Bauhaus (band)

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For other uses, see Bauhaus (disambiguation).
Bauhaus
Bauhaus August 2006 UK.jpg
Bauhaus performing live in August 2006.
Background information
Origin Northampton, England
Genres Post-punk, gothic rock
Years active 1978–1983, 1998, 2005–2008
Labels Small Wonder, 4AD, Beggars Banquet
Associated acts Love and Rockets, Tones on Tail, The Bubblemen
Past members

Bauhaus were an English post-punk band, formed in Northampton, England in 1978. The group consisted of Peter Murphy (vocals, occasional instruments), Daniel Ash (guitar), Kevin Haskins (drums) and David J (bass). The band was originally named "Bauhaus 1919"; they dropped the numerical portion within a year of formation. With their dark and gloomy sound and image, Bauhaus are generally considered the first gothic rock group.

Bauhaus broke up in 1983. Peter Murphy began a solo career while Ash and Haskins continued as Tones on Tail and, later, reunited with David J to form Love and Rockets. Both enjoyed greater commercial success in the United States than Bauhaus had, but disappeared from the charts in their homeland. The band reunited for a 1998 tour and again from 2005–2008.

History[edit]

Daniel Ash, his friend David J. Haskins and Haskins' younger brother Kevin had played together in various bands since childhood. One of the longer-lived of these was a band called The Craze, which performed a few times around Northampton in 1978. However, The Craze still split up fairly quickly, and Ash once again tried to convince his old school friend Peter Murphy to join him, simply because Ash thought he had the right look for a band.[1] Murphy, who was working in a printing factory, decided to give it a try, despite never having written any lyrics or music. During their first rehearsal, he co-wrote the song "In the Flat Field".[2]

Ash's old bandmate Kevin Haskins joined as the drummer. Ash made a point of not inviting David J, the driving force in their previous bands, because he wanted a band he could control.[3] After only a few weeks though, Ash reconsidered and invited David J to replace original bassist Chris Barber. David J. had already agreed to tour American airbases with another band, but decided that joining his friends' group was "the right thing to do". With their line-up complete, the unnamed band played their first gig at the Cromwell pub in Wellingborough on New Year's Eve 1978.[4]

The band chose the name Bauhaus 1919, a reference to the German Bauhaus art movement of the 1920s, because of its "stylistic implications and associations", according to David J.[5] The band also chose to use the same typeface used on the Bauhaus college building in Dessau, Germany. Bauhaus associate Graham Bentley said that the group was unlike any Northampton band of the time, most of which played predominantly cover songs.[6] Bentley videotaped a performance by the group, which was sent to several record labels in the hope of obtaining a contract. This approach was hindered partly because many record companies at the time did not have home video equipment or Bentley had to provide it himself, so the group decided to record a demo.[7]

"Bela Lugosi's Dead" and 4AD[edit]

Together for only six weeks, Bauhaus entered the studio for the first time at Beck Studios in Wellingborough to record a demo.[8] The band recorded five songs; one of the tracks from the session, "Bela Lugosi's Dead", running more than nine minutes, was released as the group's debut single in August 1979 on Small Wonder Records as Bauhaus (the 1919 abandoned).[9][10] The single received a positive review in Sounds and stayed on the British independent charts for two years. The song received crucial airplay on BBC Radio 1 and DJ John Peel's evening show, and Bauhaus was subsequently asked to record a session for Peel's show, which was broadcast on 3 January 1980.[11]

The band released three more singles, "Dark Entries", "Terror Couple Kill Colonel" and "Telegram Sam" – originally written by glam rock pioneers T. Rex – before the debut of their first album, In the Flat Field, in 1980 on 4AD. NME described it as "Gothick-Romantick pseudo-decadence".[12] Despite negative reviews, In the Flat Field topped the indie charts and made headway onto the British pop charts, peaking for one week at number 72.[13]

Beggars Banquet and breakup[edit]

Bauhaus' growing success outstripped 4AD's resources, so the band moved to 4AD's parent label Beggars Banquet Records.[14] Bauhaus released "Kick in the Eye" as its debut release on the label. The single reached number 59 on the charts.[15] The following single, "The Passion of Lovers", peaked at number 56.[16] Bauhaus released its second album, Mask, in October 1981. The band employed more keyboards and a variety of other instruments to add to the diversity of the record. In an unconventional move, the group shot a video for the album's title track as a promotional tool for the band as a whole and not any specific song from the record.[17]

