Battle of Sarakhs (1459)

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Battle of Sarakhs
Part of the Timurid Civil Wars
Locator map Iran Razavi Khorasan Province.png
Khurasan Province in Iran where the battle took place
Date March, 1459
Location Sarakhs, Khurasan, Iran
Result Decisive Timurids of Samarkand Victory
Belligerents
Mughal Empire Timurids of Khurasan
Mughal Empire Timurids of Merv
Mughal Empire Timurids of Samarkand
Commanders and leaders
Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonqor
Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah
Sultan Sanjar Mirza  (POW)  
Abu Sa'id Mirza
Amir Ali Farsi
Amir Syed Asil

Battle of Sarakhs took place in March of 1459, at a location between Merv and Sarakhs.[1]

It was fought between the Timurids of Samarkand under Abu Sa'id Mirza and the confederacy of his rivals to Central Asian throne, the Timurids of Khurasan and Marv, namely; Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonqor, his son Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah and Sultan Sanjar Mirza.[2]

Background[edit]

Recognizing the weakness of Timurid authority in Herat, Jahan Shah of Kara Koyunlu invaded & took the city on June 28, 1458, which was then occupied by Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah's father Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonqor.[3] But Abu Sa'id Mirza could not tolerate this occupation. After Jahan Shah had taken Herat he was in a tough position and unable to keep it due to pressures from within his kingdom of Kara Koyunlu plus the increasing threat from Uzun Hasan of Aq Qoyunlu. He was obliged to negotiate the borders of his state with Abu Sa'id Mirza and after negotiations Jahan Shah decided to return territorial demarcation to Shahrukh Mirza's times.[4] Thus, Khurasan, Mazandaran and Jurjan were returned to the Timurids and Abu Sa'id Mirza returned and took Herat a second time on December 22, 1458.[5]

While leaving the territory, however, the Turkmens ravaged Khurasan and when Abu Sa'id Mirza arrived to take Herat the people were frightened.[6] So in order to ease their fears, he sent back the major portion of his army towards Bukhara.[7] His rival claimants to the Kingdom of Samarkand, namely, Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonqor, his son Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah and Sultan Sanjar Mirza seeing his position weakened decided to form an alliance and take this opportunity to destroy him once and for all.[8] They planned to meet at Sarakhs and from there move forward to attack Herat.[citation needed]

When Abu Sa'id Mirza received intelligence of this advance, he set out to meet this threat head on despite being numerically outnumbered and sent for reinforcements.[9]

Battle[edit]

The battle of Sarakhs was fought when the vanguard of Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonqor, Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah and Sultan Sanjar Mirza appeared between Marv and Sarakhs.[10] Battle lines were drawn and a pitched battle ensued. Reinforcements arrived for Abu Sa'id Mirza at the right time under Amir Ali Farsi and Amir Syed Asil with the help of whom he defeated his enemies.[11] Amir Ali Farsi and Amir Syed Asil were sent in pursuit of Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonqor and Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah, who had fled to Mazniyan whereas Sultan Sanjar Mirza was captured and was executed.[12]

Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah died in 1460 and Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonqor died in 1461, ending all opposition to a sole Timurid ruler in Transoxiana.[13]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ C. Bathurst, J. F. and C. Rivington, A. Hamilton, T. Payne, T. Longman, S. Crowder, B. Law, T. Becket, J. Robson, F. Newbery, G. Robinson, T. Cadell, J. and T. Bowles, S. Bladon, J. Murray, and W. Fox (1781). The modern part of An universal history, from the earliest accounts to the present time, Volume 5. Oxford University. p. 89. Retrieved 2013-02-02. 
  2. ^ C. Bathurst, J. F. and C. Rivington, A. Hamilton, T. Payne, T. Longman, S. Crowder, B. Law, T. Becket, J. Robson, F. Newbery, G. Robinson, T. Cadell, J. and T. Bowles, S. Bladon, J. Murray, and W. Fox (1781). The modern part of An universal history, from the earliest accounts to the present time, Volume 5. Oxford University. p. 89. Retrieved 2013-02-02. 
  3. ^ Maria Subtelny (2007). Timurids in Transition: Turko-Persian Politics and Acculturation in Medieval Iran, Volume 7. BRILL. p. 411. ISBN 9789004160316. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 
  4. ^ Maria Subtelny (2007). Timurids in Transition: Turko-Persian Politics and Acculturation in Medieval Iran, Volume 7. BRILL. p. 411. ISBN 9789004160316. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 
  5. ^ Maria Subtelny (2007). Timurids in Transition: Turko-Persian Politics and Acculturation in Medieval Iran, Volume 7. BRILL. p. 411. ISBN 9789004160316. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 
  6. ^ C. Bathurst, J. F. and C. Rivington, A. Hamilton, T. Payne, T. Longman, S. Crowder, B. Law, T. Becket, J. Robson, F. Newbery, G. Robinson, T. Cadell, J. and T. Bowles, S. Bladon, J. Murray, and W. Fox (1781). The modern part of An universal history, from the earliest accounts to the present time, Volume 5. Oxford University. p. 89. Retrieved 2013-02-02. 
  7. ^ C. Bathurst, J. F. and C. Rivington, A. Hamilton, T. Payne, T. Longman, S. Crowder, B. Law, T. Becket, J. Robson, F. Newbery, G. Robinson, T. Cadell, J. and T. Bowles, S. Bladon, J. Murray, and W. Fox (1781). The modern part of An universal history, from the earliest accounts to the present time, Volume 5. Oxford University. p. 89. Retrieved 2013-02-02. 
  8. ^ C. Bathurst, J. F. and C. Rivington, A. Hamilton, T. Payne, T. Longman, S. Crowder, B. Law, T. Becket, J. Robson, F. Newbery, G. Robinson, T. Cadell, J. and T. Bowles, S. Bladon, J. Murray, and W. Fox (1781). The modern part of An universal history, from the earliest accounts to the present time, Volume 5. Oxford University. p. 89. Retrieved 2013-02-02. 
  9. ^ C. Bathurst, J. F. and C. Rivington, A. Hamilton, T. Payne, T. Longman, S. Crowder, B. Law, T. Becket, J. Robson, F. Newbery, G. Robinson, T. Cadell, J. and T. Bowles, S. Bladon, J. Murray, and W. Fox (1781). The modern part of An universal history, from the earliest accounts to the present time, Volume 5. Oxford University. p. 89. Retrieved 2013-02-02. 
  10. ^ C. Bathurst, J. F. and C. Rivington, A. Hamilton, T. Payne, T. Longman, S. Crowder, B. Law, T. Becket, J. Robson, F. Newbery, G. Robinson, T. Cadell, J. and T. Bowles, S. Bladon, J. Murray, and W. Fox (1781). The modern part of An universal history, from the earliest accounts to the present time, Volume 5. Oxford University. p. 89. Retrieved 2013-02-02. 
  11. ^ C. Bathurst, J. F. and C. Rivington, A. Hamilton, T. Payne, T. Longman, S. Crowder, B. Law, T. Becket, J. Robson, F. Newbery, G. Robinson, T. Cadell, J. and T. Bowles, S. Bladon, J. Murray, and W. Fox (1781). The modern part of An universal history, from the earliest accounts to the present time, Volume 5. Oxford University. p. 89. Retrieved 2013-02-02. 
  12. ^ C. Bathurst, J. F. and C. Rivington, A. Hamilton, T. Payne, T. Longman, S. Crowder, B. Law, T. Becket, J. Robson, F. Newbery, G. Robinson, T. Cadell, J. and T. Bowles, S. Bladon, J. Murray, and W. Fox (1781). The modern part of An universal history, from the earliest accounts to the present time, Volume 5. Oxford University. p. 89. Retrieved 2013-02-02. 
  13. ^ C. Bathurst, J. F. and C. Rivington, A. Hamilton, T. Payne, T. Longman, S. Crowder, B. Law, T. Becket, J. Robson, F. Newbery, G. Robinson, T. Cadell, J. and T. Bowles, S. Bladon, J. Murray, and W. Fox (1781). The modern part of An universal history, from the earliest accounts to the present time, Volume 5. Oxford University. p. 89. Retrieved 2013-02-02.