Battle of Thessalonica (2nd 1040)
|Battle of Thessalonica|
|Part of the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars|
The Byzantine counterattack after the failed siege
|Bulgarian Empire||Byzantine Empire|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Alusian of Bulgaria||Unknown|
|Casualties and losses|
The battle of Thessalonica (Bulgarian: Битка при Солун, Greek: Μάχη της Θεσσαλονίκης) took place in the fall of 1040 near the city of Thessalonica in contemporary Greece between the Bulgarians and the Byzantines. The battle ended with a Byzantine victory.
Origins of the conflict
The news for the successes of the uprising of Peter Delyan which broke out in the beginning of 1040 in Belgrade soon reached Armenia where many Bulgarian nobles were resettled after the fall of the First Bulgarian Empire in 1018. The most influential from these was Alusian, the second son of the last Bulgarian Emperor Ivan Vladislav (1015–1018). Dressed as a mercenary soldier he went to Constantinople from where he managed to get to Bulgaria despite the strict control.
His arrival would mean more tensions in the rebel camp because Alusian could also claim the throne and he kept his origin in secret until he found supporters. Peter II Delyan welcomed his cousin although he knew that Alusian might be a potential candidate for his crown. Peter II gave Alusian 40,000 army to attack Thessalonica, the second largest city in the Byzantine Empire.
Alusian proved to be an incapable general: when he reached the city he attacked the Byzantine army with his tired troops. The Bulgarians could not fight effectively and were defeated. They suffered heavy casualties - 15,000 perished in the battle. Alusian fled from the battlefield leaving his army behind.
The catastrophe at Thessalonica worsened the relations between Peter Delyan and Alusian. The later was ashamed from the defeat and Delyan suspected a treason. Alusian decided to act first and after a feast in the beginning of 1041 he blinded the Emperor. After that Alusian tried to continue the rebellion, but defeated once more, he decided to change sides and abandoned his army again, an act that was richly rewarded in Constantinople.
Although blind, Peter II Delyan faced the Byzantines with the rest of the Bulgarian army but was defeated in the battle of Ostrovo later that year and the uprising was crushed.
- Йордан Андреев, Милчо Лалков, Българските ханове и царе, Велико Търново, 1996.