Bauhaus followed with the single "Spirit", produced by Hugh Jones and intended to break into the Top 30. However, "Spirit" only reached number 42. The band was displeased with the single and re-recorded it for their third album The Sky's Gone Out in 1982.[18] In the same year, Bauhaus scored their biggest hit with a cover of David Bowie's "Ziggy Stardust", which was recorded during a BBC session. The song reached number 15 on the British charts and earned the band an appearance on the television show Top of the Pops.[19] Thanks to the success of the single, the album also became the band's biggest hit, peaking at number 4.[20] That same year, Bauhaus made an appearance in the horror film The Hunger, where they performed "Bela Lugosi's Dead" during the opening credits. The final cut of the scene focused on Murphy; this, coupled with the singer's modelling work in a popular ad campaign for Maxell, caused resentment among the rest of the group.[21]

Prior to the recording of their fourth album, Burning from the Inside (1983), Peter Murphy was stricken with pneumonia, which prevented him from contributing much to the album. Daniel Ash and David J took the reins and became the driving forces behind the record, and even performed lead vocals on a few tracks.[22] The album's lead single, "She's in Parties", reached number 26 on the charts and earned Bauhaus their third and final Top of the Pops appearance.[23] Bauhaus then embarked on an international promotional tour for the album, with dates in Europe and the Far East.[24] David J recalled that the night before they were supposed to perform two shows at Hammersmith Palais in London the group decided to disband.

The band played their farewell show on 5 July 1983 at the Hammersmith Palais; dedicated fans had been warned by the band's crew not to miss the show without telling them it was the last. After a long encore consisting of some of their early songs, David J left the stage with the words "rest in peace".[24] Burning from the Inside was released a week later. The album received largely positive reviews and reached number 13 on the charts.[25] Bauhaus released the single "Sanity Assassin" in limited quantities as a farewell gift for those who joined the group's fanclub.[26]

Post-breakup[edit]

After Bauhaus disbanded, the members of the band did various solo work. Peter Murphy worked briefly with bassist Mick Karn of Japan in the band Dalis Car before going solo with such albums as 1988's Love Hysteria and 1989's Deep. Daniel Ash had already started Tones on Tail with Bauhaus roadie Glen Campling as a side-project in 1981; after Bauhaus broke up, Kevin Haskins joined the group, and the group released an album and several EPs before breaking up following a 1984 American tour.[27] During this time, David J released two solo albums and collaborated with other musicians, recording two albums with The Jazz Butcher, and also with comics writer/spoken-word artist Alan Moore in the short-lived band The Sinister Ducks.

During a discussion about the state of their projects at the time, Ash and David J began talking about reforming Bauhaus. All four band members arranged a rehearsal, but Murphy failed to show up the day it was scheduled. The other three band members rehearsed regardless, and were inspired by the chemistry they had as a trio. As a result, Ash and the Haskins brothers formed Love and Rockets in 1985.[28] Love and Rockets scored a US hit four years later with "So Alive". The band broke up after seven albums in 1999. Both Daniel Ash and David J released solo albums during the Love and Rockets years; Peter Murphy contributed backing vocals to David J's 1992 single "Candy on the Cross".

Reunions[edit]

Bauhaus reunited for the "Resurrection Tour" in 1998, which featured a new song, "The Dog's a Vapour", which was also included in the Heavy Metal 2000 film soundtrack. A live album was recorded during the tour, Gotham, which was released the following year and included a studio recording of Dead Can Dance-cover "Severance".

Daniel Ash in 2006

Bauhaus reunited again in 2005, playing that year's Coachella Festival, Indio, CA, USA—opening their set, Peter Murphy was lowered upside-down, to the stage, singing "Bela Lugosi's Dead". Following Peter Murphy's 2005 tour, Bauhaus embarked on a full tour beginning in North America and Mexico, in autumn 2005, and ending in Europe in February 2006. The band also mentioned that they hoped to record new music following the tour. In May, the band was the opening slot of Nine Inch Nails on the summer leg of their US tour.[29]

In 2008, Bauhaus released their first new studio album since 1983, Go Away White, it marked the band's end and the album had no promotional tour. In late-2007, drummer Kevin Haskins said: "We were getting along really well, but there was an incident that occurred". As a result, "some of us just felt that we didn't want to carry on as a working unit."[30] In early-2008, Peter Murphy claimed that he "was most satisfied with the bonding on an emotional level. It was good to be working together and to put the past behind us and it was very positive. The result was coming out really fast, so it was exciting and it was very enjoyable", but in the end "that rocky character worked and I think it was a bit right to finish it, really."[31] In Spring 2008, bassist David J commented on the breakup: "You have a test tube, and you pour in one chemical, and you pour in another chemical, and something happens. It starts to bubble. Pour in another chemical, and it starts to bubble a bit more. You pour in a fourth chemical, and it bubbles really violently, and then explodes. That's my answer."[32]

On 31 October 2013 (Halloween), David J with Jill Tracy released "Bela Lugosi's Dead (Undead is Forever)", a cinematic rework of "Bela Lugosi's Dead".

