Battle of the Kodori Valley

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2008 Kodori crisis
Part of the Georgian-Abkhazian conflict
Abkhazia Kodori Valley.PNG
Map of Abkhazia showing the location of the Kodori Valley
Date August 9–12, 2008
Location Abkhazia, Western Georgia
Result Joint Abkhaz-Russian Victory
Belligerents
Abkhazia Abkhazia
Russia Russia
Georgia (country) Georgia
Commanders and leaders
Abkhazia Sergei Bagapsh
Abkhazia Mirab Kishmaria
Abkhazia Anatoly Zaitsev
Russia Vladimir Shamanov
Georgia (country) Mikheil Saakashvili
Georgia (country) Davit Kezerashvili
Strength
Abkhazia 1,000 soldiers[1] Georgia (country) 2,500 regulars[2]
Casualties and losses
Abkhazia 1 killed[3] Georgia (country) 2 killed[4]

The Battle of Kodori Valley was a military operation during the Russo-Georgian War in the Upper Kodori Valley, the only part of Abkhazia under Georgian control. On 9 August 2008 the Abkhaz military launched an operation to remove the remaining Georgian troops from the disputed gorge. After three days, Georgian military left the valley.

Abkhaz and Russian army mobilization[edit]

Russia sent naval vessels to blockade Georgia's Black Sea coast.[5] According to the Russian navy, a group of ships from Russia's Black Sea Fleet, including the flagship Moskva missile cruiser, arrived on 10 August near the Georgian border. The source in the Russian Navy's headquarters claimed that "the purpose of the Black Sea Fleet vessels' presence in this region is to provide aid to refugees." A spokesman of the president of Abkhazia earlier said that "the local administration and peacekeepers had asked Russia to reinforce its naval presence near the Abkhazian coast after Georgian warships attempted to approach the coastline."[6]

On 10 August the Georgian government said that 6,000 Russian troops had rolled into South Ossetia from the neighbouring Russian province of North Ossetia and 4,000 more landed in Abkhazia.[5] Alexander Novitsky, an aide to the commander of Russian peacekeepers in Abkhazia, said on 11 August that Russia had boosted its forces in Abkhazia and had more than 9,000 paratroopers and 350 armoured vehicles there.[7][8]

Ultimatum to Georgia[edit]

On the morning of 9 August 2008, the Abkhaz de facto deputy defense minister requested that United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia withdraw its observers from the Upper Kodori Valley. UNOMIG then withdrew all 15 observers from the Upper Kodori Valley. The Abkhaz de facto authorities announced a decision taken by President Bagapsh to expel the Georgian armed forces from the Upper Kodori Valley. On the afternoon UNOMIG reported aerial bombardments of Georgian villages in the Upper Kodori Valley.[9] On 10 August, the president of Abkhazia, Sergei Bagapsh, gave a press conference where he announced that their operation in the Upper Kodori Valley was proceeding according to plan. He gave both Georgian civilians and armed personnel an ultimatum to leave the Upper Kodori Valley. He also said that the Government of Abkhazia had requested Russia to take measures to strengthen the Abkhaz maritime border.[9] Bagapsh said that his decision to start a military operation against the Upper Kodori Valley was approved by the Parliament.[10]

Fighting[edit]

On 9 August 2008, Russian-supported separatists in Abkhazia launched air and artillery strikes to drive Georgian troops from the Kodori Gorge, the only part of the region controlled by Georgia.[11][12] A "second front" against Georgia was opened.[13] The Itar-Tass news agency quoted the foreign minister of Abkhazia Sergei Shamba as saying that the armed forces of Abkhazia had begun an operation to force Georgian troops out of the upper part of the Kodori gorge. In a separate report by Interfax news agency, Sergei Bagapsh said that its "aviation is currently conducting an operation in the upper part of the Kodori gorge of Abkhazia controlled by Georgia."[14] Shamba also said, "Today was only the initial part of the operation by heavy artillery supported by aviation."[13] Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili was quoted by the Itar-Tass agency as saying that Georgia had defeated all attacks on the upper part of the Kodori gorge.[15] On 10 August Abkhaz warplanes and artillery continued to pound Georgian positions for a second day in a row. Bagapsh said Abkhazia was acting "independently".[16] The separatist authorities of Abkhazia announced a full military mobilisation.[17] The president of Abkhazia said, that "around 1,000 special Abkhaz troops" were involved in operations against Georgian forces. They were attacking the Georgians using "warplanes, multiple rocket launchers and artillery". "The operation will enter the next phase as planned. And you will learn about that", he said, adding that he would create a "humanitarian corridor", allowing residents to flee.[1] On 11 August, the Abkhaz defense minister Mirab Kishmaria told the Russian news agency Interfax that Abkhaz forces would kill Georgian troops if they did not leave Kodori Gorge.[18]

