Battlefield Earth (novel)
|Author||L. Ron Hubbard|
|Publisher||St. Martin's Press|
|Media type||Print (Hardcover, Paperback)|
In the year AD 3000, Earth has been ruled by an alien race, the Psychlos, for a millennium. The Psychlos were inadevertantly led to Earth by one of NASA's deep space satellites. Upon their arrival, the Psychlos gassed the entire planet with a single gas drone, killing about 98% of the populace. The remaining humans fought back when the Psychlos launched a ground invasion, but the resistance lasted less than a day. After one thousand years, humanity has been reduced to a few scattered tribes in isolated parts of the world while the Psychlos strip the planet of its mineral wealth.
Jonnie Goodboy Tyler, a young warrior member of one such tribe, lives in the shadow of the Rocky Mountains. Depressed over the death and disease affecting his tribe, due to radiation from nuclear bombs detonated when the Psychlos invaded, he leaves his village to explore the lowlands and to disprove the superstitions long held by his people involving ancient gods and monsters. However, he is captured in the ruins of Denver by Terl, the Psychlo chief of security.
The Psychlos, hairy 9-foot (2.7 m) tall, 1,000-pound sociopaths, originate from a planet with an atmosphere very different from that of Earth. Their home world is in fact located in a different/parallel universe, and follows slightly different physical laws, with a slightly different table of elements. As a result, some interactions between the two worlds are problematic. Their "breathe-gas" explodes on contact with even trace amounts of radioactive metals, such as uranium. The Psychlos have been the dominant species across multiple universes for well over 100,000 years, invading, conquering, and then strip-mining inhabited planets at will. Although there are several other intelligent species throughout the universes, none of them have been able to stand up to the Psychlos advanced technological and military might. It is surmized in the latter chapters that the Psychlos started their existence as simple, normally non-violent, miners, but were subjugated by a ruling class to become what they now were.
Terl, a Psychlo, had been assigned to Earth, and he eventually learns that his term has been extended, due to a sexual liason with the daughter of a high ranking official, with no word of relief. Fearful at the thought of spending several more years on Earth, he decides to con his way off the planet and return home a wealthy Psychlo. Terl has discovered a lode of gold up in the Rocky Mountains that he wants to get his hands on "off the company books". However, it is surrounded by uranium deposits that make Psychlo mining impossible. Terl captures Jonnie while searching for "man-animals" that he can hopefully train to mine the gold for him.
After a time, Terl captures Jonnie's childhood friend Chrissie and her little sister, to use as leverage against Jonnie, and threatens to kill them unless Jonnie helps him. Jonnie agrees, and is afterwards free to move around the mining area. Shortly thereafter, Terl and Jonnie travel to Scotland and recruit 83 Scottish youth, old women, a doctor, and a historian to help with the mining. Jonnie, however, has different plans. Because Terl does not understand English, Jonnie is able to convince the Scots to help him overthrow the Psychlo rule on Earth.
During the next months, Jonnie and the Scots try to mine the gold, as well as develop a means of defeating not only the Psychlos on Earth, but also nullifying the threat of counterattack from Psychlo (the Psychlos' home planet), via their teleporters. During the semi-annual teleportation of personnel, goods, and coffins (all dead Psychlos are shipped home for burial) back to Psychlo, Jonnie and the Scots manage to pack several of the coffins with "dirty nukes" and "planet busters" in hopes of destroying the Psychlos' home planet. Terl is on the teleporting pad for the second telepad firing back to Psychlo, thinking he is following his "off the books" gold that was stashed in the coffins. After the last teleportation firing, the humans use the Psychlos' own weapons against them and regain control of Earth.
This is, however, not the end of the story. Unsure as to whether the bombs sent even reached Psychlo and under the imminent threat of counterattack, Jonnie must now defend his newly-retaken planet against the predatory interests of several other interstellar races, including a race of intergalactic bankers seeking to repossess the Earth in lieu of unpaid debts, as well as a longtime rival seeking to wrest control of Earth from him. In order to ensure the security and independence of humanity, he does something that no other race in 300,000 years has been able to do: uncover the secret of Psychlo mathematics and teleportation, a difficult task compounded by the destruction of planet Psychlo.
Initially titled "Man, the Endangered Species", Battlefield Earth was first published in 1982 by St. Martin's Press, though all subsequent reprintings have been by Church of Scientology publishing companies Bridge Publications and Galaxy Press. Written in the style of the pulp fiction era (during which Hubbard began his writing career), the novel is a massive work (over 750 pages in hardcover, 1000+ in paperback). It was Hubbard's first openly science fiction novel since his pulp magazine days of the 1940s, and it was promoted as Hubbard's "return" to science fiction after a long hiatus.