Musical style[edit]

Vocalist Peter Murphy.
Brixton Academy in London, England, February 3, 2006

Bauhaus' influences included: punk rock (e.g. Devo, The Stooges and Sex Pistols), glam rock (e.g. David Bowie, Gary Glitter and T. Rex), art rock/experimental music (e.g. Brian Eno, Pere Ubu, Roxy Music, Suicide and The Velvet Underground), Krautrock (e.g. Kraftwerk, Can and Neu!), funk (e.g. James Brown, Bobby Byrd, Sly and the Family Stone) and dub reggae (e.g. Lee Scratch Perry, Errol Thompson, and King Tubby). During their 2006 tour reunion, Bauhaus covered Joy Division's "Transmission", one of their contemporary influences.[33]

Bauhaus combined these influences to create a gloomy, earnest and introspective version of post-punk[34] which appealed to many music fans who were left disillusioned in the wake of punk's collapse.[35] Its crucial elements included Peter Murphy's deep and sonorous voice, Daniel Ash's jagged guitar playing, and David J's dub-influenced bass. Their sound and gloomy style would eventually come to be known as gothic rock.[36]

Legacy[edit]

Although the band was short-lived, their music was influential upon many bands and artists that followed, across many post-punk and gothic rock related genres. In Courtney Love: The Real Story (p122), Courtney Love refers to Kurt Cobain as a "closet deathrocker... You can't even play his fuckin' Bauhaus records now, they're so scratched up". They have had an impact on goth and deathrock groups including: Christian Death,[37] Type O Negative[38] and Glenn Danzig.[39] The Mission's Wayne Hussey sang with Peter Murphy on stage in 2013.[40]

Bauhaus has inspired many industrial rock groups like Marilyn Manson,[41] Nine Inch Nails,[42] Nitzer Ebb[43] and Skinny Puppy.[44] The band music has inspired the Dead Kennedys' album, Plastic Surgery Disasters.[45] The band has been cited by electronic act Carl Craig.[46] The band has also been hailed by several alternative/indie rock groups and musicians, including, Chimera,[47][48] Jane's Addiction,[49] Soundgarden,[50] A Neon Rome,[51] AFI,[52] Hole,[53] Kristeen Young,[54] Interpol,[55] My Chemical Romance,[56] She Wants Revenge,[57] Elliott Smith,[58] The Dresden Dolls,[59] The Flaming Lips[60] and The Horrors.[61] Billy Corgan of Smashing Pumpkins sang T. Rex's "Telegram Sam" live on stage with Bauhaus in 1998.[62]

The group have been namechecked by several other front-men and musicians, including: Jello Biafra (of Dead Kennedys),[63] Steve Albini (of Big Black),[64] Ian Curtis (of Joy Division),[65] Al Jourgensen of Ministry,[66] Fred Durst (of Limp Bizkit),[67] Jonathan Davis (of Korn),[68] Duff McKagan (of Guns N' Roses),[69] Stuart Braithwaite (of Mogwai),[70] Stephen Malkmus (of Pavement)[71] and Jarvis Cocker (of Pulp).[72]

Their song, "All We Ever Wanted Was Everything", was covered by artists and bands, including: John Frusciante (former guitarist of Red Hot Chili Peppers),[73] MGMT [74] and Xiu Xiu. Xiu Xiu recorded it in 2006 for their Tu Mi Piaci EP. Their signature song, "Bela Lugosi's Dead", was covered by several acts, including: Massive Attack,[75] Trent Reznor,[76] and Chris Cornell (former singer of Soundgarden).[77]

Their fan base extends beyond music: comic book writer Alan Moore wrote on the sleeve notes of Mask, and contributed to an anonymous review on them called "Phantoms of the Teenage Opera" for Sounds.[78][79][80]

Popular culture[edit]

