- 1856 map of the San Jacinto Battle-ground hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
- Schematic of San Jacinto Battle-ground showing troop deployment and movements.
- Map of the Battle Ground of San Jacinto from A pictorial history of Texas, from the earliest visits of European adventurers, to A.D. 1879, hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
- True veterans of Texas: an authentic account of the Battle of San Jacinto : a complete list of heroes who fought, bled and died at San Jacinto, hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
- Battle of San Jacinto – The Sons of DeWitt Colony
- Battle of San Jacinto – Texas State Library
- Memorial aerial view
- Flags of Guerrero and Matamoros Battalions – Texas State Library and Archives Commission
- Battle of San Jacinto from Yoakum's History of Texas, 1855
- San Jacinto Monument & Museum
- Sam Houston's official report on the Battle of San Jacinto – TexasBob.com
- Battle of San Jacinto, A Mexican prospective – Pedro Delgado in 1837 – TexasBob.com
- Invitation to a Ball Celebrating Battle of San Jacinto, April 10, 1839 From Texas Tides
- Junius William Mottley killed in the battle
- 2010 San Jacinto Day Ceremony