The cover artwork of the original hardcover edition featured an image of hero Jonnie Goodboy Tyler which did not coincide with the physical description given in the novel. The subsequent paperback release corrected the cover art, most notably by giving Tyler a beard.
The book was reissued in 2000 with a new cover, in connection with the release of the film adaptation. Copies of the 2000 version are hard to find and are considered rare collectables. The book has also been released in audiobook and e-book versions.
The book had a mixed reception from literary critics and fans. The Economist, for instance, called Battlefield Earth "an unsubtle saga, atrociously written, windy and out of control" while in the science fiction magazine Analog, Thomas Easton criticized it as "a wish-fulfillment fantasy wholly populated by the most one-dimensional of cardboard characters." Other critics pointed to the book's slipshod writing, such as "the ineffably klutzy destruction of the planet of the evil Psychlos by atomic bombs, which turns it into a 'radioactive sun.'" Punch sarcastically commended Hubbard's "excellent understanding of evil impulses, particularly deviousness, which helps with the plot, and [he] is well-enough aware of his weaknesses not to dwell upon frailties like love, generosity, compassion." David Langford, after criticizing the plot, style and scientific implausibilities, concluded "From this, Battlefield may sound almost worth looking at for its sheer laughable badness. No. It's dreadful and tedious beyond endurance".
A few critics praised the novel, however. The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction described the book as a "rather good, fast-paced, often fascinating SF adventure yarn." In a 2007 Fox News interview, former US presidential candidate and former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney pointed to the book as his favorite novel. The fantasy author Neil Gaiman wrote, "For value for money I have to recommend L. Ron Hubbard's massive Battlefield Earth - over 1000 pages of thrills, spills, vicious aliens, noble humans. Is mankind an endangered species? Will handsome and heroic Jonny Goodboy Tyler win Earth back from the nine-foot-high Psychlos? A tribute to the days of Pulp, I found it un-put-downable. And all for £2.95". Frederik Pohl said, "I read 'Battlefield Earth' straight through in one sitting although it's immense... I was fascinated by it." Kevin J. Anderson says, "Battlefield Earth is like a 12-hour 'Indiana Jones' marathon. Non-stop and fast-paced. Every chapter has a big bang-up adventure." Publishers Weekly said about the novel, "This has everything: suspense, pathos, politics, war, humor, diplomacy and intergalactic finance..." Science fiction author A. E. van Vogt stated, "Wonderful adventure ... great characters ... a masterpiece", but later admitted that he had not actually read it due to its size.
The Church of Scientology's role
Battlefield Earth went to the top of the New York Times Best Seller list and also those of the Los Angeles Times, TIME, United Press International, Associated Press, B. Dalton's and Waldenbooks. According to Hubbard's literary agents, Author Services Inc., by June 1983 the book had sold 150,000 copies and earned $1.5 million.
Not long afterwards, stories emerged of a reported Church of Scientology book-buying campaign mounted to ensure that the book would appear on the bestseller lists. According to newspaper reports, Church representatives promised the publishers that a particular number of copies would be bought by Church subsidiaries (the author and journalist Russell Miller cites a figure of 50,000 hardback copies).
Local Churches of Scientology and individual Scientologists were reportedly also urged to buy copies of the book. Various bookstore chains (including Waldenbooks) have cited examples of Scientologists repeatedly coming into stores and buying armfuls of the book at a time. Several bookstores reported that shipments of the book arrived with the store's own price tags already affixed to them, even before they were unpacked from the shipping boxes, suggesting that copies were being recycled. According to Miller, Scientologists throughout the United States were instructed to go out and buy at least two or three copies each. Gerry Armstrong, who worked in the Church's archives at the time, states that "One of the wealthy Scientologists, by the name of Ellie Bolger, apparently paid a huge amount of money to the organization, which they then disbursed to staff members to go down to B. Dalton or whatever and buy the book." The New York Times reported that "two Scientology organizations bought a total of 30,000 copies of Battlefield Earth at discount directly from the publisher, apparently to sell or to give to current or prospective Scientology members." Booksellers told the newspaper that they had seen unusual purchasing patterns, including individuals buying as many as 800 copies of the book at a time. It was suggested that "church members could be trying to buy themselves a bestseller in order to obtain a large paperback or movie sale, both of which are often contingent on a book's first becoming a bestseller in hard cover." Two months after the reports emerged, Author Services Inc. announced that it had sold the film rights for Battlefield Earth to a Los Angeles production company, though it took another 16 years for the film to be made.
