Battle of Nauplia (1822)

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Battle of Nauplia
Part of the Greek War of Independence
Andrea Miaoulis by Peter von Hess.jpg
Admiral Andreas Vokos Miaoulis
Date 8–13/20–25 September 1822
Location Gulf of Nauplia
Result Greek victory
Belligerents
Greece Greek revolutionaries  Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Andreas Vokos Miaoulis Mohammed Ali
Casualties and losses
two ships lost two ships lost

The Battle of Nauplia was a series of naval engagements lasting from 8 to 13 September (O.S.) 1822 in the Gulf of Nauplia (Argolic Gulf) between the Greek Fleet and the Ottoman Fleet during the Greek War of Independence.[1] Although neither side sustained significant losses (according to general descriptions, it consisted in distant and ineffectual cannonade between the two fleets[2]), the Ottomans withdrew after three failed attempts to break through the Greek fleet, and the battle is considered a Greek victory.[1] The Ottoman fleet of ninety-four vessels under the command of Mohammed Ali was sent to destroy Greek forces at Hydra and Spetses and to relieve the besieged Ottoman garrison at Nauplia (Nafplio).[1]

The Greek fleet was commanded by Admiral Andreas Vokos Miaoulis.[1] Miaoulis based his strategy on that of an ancient Greek admiral Themistocles in the Battle of Salamis, hoping to lure the superior Ottoman fleet into a narrow strait in order to deprive it of its freedom of manoeuvre.[1] He divided his forces (sixteen fireships and fifty-six vessels) into three squadrons, one of which was to lure the Ottomans into the straits, another to engage them if they fell into the trap, and the final one was to defend the Greek coast between Spetses and the Peloponnesus in case the Ottomans would want to land ground troops.[1] The first engagement took place on 8 September. Calm winds prevented the Greeks from carrying out their planned withdrawal, and two fireships were lost during a six-hour engagement; however the Ottomans withdrew to regroup rather than continue to attack.[1] On 10 September the Ottomans attempted another breakthrough, but once again retreated before the Greek trap was sprung.[1] Finally a third attack took place in 13 September, but this time the Greek fireship under Konstantinos Kanaris sank an Ottoman brig; this single loss broke the Ottoman spirits, and they chose to retreat, losing a corvette before they broke the engagement.[1] According to Greek historian Anastasios Orlandos, however, the retreat of the Ottoman fleet occurred thanks to the conduct of Kosmas Barbatsis (1792–1887) who directed his fireship against the Ottoman flagship, which fled to avoid it, followed by the other Ottoman ships.[3]

After the battle, the Ottoman vice admiral was beheaded for his loss.[1] The battle is considered a major victory for Miaoulis, who is said to have received "a hero's welcome" upon his return.[1] Soon afterwards, the siege of Nauplia ended as the Ottoman garrison at Nauplia capitulated.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Varfis, Konstantinos (January 1997). "Andreas Miaoulis, From Pirate to Admiral (1769 – 1835)". In Sweetman, Jack. The Great Admirals: Command at Sea, 1587–1945. Naval Institute Press. pp. 216–240, 225–227. ISBN 978-0-87021-229-1. Retrieved 27 June 2013. 
  2. ^ R. C. Anderson (1 October 2005). Naval Wars In The Levant, 1559-1853. Martino Publishing. pp. 488–489. ISBN 978-1-57898-538-8. 
  3. ^ A Orlandos, Ναυτικά, ήτοι Ιστορία των κατά τον υπέρ ανεξαρτησίας της Ελλάδος αγώνα πεπραγμένων υπό των τριών ναυτικών νήσων, ιδίως δε των Σπετσών, t. 1 p 310

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