Bauru

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This article is about the city. For the sandwich, see Bauru (sandwich).
Bauru, São Paulo
Bauru Skyline
Bauru Skyline
Flag of Bauru, São Paulo
Flag
Official seal of Bauru, São Paulo
Seal
Nickname(s): Unlimited City
Location in the São Paulo state.
Location in the São Paulo state.
Coordinates: 22°18′53″S 49°03′38″W / 22.31472°S 49.06056°W / -22.31472; -49.06056
Country Brazil
State São Paulo
Founded 1896
Government
 • Mayor Rodrigo Agostinho
Area
 • Total 667.68 km2 (257.79 sq mi)
Elevation 537 m (1,762 ft)
Population (2012)
 • Total 348,146
 • Density 515.3/km2 (1,335/sq mi)
Demonym Bauruense
Time zone Horário Oficial de Brasília (UTC-3)
 • Summer (DST) Horário Oficial de Verão (UTC-2)
Postal code 17040
Area code(s) (+55) 14
Website http://www.bauru.sp.gov.br

Coordinates: 22°18′53″S 49°03′38″W / 22.31472°S 49.06056°W / -22.31472; -49.06056 Bauru (Portuguese pronunciation: [bɐʊ̯ˈɾu]) is a Brazilian municipality in midwestern region of the state of São Paulo. It is also the capital of the micro-region of Bauru. The population in 2010 is 344 039, the area of the municipality is 675.2 km² and the population density is 464.56/km². Established in 1896, its boundaries are Reginópolis to the north, Arealva to the northeast, Pederneiras to the east, Agudos and Piratininga to the south and Avaí to the west.

The presence of a strong service sector, many college campuses - including the University of São Paulo and Universidade Estadual Paulista - and the city's location at the junction of three railroads and three highways make Bauru a major urban center of the State of São Paulo.

It is the hometown of Marcos César Pontes, the first Brazilian in space. It is also the town where Pelé grew up and learned his football (soccer) skills.

The city is served by two airports: the older Bauru Airport, and the newer Bauru-Arealva Airport, officially known as Moussa Nakhl Tobias Airport, located in the adjoining municipality of Arealva.

Origin of the name[edit]

There are various theories intended to explain the origin of the name Bauru. One was proposed by Ismael Marinho Falcão, an engineer who lived for many years with the Kaingang tribe, which used to inhabit the region. According to him, the region was called ubaurú because of the abundance of an herbaceous plant called ubá, used for hampers and wicker baskets, and urú, a ground bird related to the chicken.

Others think that the name comes from mbai-yuru, meaning 'waterfall' or 'river in strong declivity'; or ybá or uru, 'basket of fruits' in Old Tupi;[1] or even bauruz, as the natives who inhabited the edges of the Batalha River were called.[2]

History[edit]

Historically, the region occupied by Bauru was a disputed territory between two Indigenous groups: the Kaingang and the Guaraní. In the eighteenth century, ethnic Brazilian pioneers attempted to settle in São Paulo region, which was a crossing point of the monções (river expeditions) that went through Mato Grosso and Goiás, but they were prevented by local natives' attacks. The non-Indians only managed to settle in the region in the nineteenth century with the coming of the population coming from São Paulo's coast as well the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro.[3] After 1850, in search of new land for occupation and colonization, pioneers from São Paulo and Minas Gerais began to explore the vast region between the Serra de Botucatu, Tietê River, Paranapanema River and Paraná River, until then inhabited by Kaingang indigenous groups.

In 1856, Felicissimo Antonio Pereira, coming from Minas Gerais, purchased land and settled, near the current center of Bauru, the Fazenda das Flores (Farm of Flowers). Years later, in 1884, this farm (also called Campos Novos de Bauru) have spun off part of its area for the training camp of the São Sebastião de Bauru. The district has progressed, even being subject to attacks of native Kaingang and relatively isolated from the rest of the state and became district of Agudos on 1888. The arrival of migrants from eastern São Paulo and Minas Gerais led to the emancipation of the city on August 1, 1896.

The new municipality at first lived from the cultivation of coffee, despite having weaker and infertile lands that the rest of the state. In 1905, Bauru was chosen as the starting point of the Estrada de Ferro Noroeste do Brasil, which linked by rail, Bauru to Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, near the border with Bolivia.[4] During the first half of the twentieth century, Bauru becomes the main economic hub of the region comprised by west São Paulo, northern Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul.

Sister cities[edit]

  • Japan Tenri, Japan, since 1970.
  • Romania Coa Romania Town Nagyszeben.svg Sibiu, Romania, since 1995.

External links[edit]

  • (Portuguese) UOL.com.br, History of Bauru - Origin of Bauru.
  • (Portuguese) SP.gov.br, Official Website - Prefeitura Municipal de Bauru
  • Embrapa.br, Aerial view of the city

References[edit]

  1. ^ University of São Paulo, Old Tupi Vocabulary (in Portuguese)
  2. ^ Busch, Marcela UNESP Exposição "Bauruz" apresenta estilo de vida indígena, Retrieved 14 December 2011
  3. ^ http://www.camarabauru.sp.gov.br/Municipio/Page.aspx?tipo=historico
  4. ^ Setti, João Bosco (2008). Ferrovias no Brasil- um século e meio de evolução Brazilian railroads 150 years of evolution. Sociedade de Pesquisa para Memória do Trem. p. 111. ISBN 9788586094095. Retrieved May 30, 2013.