Battle of Sebastopolis

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Battle of Sebastopolis
Part of the Arab–Byzantine Wars
Date 692
Location Sebastopolis (Pontus), Turkey
Result Umayyad victory
Belligerents
Umayyad Flag.svg Umayyad Dynasty Simple Labarum2.svg Byzantine Empire
Commanders and leaders
Muhammad ibn Marwan Leontios,
Neboulos

The Battle of Sebastopolis was fought at Sebastopolis (mostly identified with Sebaste in Cilicia, but also with modern Sulusaray) in 692 between the Byzantine Empire and Umayyads under the caliphate of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. The Battle ended the peace that had existed between the two powers since 680.

The Umayyad army was led by Muhammad ibn Marwan, brother of the Caliph, and included the minister of defense, the famously known Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf. The Byzantines were led by Leontios and included a "special army" of 30,000 Slavs under their leader Neboulos. The Umayyads, incensed at the breaking of the treaty, used copies of its texts in the place of a flag.[1] Though the battle seemed to be tilting to the Byzantine advantage, the defection of upwards of 20,000 Slavs ensured a Byzantine defeat.[2][3][4] One source states that the Emperor Justinian II massacred the remaining Slavs, including women and children, at the Gulf of Nicomedia,[3] yet modern scholars do not consider this a reliable account.[4]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Brooks, E.W., "The Successors of Heraclius to 717" in The Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 2(Cambridge University Press, 1957), 407.
  2. ^ Ostrogorsky, George, History of the Byzantine state,(Rutgers University Press, 1969), 131.
  3. ^ a b Hendy, Michael F., Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy C. 300-1450, (Cambridge University Press, 2008), 631.
  4. ^ a b Haldon, John F., Byzantium in the seventh century, (Cambridge University Press, 1997), 72.

Sources[edit]

  • Hendy, Michael F. (2008). Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy C. 300-1450. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Lilie, Ralph-Johannes (1976), Die byzantinische Reaktion auf die Ausbreitung der Araber. Studien zur Strukturwandlung des byzantinischen Staates im 7. und 8. Jhd. (in German), Munich: Institut für Byzantinistik und Neugriechische Philologie der Universität München 
  • Stratos, A.N. (1980), Byzantium in the Seventh Century, Volume V: Justinian II, Leontius and Tiberius, 685–711, Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert, pp. 34–38, ISBN 90-256-0852-3