Bauhaus's influence on popular culture is visible. In the Beavis and Butt-head 's season 3 (1993), episode "Meet God, Part II", they are viewing and commenting on a music video for Bauhaus' Bowie-cover "Ziggy Stardust".[81][82] At the end of the Daria 's season 2 (1998), episode 'Write Where It Hurts', a snippet of a Bauhaus song, "Fish Cakes" (from the song 1. David Jay 2. Peter Murphy 3. Kevin Haskins 4. Daniel Ash) is played throughout the closing credits.[81][83] In the episode Raisins in South Park, Henrietta Biggle (one of the "Goth kids") had a bedroom poster of "Blauhaus", a parody version of the band.[citation needed] In James O'Barr's comic book, The Crow, the main character, Eric, was heavily based on Peter Murphy when O'Barr saw the band in Berlin, Germany.[84][85] In Neil Gaiman's series The Sandman, Dream's face and appearance is based on Bauhaus frontman Peter Murphy.[86][87] In fact, Gaiman explained that Murphy was the original model for Morpheus.[88] Gaiman also stated that Sandman artist, Dave McKean, based Dream's face in the cover of Sandman #1 on Murphy.[89][90]

Former members[edit]

Classic lineup
  • Peter Murphy – vocals, occasional guitar, other instruments (1978–1983, 1998, 2005–2008)
  • Daniel Ash – guitar, 12-string acoustic guitar, saxophone, vocals (1978–1983, 1998, 2005–2008)
  • Kevin Haskins – drums, congas, piano, backing vocals (1978–1983, 1998, 2005–2008)
  • David J (David John Haskins) – bass, acoustic bass guitar, piano, harpsichord, claves, vocals (1978–1983, 1998, 2005–2008)
Earlier member
  • Chris Barber – bass (1978)

Discography[edit]

Main article: Bauhaus discography
Studio albums

References[edit]

