Battle of Zsibó

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Battle of Zsibó/Jibou
Part of the Rákóczi's War of Independence
Date November 15, 1705
Location Zsibó, Transylvania
(today: Jibou, Romania)
Result Decisive Austrian-Danish-Serbian victory
Belligerents
Civil Ensign of Hungary.svg Kurucs (Kingdom of Hungary)
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg Kingdom of France
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Habsburg Empire
Flag of Denmark.svg Kingdom of Denmark
Flag of Serbia 1281.svg Vojvodian Serbs
Commanders and leaders
Civil Ensign of Hungary.svg Francis II Rákóczi
Civil Ensign of Hungary.svg Sándor Károlyi general
Civil Ensign of Hungary.svg Simon Forgách general
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg Pierre Puchot des Alleurs marquis
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Ludwig Herbeville marshal
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Friedrich von Löwenburg general
Flag of Denmark.svg Andreas Harboe general
Flag of Denmark.svg Frederik Gersdorff general
Flag of Serbia 1281.svg The Serbian vojvoda of Tukulja (Tököl)
Strength
15,000, 34 cannons 16,500
Casualties and losses
400 deaths and 25 cannons 450 deaths

Battle of Zsibó (Hungarian: Zsibói csata, German: Schlacht bei Siben, Romanian: Bătălia de la Jibou) was fought on November 15, 1705 between the Kuruc (Hungarian) army (supported by French contingents) and forces of the Habsburg Empire, Kingdom of Denmark and Vojvodian Serbs in Zsibó, Principality of Transylvania (today: Jibou, Romania). The Austrian marshal Ludwig Herbeville marched against Transylvania. Although the Kuruc-French army was equal in size to the combined Austrian, Danish and Serbian forces, Francis II Rákóczi went on the defense due to the inferior training of his troops. The Danes and Austrians launched a powerful attack on the French and Kuruc infantry. Although the Kuruc infantry held its ground, the Kuruc cavalry could not launch an attack due to a lack of leadership and an overly muddy battlefield. The Austrian cavalry was thus capable of flanking the Hungarians on the left, forcing the Hungarians to retreat and crushing their cavalry in the process. After the battle, the combined Austrian-Danish army bought Transylvania.

Preparations[edit]

The Kuruc forces in campaigns of 1704 liberated much of Hungary from Austrian rule, in so doing establishing numerical parity with the Austrians. However, due to better training, a stronger officer corps and deeper logistical capabilities, the Austrians still won the decisive Battle of Nagyszombat, going on to take back the important fortresses of (Buda, Pressburg and Esztergom). The Austrians subsequently called on aid from Croatian, Serbian and Danish armies.

As a means of counterbalancing Austrian power, Louis XIV of France attempted to support the Kuruc rebels, sending troops and material support. However, following the French defeat at the battle of Höchstädt, Louis was forced to reduce his material contributions to Rákóczi and the Kurucs.

In July 8, 1704 the Transylvanian noble Rákóczi was elected Transylvanian prince and inducted in April 4, 1705. Designed to declared the confederation of Hungary and Transylvania, however problems have occurred in the National Assembly of Szécsény about the army and the legal status of the serfdom. Meanwhile routed the new Habsburg army under Vienna.

In June 27 arrived the Danish military detachment in Vienna (4500 infantry and 1600 cavalry) under Andreas Harboe. The Danish soldiers fought against the French army in the battle of Höchstädt. The Danish-Austrian vanguard under col. Dietrich Glöckelsperg intrude in the Great Rye Island. Baron Herbeville his army mobilized in the island and in July 29 tried to march in Komárno, but because the Kuruc attacks was withdraw in August 3. Meanwhile Miklós Bercsényi and Antal Esterházy invaded Moravia. In August 25 Herbeville he crossed the Transdanubia. In September teak a rest in Buda. The army of János Bottyán (6000 men) tried to disturb the Austrian army.

The Kuruc commanders will have committed serious errors: only in October responded to the attack of Herbeville. Rákóczi reinforced fortifications built near Zsibó, but near Nagyvárad (today: Oradea, Romania) wanted to fight a battle. Later was decided that the battle will be near Zsibó. Herbeville in October 31 chased the Kuruc army from Nagyvárad, which was besieged for two years. This has a serious defeat for the Kuruc army.

Opposing forces[edit]

Rákóczi's army was well equipped with food and the soldiers were relaxed. However many Kuruc soldiers were weakly trained. The French auxiliary troops of Des Alleurs marqius, Rákóczi's court regiments (Hungarian, Rusyn and German soldiers) and the German mercenaries of Simon Forgách was trained and disciplined soldiers. In the infantry and cavalry served many Romanian soldiers, in addition there was a miscellaneous Hungarian-Romanian-Serbian mounted regiment. The total number of the Kuruch-French army is 15,000 men and 34 cannons. Kuruc army was located in the trenches near Zsibó, but the trenches are not completely prepared.

Herbeville's army was starving, as Bottyán used against the Austrians the scorched-earth tactics and in the Great Rye Island the crops have been harvested, therefore the Austrians did not find too much food. Nevertheless the fighting morale of the army remained. All military units was trained, equipped and disciplined, except for the irregular Serbian cavalry. Under Andreas Harboe and general Frederik Gersdorff fought the Danes (grenadiers, infantrys and cavalrys). The vojvoda of Tököl commanded the Serbian light cavalry. The number of the Austrian-Danish-Serbian army was 16,500 men.

Literature[edit]

  • Magyarország története 1526–1686, Főszerk.: Pach Zsigmond; szerk.: R. Várkonyi Ágnes, Akadémia Kiadó, Budapest 1985. ISBN 963-05-4098-3

External links[edit]