Former Scientologist Bent Corydon has described how pressure was put on the managers of Scientology "missions" - effectively franchises - to promote and purchase Battlefield Earth. At a conference held in San Francisco on October 17, 1982, Scientologist "mission holders" were told by Wendall Reynolds, the Church's International Finance Dictator, to do their bit to make the book a success:
And if you look at it Battlefield Earth has been released on the same pattern as the early 1950s, when LRH [L. Ron Hubbard] was a popular writer, with DMSMH [Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health] released right on the heels of it and that put it right on the best-seller list!
And right now Battlefield Earth is selling out and selling out and selling out again. So we got a tremendous popularity thing going and you guys are getting a gift at 5 percent of CGI [Corrected Gross Income]. It's a total gift.
According to Corydon, "we were ordered to sell 1,000 copies of Hubbard's recently released science-fiction book Battlefield Earth "before Thursday or I would be kicked out as mission holder." The idea behind the publicity drive was said to be that it "would, in turn, get the Dianetics book selling"; Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health did in fact experience a marked increase in sales subsequently, re-entering the New York Times Best Seller list four times in 1986. Battlefield Earth, for its part, sold over 125,000 copies in its first print run and by March 1985 had sold 800,000 paperback copies.
Hubbard's role as the founder of Scientology has led to a long-running controversy about whether Battlefield Earth contains Scientology themes, and about the role that the Church of Scientology has played in publishing and promoting the book.
Hubbard himself denied that the book was a vehicle for Scientology. He described his motives for writing as being that "it keeps my hand in, amuses people and whiles away the otherwise idle hour. It's better than playing video games!" He addresses the question directly in the book's introduction, where he says: "Some of my readers may wonder that I did not include my own serious subjects in this book. It was with no thought of dismissal of them. It was just that I put on my professional writer's hat. I also did not want to give anybody the idea I was doing a press relations job for my other serious works."
After Hubbard's book, Dianetics: the Modern Science of Mental Health was published in 1950, the American Psychological Association passed a resolution stating that the book's claims were not supported by empirical evidence. Subsequently, Hubbard maintained an opposition to psychiatry, a viewpoint the novel reflects by portraying the Psychlos as being ruled by the Catrists (a word similar to psychiatrist), described as a group of evil charlatans. Those among the Psychlos who do not share the views of the Catrists or oppose them are subjected to various forms of persecution; particularly, the Catrists use surgical mind control in order to maintain their power base. Hubbard frequently claimed in Scientology that psychiatrists used such tactics to maintain their influence and funding. Early in its history, the Psychlo species had no fixed name, instead being named after the Emperor of the day. The word "Psychlo" is revealed to have originally meant "brain" in the alien language, signifying that the Catrists feel (or in any case claim) that the entire population requires treatment as mental patients.
One supporting character, a Psychlo mathematician named Soth, is described as having been shaped by the views of his mother. She was a member of a resistance group, referred to as a "church," which held religious meetings secretly. This "church," much like Church of Scientology, opposes psychiatry.
In one passage of the book, a human doctor recalls a "cult" called psychology which existed before the Psychlo invasion, but is "forgotten now."
In December 1980, two months after he completed the book, Hubbard told fellow Scientologists that "I was a bit disgusted with the way the psychologists and brain surgeons mess people up so I wrote a fiction story based in part on the consequences that could occur if the shrinks continued to do it."
Ever since the book was released, Scientologist and science-fiction fan John Travolta aimed to bring Hubbard's book to the big screen in a series of two movies with himself playing Jonnie Goodboy Tyler, as well as producing. A film was planned to be released in 1983, but due to rising costs and trouble in finding a studio, the project was cancelled. It was finally produced by Franchise Pictures in 2000 as Battlefield Earth. Directed by Roger Christian, it starred Travolta (who felt he was too old to play the hero) as Terl, Barry Pepper as Jonnie Goodboy Tyler, and Forest Whitaker as Ker.
The film opened to nearly universal negative reviews and was a huge box office bomb. Due to word of mouth and Internet buzz, it quickly disappeared from theatre chains. Almost all aspects of the film were criticized: hammy acting by Travolta, the film's overuse of Dutch angles, corny dialogue, and several plot inconsistencies. The film ultimately ended up with nine Razzie Awards, more than any other movie except Adam Sandler's Jack and Jill. Franchise Pictures was later sued and went bankrupt after it emerged that the company had fraudulently overstated the film's budget. There were plans to make a sequel, since the movie covered only the first half of the book. Intended for a 2002 release, plans for a sequel were shelved due to the poor reception Battlefield Earth received, as well as the collapse of Franchise Pictures.