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  45. ^ Ray Flores (July 1, 2000). "Jello Biafra". Juice Magazine. p. 52. "Interviewer: "Who else influenced you?" Jello Biafra: "...When I wrote Plastic Surgery Disasters, the main stuff I was listening to was Bauhaus, Les Baxture and The Groundhogs."" 
  46. ^ Simon Reynolds (2012). Energy Flash: A Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture. Soft Skull Press. ISBN 9781593764777. "Born in 1969 and brought up in Detroit's middle-class West Side, Craig took Detroit's Europhile tendencies even further than his mentor Derrick May. As a sensitive teenager, he was into bands like The Cure, Bauhaus and The Smiths." 
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  60. ^ Mark Richardson, ed. (2010). Flaming Lips' Zaireeka. Continuum. pp. 35–36. ISBN 9780826429018. "Their first EP from 1984, self-released and pressed in a run of 1,000 vinyl copies, was influenced by darker UK rock on the goth end of the spectrum, bands like Bauhaus and Echo and the Bunnymen." 
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  63. ^ Al Jourgensen (2013). Ministry: The Lost Gospels According to Al Jourgensen. Da Capo Press. ISBN 9780306822193. "Jello Biafra: "He knew I liked Joy Division and Bauhaus and the kind of postpunk that had teeth and went in many different directions at once."" 
  64. ^ Luis and Barbara Rice (24 October 1984). "To be Young, Gifted and Big Black". Truly Needy 10. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
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  66. ^ Al Jourgensen (2013). Ministry: The Lost Gospels According to Al Jourgensen. Da Capo Press. p. 40. ISBN 9780306822186. "Ministry: The Lost Gospels According to Al Jourgensen" 
  67. ^ Andy Greene (18 June 2009). "Fred Durst: Limp Bizkit Was Used as "Fuel to Torture Other People"". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 4 August 2013. "According to Durst, he endured childhood ridicule over his taste in music. "I loved the Cure and Bauhaus and the Smiths," he says." 
  68. ^ Leah Furman (2000). Korn: Life in the Pit. Macmillan. p. 17. ISBN 9781466809291. "Still, in those days, it wasn't easy being Jonathan Davis. ...“I was into Bauhaus, Ministry, Depeche Mode..."" 
  69. ^ Duff McKagan (2011). It's So Easy: And Other Lies. Simon and Schuster. p. 66. ISBN 9781451606638. 
  70. ^ Stuart Braithwaite (8 December 2008). "Playlist: Mogwai's Stuart Braithwaite". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  71. ^ Rob Jovanovic (2004). Perfect Sound Forever: The Story of Pavement. Justin, Charles & Co. p. 41. ISBN 9781932112078. 
  72. ^ "Sorted For Trees". Ministry. December 2001. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  73. ^ John Frusciante - All we ever wanted was everything ( Bauhaus cover) Live at La Scène Paris 2001. youtube. 2001. Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  74. ^ Hear MGMT's Trippy Bauhaus Cover. 15 September 2011. Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  75. ^ Solarski, Matthew (September 29, 2013). "Live Review: Massive Attack V Adam Curtis at New York’s Park Avenue". Consequenceofsound.net. Retrieved 25 April 2014. "They played a wide range of covers that tied in to varying degrees with the agitprop documentary taking place onscreen. Some, like The Jesus and Mary Chain’s “Just Like Honey” and Bauhaus’ “Bela Lugosi’s Dead”, seemed chosen more for mood." 
  76. ^ "Peter Murphy & Trent Reznor - Bela Lugosi's Dead (Live)". Youtube. Retrieved 13 May 2014. 
  77. ^ "Chris Cornell - 17) Bela Lugosi's dead (Argentina 2007)". Youtube. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  78. ^ Lance Parkin (2011). Alan Moore. Oldcastle Books. ISBN 9781842434604. "...Mask by Bauhaus in the issue dated 26 February 1981 (Moore also wrote the sleeve notes for that album, as Brilburn Logue)...Moore wrote the programme for Bauhaus: Burning the Inside Tour (1983)." 
  79. ^ George Khoury (2003). The Extraordinary Works of Alan Moore. TwoMorrows. ISBN 9781605490090. ""Phantoms of the Teenage Opera" half-page article on the group Bauhaus. uncredited but unmlstakeably by Moore, later confirmed on the letters page of the November 29. 1980 issue (p.62): in the course of replying to a reader's letter the editor remarks,..." 
  80. ^ "Bauhaus: Phantoms of the Teenage Opera". Sounds (16 February 1980). 
  81. ^ a b "Filmography by Genre for Bauhaus - Animation". IMDB. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
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  84. ^ Evans Smith, Nathan Brown (2008). "22: Comparative Mythology in Pop Culture". The Complete Idiot's Guide to World Mythology. Penguin. p. 287. ISBN 9781436268103. "The physical appearance of Eric Draven was based heavily on the face of Peter Murphy of the band Bauhaus, who O'Barr also saw while in Germany, and the body of rock icon Iggy Pop." 
  85. ^ Mark Voger (2006). "As the Crow Flies". The Dark Age. TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 51. ISBN 9781893905535. "Q: How did the Crow character of Eric come to you? O'Barr: Basically, I was just playing around with the makeup on the face. I was in England. On the side of a building was painted the three faces of the English theater, which were Pain, Irony and Despair. The smiling face was Irony. So that's basically where the makeup came from. Physically, Eric is kind of a mixture of Iggy Pop and Peter Murphy." 
  86. ^ Dave McKean, Neil Gaiman (1997). The collected Sandman covers, 1989-1997. Watson-Guptill. p. 1. ISBN 9780823046324. "The Sandman image was inspired hy Peter Murphy, the ex-Bauhaus singer and Maxell tape model, because when artist Mike Dringenberg saw the original sketches for the character he said "He looks like Peter Murphy from Bauhaus."" 
  87. ^ Joseph McCabe, ed. (2004). Hanging out with the dream king: conversations with Neil Gaiman and his collaborators. Sophia Quach (photographer). Fantagraphics. p. 92. ISBN 9781560976172. "['Sandman' artist Kelly Jones talks about the inspiration behind Dream's appearance] I know Neil always said [the Sandman] was based on Robert Smith of the Cure, but I just hated the Cure. I didn't want to hear that. I was really into Peter Murphy at that time, the guy from Bauhaus. I didn't like Bauhaus, but I liked him on his own, and he had a song called “Cut You Up" or something; it was on the radio at the time. I bought the CD, and I said, 'You know, with that big poufy hair, he looks like that guy.' At that time, Murphy was very gestural. I don't think the guy ever had a picture taken of him that wasn't angled and in deep lighting. So I took that, too. I said, 'Whenever I do him, I'm gonna do that kind of thing. And get into his face, don't just keep him in deep shadow all the time. He will be in deep shadow all the time, but I want to put across a guy who's clueless. Not stupid, but he's not understanding things.' Because he's an immortal guy who..." 
  88. ^ Neil Gaiman (16 February 2013). "The official Neil Gaiman Tumblr". Tumblr. Retrieved 10 July 2013. "The original idea-model for Morpheus was Peter Murphy from Bauhaus." 
  89. ^ Neil Gaiman. "Neil Gaiman - FAQ - Comics". Retrieved 22 September 2012. "If I remember correctly Dave based the face on the cover of Sandman #1 on an image of Peter Murphy." 
  90. ^ Gavin Baddeley, Paul A. Woods (2006). Paul A. Woods, ed. Goth chic: a connoisseur's guide to dark culture (2 ed.). Plexus. p. 1941. ISBN 9780859653824. "Sandman inker Mike Dringenberg observed, '"Hey, [he] looks like Peter Murphy from Bauhaus.'" Cover artist Dave McKean and Gaiman 'got some Bauhaus videos and immediately saw that Mike was right; and Dave ended up making the central image on the cover of Sandman [number one] a Peter Murphy-like face." 
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