Expansion of Bay Area Rapid Transit

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Throughout the history of Bay Area Rapid Transit, better known as BART, there have been plans to extend service to other areas.


Warm Springs extension[edit]

map of the planned BART extension to Warm Springs

A 5.4 mi (8.7 km) extension of BART south to the Warm Springs District in South Fremont is currently under construction. The Warm Springs extension will bring BART south to the Santa Clara County line which is a prerequisite for the extension to San Jose.

This extension received a green light from the federal government when the Federal Transit Administration issued a Record of Decision on October 24, 2006.[1] The action enabled BART to begin purchasing the necessary right-of-way for the project and receive state-administered federal funding to finance the project.

In January 2009, the San Francisco Chronicle reported that $91 million in funding had been diverted from a similar project to link the peninsula and East Bay with commuter rail in order to begin construction on the Warm Springs Extension.[2]

On February 10, 2009, BART requested bids for the first segment of the Warm Springs Extension, a subway under Fremont Central Park and Lake Elizabeth.[3] The joint venture of Shimmick Construction Co. and Skanska USA Civil West California District Inc. won with a bid of $136 million which was 45 percent below the agencies' estimate of $249 million. On August 24, 2009, BART issued a "Notice to Proceed" to the contractors with construction beginning in Fall 2009. The contract for the above ground elements of the extension went to bid in late 2009 and construction began in spring 2010.[4]

BART plans to have the extension open in 2014.[5] Revenue service is scheduled to begin in the fall of 2015.[4]

On June 28, 2011, BART directors and the City of Fremont reached an agreement to construct an infill station in the Irvington District. BART would build all the track and basic infrastructure for the station as a part of the Warm Spring Extension. The Irvington BART Station was originally scheduled to open in late 2015.[6] But due to the funding issues, the City of Fremont has postponed construction of the Irvington station. As of 2013, the city of Fremont was still seeking funding for the construction of the station,[7] and when funding is approved the City of Fremont will commence construction of the station.

Silicon Valley BART extension[edit]

map of the planned BART extension to San Jose

Phase 1 of the Silicon Valley extension will continue the Warm Springs Extension to the Berryessa neighborhood station in San Jose, linking the BART system to the Santa Clara VTA light rail. $900 million in funding by the Federal Transit Administration was awarded in March 2012, and the project officially started construction in April 2012, with this Phase 1 of the extension open to the public by late 2016.[8][9]

Berryessa extension (Phase 1)[edit]

The planned Phase 1 route will continue south from the Warm Springs/South Fremont station in Fremont. There are plans for one "optional" station at Calaveras Blvd/SR 237 in downtown Milpitas; this station is not currently planned to be built but remains an option as a future infill station. The next station in Milpitas will be at Montague Expressway, co-located with the existing VTA Montague light rail station. The end of the extended line will be in San Jose, where there will be an elevated station at Berryessa Road at the current site of the San Jose Flea Market. BART rail tracks would end at US 101 between the interchanges at Santa Clara and Julian streets.

San Jose subway extension (Phase 2) [edit]

The original plan was for the extension to continue into downtown San Jose via subway. However, in February 2009, projections of lower-than-expected sales-tax receipts from the funding measures forced the VTA to scale back the extension, ending it at the Berryessa station and delaying tunneling under downtown San Jose to a future phase of construction (making it essentially a "Phase 2" of the project). The originally-planned complete extension from Fremont to Santa Clara was projected to cost $6.1 billion, but the VTA estimates the extension to Berryessa (Phase 1 only) would cost just $2.1 billion.[10]

The plans for the downtown subway start with a portal before crossing under US 101. The Alum Rock subway station would be on North 28th Street between Julian Street and Santa Clara Street. The Downtown San Jose station would be underneath Santa Clara Street spanning the block from 3rd Street to Market Street. (The Downtown San Jose station was combined in 2005 from earlier plans for separate subway stations at Civic Plaza/San Jose State University and Market Street.)[11] The Diridon/Arena station would be between SAP Center at San Jose and Diridon Station, which currently serves Amtrak, Caltrain, ACE and VTA Light Rail. The BART subway would then turn north, following the Caltrain route, and exit to the surface at another portal after crossing under I-880. The Santa Clara BART station would be co-located at the existing Santa Clara Caltrain station. Separate construction plans by San Jose International Airport would bring a people-mover train to the Santa Clara BART/Caltrain/ACE/Amtrak station.

