Bavarian nationalism

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Flag of Bavaria.
Nymphenburg Palace in Munich, one of the major palaces of the historic rulers of Bavaria.
Heinrich Held (man on right side), Minister-President of Bavaria, 1924-1933. Held was leader of the Bavarian People's Party that held Bavarian monarchist and nationalist tendencies.

Bavarian nationalism is the nationalism asserts that Bavarians are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Bavarians.[1] It has been a strong phenomenon since the incorporation of Bavaria into the state of Germany in 1871.[2] Bavarian nationalists find the terms that Bavaria entered into Germany in 1871 to be controversial and claimed that the German government has long intruded the desired autonomy of Bavaria, and calls have been made for independence of Bavaria.[3]

After the defeat of Germany in World War I, Bavarian nationalism grew in strength, becoming popular amongst both revolutionary and reactionary political movements.[4] Following the collapse of Austria-Hungary after World War I, proposals for Austria to join Bavaria were made.[5] At this time the Bavarian government held particular interest in incorporating the regions of North Tyrol and Upper Austria into Bavaria.[6] This was a serious issue in the aftermath of World War I with significant numbers of Austria's North Tyrolese declaring their intention to have North Tyrol join Bavaria.[7]

History[edit]

The origins of the rise of Bavarian nationalism as a strong political movement were in the Austro-Prussian War and its aftermath.[8] Bavaria was politically and culturally closer to Catholic Austria than Protestant Prussia and the Bavarians shared with the Austrians a common contempt towards the Prussians, leading Bavaria to ally with Austria in the war.[9] Austria along with Bavaria and its other allies were defeated by Prussia and its allies.[10] In the aftermath Bavaria paid a large indemnity to Prussia and joined the Prussian-founded German Empire in 1871.[11] After unification with Germany in 1871, Bavarian nationalists were adamantly opposed to the Prussian-domination of the German state and refused further integration into the German Empire.[12]

Upon Germany's defeat in World War I, revolution spread across Germany and Bavaria, with the Bavarian monarchy being toppled and the rise of a communist regime in Bavaria that declared Bavaria to be independent from Germany, as the Bavarian Soviet Republic.[13] After the collapse of the Soviet Republic, Bavarian nationalism associated with anti-Prussian as well as anti-Semitic tendencies became popular amongst both radical and reactionary movements.[14]

Following the collapse of Austria-Hungary, proposals for Austria to join Bavaria were made.[15] The Bavarian government held particular interest in incorporating the regions of North Tyrol and Upper Austria into Bavaria.[16] Such proposals were taken with interest by significant numbers of North Tyrolese wishing to join Bavaria.[17] The Bavarian government's actions prompted the German government to respond by proposing the anschluss of Austria into Germany.[18]

In 1923, Bavarian monarchists attempted to seize control of the Bavarian government and declare Bavaria independent of Germany and restore the Bavarian monarchy.[19] This Bavarian separatist coup attempt was floundered by the actions of the then-small Nazi Party that preempted the planned coup and itself attempted to take over the Bavarian government in what became known as the Beerhall Putsch.[20] Bavarian nationalists and the Nazi Party competed for a support base, however even by the 1932 election when the Nazi Party had won a major victory, had failed to surpass the Catholic Bavarian People's Party in southern Bavaria, with the Nazis only being able to win in Protestant areas of northern Bavaria.[21]

After the Nazi takeover of the German government, the Nazi regime claimed the existence of several Bavarian separatist plots and used these claims to suppress Bavarian opposition, including overthrowing the Bavarian government.[22] Initially many Bavarians were supportive of Germany's war effort in World War II because it had been portrayed as an anti-communist campaign, however Bavarian support for the war rapidly declined nearing the end of the war.[23] Bavarian nationalism rose in the latter part of the war and Bavarian nationalists sought Allied support for the creation of an independent Bavaria.[24] In the end major autonomy for Bavaria was accepted within a federal Germany.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 108.
  2. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 108.
  3. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 108.
  4. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 107.
  5. ^ Suda Lorena Bane, Ralph Haswell Lutz. Organization of American Relief in Europe, 1918-1919: Including Negotiations Leading Up to the Establishment of the Office of Director General of Relief at Paris by the Allied and Associated Powers. Stanford University Press, 1943. P. 119.
  6. ^ Carlile Aylmer Macartney. The Social Revolution in Austria. Cambridge University Press Archive. P. 112
  7. ^ Francis Ludwig Carsten. The First Austrian Republic: 1918-1938. Gower, 1986. P. 3.
  8. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 106.
  9. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 106.
  10. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 106.
  11. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 106.
  12. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 106.
  13. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 106.
  14. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 107.
  15. ^ Suda Lorena Bane, Ralph Haswell Lutz. Organization of American Relief in Europe, 1918-1919: Including Negotiations Leading Up to the Establishment of the Office of Director General of Relief at Paris by the Allied and Associated Powers. Stanford University Press, 1943. P. 119.
  16. ^ Carlile Aylmer Macartney. The Social Revolution in Austria. Cambridge University Press Archive. P. 112
  17. ^ Francis Ludwig Carsten. The First Austrian Republic: 1918-1938. Gower, 1986. P. 3.
  18. ^ Carlile Aylmer Macartney. The Social Revolution in Austria. Cambridge University Press Archive. P. 112
  19. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 107.
  20. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 107.
  21. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 107.
  22. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 107.
  23. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 107.
  24. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 107.
  25. ^ James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group, Ltd., 2000. P. 107.