Abkhaz authorities announced a military offensive against Georgian troops in the Kodori Gorge area on 12 August.[17] Russian forces supported the Abkhaz operation.[19] "The operation to liberate Kodori Gorge has started," Abkhazia's foreign minister Sergei Shamba said. "Our troops are making advances. We are hoping for success." Shamba claimed that Russian troops were not involved in the operation.[20][21]

Georgian military left the gorge on 12 August.[22][23] Georgia's Deputy Interior Minister Eka Zhguladze said Georgian troops had withdrawn from the Kodori Gorge as a "goodwill gesture."[24] Abkhaz Deputy Defense Minister Major General Anatoly Zaitsev claimed that "only local forces — not Russian ones" were involved in the military operation. But an AP reporter in the area saw 135 Russian military vehicles driving to the Kodori Gorge. Georgian officials said their troops in the Kodori gorge were being attacked by Russians.[22] On 13 August president Sergei Bagapsh flew into the gorge by helicopter to declare that the last piece of Georgian-held land in Abkhazia was back under the control of the separatist authorities. The only inhabitants found were two old women and four monks. Abkhaz soldiers said that they had discovered a "mountain of weapons", from American M-16 rifles to artillery units and mortars, as well as herds of abandoned cattle.[3]

Casualties and damage[edit]

One Abkhaz soldier was killed mistakenly by his own men.[3] Two Georgian soldiers were also killed.[4]

Before the war the around 2,000 people lived in the upper Kodori Gorge, that fled during the Georgian retreat. The Abkhaz authorities said they advised the return of the refugees,[25] but by late March 2009 only 130 people were reported to live in the upper Kodori Valley.[26]

According to visitors to Azhara, military posts had been damaged and shops looted, but houses were almost unharmed.[27]

Operations outside Abkhazia[edit]

The Russian ultimatum issued on 11 August by the commander of Russian peacekeeping forces in Abkhazia, Major General Sergei Chaban, called for Georgian troops to disarm in the Zugdidi District along the boundary with Abkhazia.[18] Russia stated the ultimatum expired at 06:00 GMT. Sergei Chaban said that Russian troops were ready for an operation to disarm Georgian troops in the area.[28]

On 11 August, Russian paratroopers deployed in Abkhazia occupied the city of Zugdidi and carried out raids against military bases deep in western Georgia.[19] That day, Russian forces, meeting virtually no resistance, entered the town of Senaki and seized the military base.[2] Georgian Deputy Defense Minister Batu Kutelia said that about 30 armored personnel carriers and more than 20 trucks with Russian soldiers entered Senaki and took control of the military base.[29] Russian Defense Ministry announced that "operations" were carried out in Senaki. "Operations aimed to prevent new attack of Georgian artillery against peacekeepers of Russia and South Ossetia," the report said. The source insisted that they aimed to prevent mobilization of reservists.[30] Shota Utiashvili, spokesman for Interior Ministry of Georgia said that Russian peacekeepers and Abkhaz separatists had entered Khurcha village of Zugdidi District. Abkhaz separatists declined the information.[30]

An aide to the commander of Russian forces Alexander Novitsky said, that during a reconnaissance mission the Russian Air Force destroyed two Georgian helicopters at the Senaki airbase. The helicopters were purportedly identified as a MI-8 and a MI-24, belonging to the Georgian Air Force.[31] Russians destroyed the base in Senaki,[32] and seized rich trophies.[19]

Russian troops also drove through the port of Poti, and took up positions around it on 12 August.[33]