For the subway segment in San Jose, VTA plans to use a tunnel boring machine for most of the length in order to reduce disruptions to downtown during construction. Only the station locations would have cut and cover construction.[12] This is different from how BART subways and stations were built in San Francisco and Oakland, which used the cut and cover method. The construction of the cut and cover stations in downtown San Jose would still cause major albeit temporary disruption, including closing several blocks of Santa Clara Street and severing the VTA light rail line at that street. The extension to downtown San Jose may open in 2025.[13]

Funding and Electoral History (2000-2008)[edit]

Since Santa Clara County is not among the member counties of the BART District (having opted out of the district at its inception, like neighboring San Mateo county), VTA is responsible for building the extension within Santa Clara County. VTA allocated initial funds for constructing BART using the proceeds from a sales tax referendum which was passed by Santa Clara County voters in 2000. In December 2002, VTA purchased a freight railroad corridor from Union Pacific Railroad which will serve as much of the necessary right-of-way for both the Warm Springs and San Jose extensions for $80 million.[14] In 2004, the Federal Transit Administration decided to wait to fund the project, citing worries that BART did not have enough money to operate the extension.[15] In addition, the San Jose extension project received a "not recommended" rating from the Federal Transit Administration placing the federal portion of the funding in jeopardy because of concerns about operation and maintenance funding.[16] To address these concerns and help secure federal funding, Santa Clara County voters were presented with 2008 Measure B, a 1/8-cent sales tax raise, in the 2008 presidential primary election.[17] Projections by an independent consultant recommended by the Federal Transit Administration predicted that the 1/8-cent sales tax would more than cover operation and maintenance of the planned extension.[18] In initial vote counting from election day and well into the counting of absentee and provisional ballots, the measure was too close to call but was on the side of failing. On November 17, 2008, the measure flipped from failing to passing in the vote count update, with the required 66.67% of voters approving the tax increase, the very minimum for the tax measure to pass.[19] On November 21, 2008, the result was announced that Measure B passed with 66.78% voter approval.[20][21]

Oakland Airport Connector[edit]

BART Oakland Airport Connector
Richmond–Fremont / Fremont–Daly City
Dublin/Pleasanton–Daly City
Coliseum/Oakland Airport 2014
Doolittle planned
SR 61 (Doolittle Dr.)
Oakland Int'l Airport Oakland International Airport 2014

The Oakland Airport Connector (OAC) is an under-construction people mover line that will run from the existing Coliseum/Oakland Airport station to a future station close to Oakland International Airport's terminal buildings. It will initially have 2 stations, with a third intermediate station to be built as funding permits. When completed, it will replace the current AirBART shuttle bus service. The project is expected to cost approximately $484 million and is currently scheduled for completion in Fall 2014.[22]

The Oakland Airport Connector will be operated by BART and will be integrated into BART's existing fare system. However, it will not utilize existing BART rolling stock and it will not be physically connected with existing BART tracks. The OAC will instead have its own fleet of automated guideway transit (AGT) vehicles that will operate on fixed guideways. The cable-drawn vehicles will be manufactured by DCC Doppelmayr Cable Car and can form trains of up to 4 cars. The line is designed to have an approximate headway of 4.5 minutes and to complete a one-way trip in approximately 8 minutes, with an on-time performance of more than 99.5%.[23] Initially there will be four 3-car trains (113 passengers each), but the system can accommodate an expansion to four 4-car trains (148 passengers each).[24]

The OAC's connection to the existing BART system at Coliseum/Oakland Airport station will resemble the AirTrain JFK and AirTrain Newark airport people movers' existing off-airport connections to other rail transit lines. In this case however, both the airport people mover and connecting rail transit will be operated by BART and share the same fare system. The OAC's platforms at Coliseum/Oakland Airport station will be connected to the south ends of the existing BART platforms via an aerial walkway.[22]

In late 2009 just prior to the award of the contract to construct the system, the project lost $70 million of federal stimulus funding because the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) found that BART was out of conformance with Title VI. Among other non-OAC considerations, the FTA cited that BART did not complete the necessary analysis to determine if the future change in service will disproportionately impact low-income or minority communities. The FTA forced the Metropolitan Transportation Commission to reallocate the funding.[25]

By September 2010, all necessary Federal and state funding for the OAC had been re-established, and a groundbreaking ceremony was held on October 20.[26]