- Campbell, Duncan (2000-05-31). "Cult classic". Guardian Unlimited (London: Guardian Newspapers Limited). Archived from the original on 5 August 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-29. "... Battlefield Earth has opened to spectacularly bad notices, many of which have suggested that the film is the worst of the year, the decade, the millennium or whatever exotic time-frame the alien Psychlos recognise ..."
- Farache, Emily (2000-10-18). "Travolta Sets Sights on "Battlefield Earth 2"". E! Online. Archived from the original on 5 September 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-29.
- Parish, James Robert (2007). Fiasco: A History of Hollywood's Iconic Flops. Wiley. p. 275. ISBN 0-470-09829-5.
- Maul, Kimberly (2005-11-09). "Guinness World Records: L. Ron Hubbard Is the Most Translated Author". The Book Standard. Archived from the original on 2007-07-04. Retrieved 2007-02-12. "Battlefield Earth, his 1980 science fiction novel, has sold 29,000 units since 2001"
- "L. Ron Hubbard's science fiction - Relic of the golden age". The Economist. 4 July 1984.
- Easton, Thomas (February 1983). The Reference Library. Analog. "[..] we might as well switch to mainlining tetraethyl lead. It would be more fun, and the mind-rot would be no worse."
- Disch, Thomas M. (2005). On SF. University of Michigan Press. p. 115.
- Punch. 4 April 1984.
- Langford, David. "Brain Death". White Dwarf (54).
- also in Langford, David (2002). The Complete Critical Assembly. Cosmos Books. pp. 356–57. ISBN 1-58715-330-0.
- The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, March 1983 (vol. 64; pp. 32-37)
- Rutenberg, Jim (2007-04-30). "Romney Favors Hubbard Novel". The Caucus (New York Times). Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- Gaiman, Neil (August 1985). "Battlefield Earth by L. Ron Hubbard". Image magazine (29).
- posted on www.bn.com, http://search.barnesandnoble.com/booksearch/isbnInquiry.asp?z=y&EAN=9781592120079&itm=1
- Kevin J Anderson
- "Critical Acclaim". Galaxy Press. Archived from the original on 17 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-12.
- Miller, Russell (1987). "22. Missing, Presumed Dead". Bare-faced Messiah, The True Story of L. Ron Hubbard (First American Edition ed.). New York: Henry Holt & Co. p. 368. ISBN 0-8050-0654-0.
- ASI press release, June 14, 1983
- McIntyre, Mike (1990-04-15). "Hubbard Hot-Author Status Called Illusion". San Diego Union. p. 1. Retrieved 2006-07-29.
- Sappell, Joel; Welkos, Robert W. (1990-06-28). "Costly Strategy Continues to Turn Out Bestsellers". Los Angeles Times. p. A1:1. Retrieved 2006-07-29. Additional convenience link at .
- Russell Miller, Bare-Faced Messiah, p.367. (Michael Joseph, 1987)
- Quoted in Bent Corydon, L. Ron Hubbard: Messiah or Madman?, p. 228 (Lyle Stuart, 1987)
- McDowell, Edwin (1983-08-06). "Hubbard may be centre of a blitz". New York Times. p. E17.
- Author Services Inc. (1984-04-18). "Press Release". Business Wire.
- Quoted in Bent Corydon, L. Ron Hubbard: Messiah or Madman?, p. 209 (Lyle Stuart, 1987)
- Bent Corydon, L. Ron Hubbard: Messiah or Madman?, p. 228 (Lyle Stuart, 1987)
- Stewart Lamont, Religion Inc., p. 156 (Harrap, 1986)
- L. Ron Hubbard, "Ron's Journal 36 - Your New Year", LRH ED 347 Int of 31 December 1982
- L. Ron Hubbard, introduction to Battlefield Earth
- The theory that "Battlefield Earth" references Scientology is just a theory, of course. Glenn, Joshua (2007-05-13). "Pulp Affection". Boston Globe Ideas. p. E2. Author followup blog post at .
- Tobin, Thomas C. (1999-05-12). "Battlefield of dreams". St Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2007-10-16.
- Battlefield Earth title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
- Official book website (Galaxy Press)
- The Writing of Battlefield Earth (lronhubbard.org)
- Brand, Madeleine (May 3, 2007). "Romney Reveals Favorite Novel: 'Battlefield Earth': Mitt Romney's favorite novel is by controversial Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard". Day to Day (National Public Radio). (Audio of radio broadcast on NPR.)