On 16 August, the Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairssaid that the Russian army units and the separatists moved the border of Abkhazia in direction to the Inguri river. The troops occupied 13 villages in Georgia, set up temporary administration there and put the Inguri hydropower plant under the separatist control.[34]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Luke Harding (11 August 2008). "Abkhazia: Moscow sends troops into second enclave". 
  2. ^ a b Schwirtz, Michael; Barnard, Anne; Kramer, Andrew E. (11 August 2008). "Russian Forces Capture Military Base in Georgia". The New York Times. 
  3. ^ a b c "Abkhaz Open 'Second Front'". Institute for War & Peace Reporting. 15 August 2008. Archived from the original on 14 August 2008. [dead link]
  4. ^ a b "Abchasen räumen Minen und suchen versprengte georgische Truppen im Kodori-Tal" (in German). RIA Novosti. 14 August 2008. 
  5. ^ a b "Russia expands Georgia blitz, deploys ships". Associated Press. 10 August 2008. 
  6. ^ "Russian Navy ships approach Georgia's sea border". RIA Novosti. 10 August 2008. 
  7. ^ "Russia boosts forces in Abkhazia to 9,000-Ifax". 11 August 2008. Archived from the original on 11 August 2008. [dead link]
  8. ^ "Georgia claims Russia wants to overthrow government". The Independent. 11 August 2008. 
  9. ^ a b "Senior UN Official Briefs Security Council on Abkhaz Military Build-Up". Civil.Ge. 10 August 2008. 
  10. ^ Обращение Президента Республики Абхазии к согражданам (in Russian). 10 August 2008. Archived from the original on 17 August 2008. [dead link]
  11. ^ "Russian troops raid Georgian town; scores dead". AP. Archived from the original on 13 August 2008. [dead link]
  12. ^ "Abkhazian Forces Push out Georgian Troops". 9 August 2008. 
  13. ^ a b "Abkhaz separatists strike disputed Georgia gorge". Reuters. 9 August 2008. 
  14. ^ "Abkhazia launches operation to force Georgian troops out". Xinhua. 9 August 2008. 
  15. ^ "President: Georgia defeats Abkhazia's attacks on Kodori gorge". Xinhua. 9 August 2008. 
  16. ^ "Georgia Pulls Out of Ossetia as Second Front Opens (Update1)". 10 August 2008. 
  17. ^ a b "Europe | Day-by-day: Georgia-Russia crisis". BBC News. 21 August 2008. 
  18. ^ a b Michael Schwirtz; Anne Barnard; Andrew E. Kramer (11 August 2008). "Moscow issues ultimatum as fighting in Georgia spreads". The New York Times. 
  19. ^ a b c Barabanov, Mikhail. "The August War between Russia and Georgia". Moscow Defense Brief (Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies) 3 (13). 
  20. ^ "Russia halts operations in Georgia as Sarkozy meets Medvedev". Hurriyet. 12 August 2008. 
  21. ^ "French mediators hope to stop Caucasus war". Reuters. 12 August 2008. 
  22. ^ a b "Abkhazia says Georgian troops pushed from province". International Herald Tribune. 12 August 2008. Archived from the original on 13 August 2008. [dead link]
  23. ^ "Georgian troops leave Abkhazia, Russians in Gori". Associated Press. 13 August 2008. Archived from the original on 14 August 2008. [dead link]
  24. ^ "Georgia Pulls Out of Abkhazia as France Seeks Russia Cease-Fire". Bloomberg. 12 August 2008. 
  25. ^ Irma Choladze; Natia Kuprashvili (22 January 2009). "Kodori Gorge Refugees in Limbo". Institute for War and Peace Reporting. 
  26. ^ "Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to Security Council resolutions 1808 (2008), 1839 (2008) and 1866 (2009)". United Nations Security Council. 18 May 2009. p. 7. 
  27. ^ Kuprashvili, Natia (7 August 2009). "Kodori Refugees Only Dream of Returning". Georgia War Anniversary (Institute for War and Peace Reporting). Archived from the original on 4 September 2009. 
  28. ^ "Russia demands Georgian troops near Abkhazia disarm". Reuters. 11 August 2008. 
  29. ^ "Russian Troops Launch Ground Offensive in Georgia (Update3)". Bloomberg. 11 August 2008. 
  30. ^ a b "Russian troops capture Georgia’s Senaki City and enters Zugdidi Town - UPDATED". 11 August 2008. Archived from the original on 11 July 2009. [dead link]
  31. ^ Российские военные уничтожили два грузинских вертолета - миротворцы (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 11 August 2008. Archived from the original on 12 August 2008. 
  32. ^ "Russian troops advance in Georgia". BBC News. 12 August 2008. 
  33. ^ Kramer, Andrew E.; Barry, Ellen (12 August 2008). "Russia, in Accord With Georgians, Sets Withdrawal". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. 
  34. ^ "Georgia says Abkhazia separatists seize villages". 16 August 2008. Archived from the original on 17 August 2008. [dead link]