The eBART expansion plan calls for diesel multiple unit (DMU) train service to be implemented from the existing Pittsburg/Bay Point station.[27] The first phase of the expansion will proceed east along the Highway 4 corridor to the city of Antioch with a Hillcrest Avenue station. The plan includes an option for a station at Railroad Avenue station in Pittsburg that would be built by that city. Future expansions in this direction could connect the eBART service to Oakley, Brentwood, Byron, and beyond to Tracy and Stockton. The DMU system was chosen as a less-expensive alternative to the existing third-rail BART design and because it would enable further extensions more easily. Funding for this expansion was approved in April 2009.[28] On October 14, 2010, BART issued a press release announcing that the agency had awarded a $26 million contract to West Bay Builders, of Novato, California, "to build the transfer platform and make some of the necessary rail improvements to begin extending the line to a terminus station at Hillcrest Avenue in Antioch."[29] Construction began in 2011, and revenue service is currently projected to begin in 2017.

Livermore extension: I-580/Tri-Valley Corridor[edit]

This extension of either conventional BART or DMU BART service would go from Dublin/Pleasanton station east to Livermore.[30] It could possibly continue over the Altamont Pass into Tracy and the Central Valley along I-580 and/or go north through Dublin, San Ramon, Danville, and Alamo to the existing Walnut Creek station via the I-680 corridor.

The extension of BART rail to Tracy is considered unlikely, as San Joaquin County, in which Tracy is located, is not part of the three district counties and does not pay into the regional BART tax. The extension of third-rail BART, which would require exclusive and grade-separated rights-of-way over such a long distance, would be substantially more expensive. With conventional rail, existing trackage can be used, and incremental upgrades (such as grade separations at selected intersections, overhead electrification, signaling improvements, utilities relocation, etc.) are possible as funding dollars become available, but choosing BART would require a full build-out of the system initially, along with comprehensive funding.

An existing diesel commuter rail line, the Altamont Commuter Express (ACE) currently operates through Livermore. A free shuttle transfers passengers between the ACE Pleasanton station and the BART Dublin/Pleasanton station, linking the two systems.[31][32][33]

A preferred alignment was selected July 1, 2010 and originally had the support of the Livermore City Council. This alignment would have involved the construction of a station in downtown Livermore, and a second station on Vasco Road near Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. Both proposed stations would have provided nearby connections to Altamont Commuter Express (ACE) service.[34]

However, in July 2011, the Livermore City Council reversed its position in response to a petition requesting that the alignment stay within or nearby the Interstate 580 right-of-way, and now favors stations be built at the Interstate 580 interchanges with Isabel Avenue and Greenville Road.[35] BART's Environmental Impact Report Notice of Preparation, issued in September 2012, proposes a single station at I-580 and Isabel Avenue, with possible express bus routes connecting to the Vasco Road ACE station and a park-and-ride lot at I-580 and Greenville Road.[36]

Infill stations[edit]

The West Dublin/Pleasanton and Embarcadero stations are the only infill stations currently in the BART system.

BART planners have studied or planned infill stations for at least three other sites within the system.[citation needed] Infill stations are stations constructed on existing line segments between two existing stations. Construction costs for a planned 30th Street Mission station in San Francisco, between the existing 24th Street Mission and Glen Park stations, are estimated at approximately $500 million.[37] A proposal for a Jack London Square station in Oakland was rejected as being incompatible with existing track geometry. A one-station stub line to Jack London Square at the foot of Broadway and the use of other transit modes also were studied.[38]

BART Metro Vision[edit]

Transit advocacy groups in the Bay Area have long promoted larger-scale expansion of the BART system through various capital projects. One is the construction of a second rail tunnel under San Francisco Bay, increasing connectivity and capacity between neighborhoods in the East Bay and San Francisco. Other key components of the overall vision for BART's future, dubbed BART Metro Vision, include more capacity in stations, increased train frequency to allow for "show up and go" service at stations within the system's operational core, and increased regional coverage in the form of new lines and stations. The most recent report from BART Metro Vision also identifies improvements to its rolling stock, the Hayward Maintenance Complex, and the modernization of its train control system as key improvements for securing the system's long-term viability.[39]


  1. ^ "Feds green light BART's Warm Springs Extension project". BART. 2006-11-02. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  2. ^ Cabanatuan, Michael (2009-01-15). "BART Warm Springs extension gets funding". The San Francisco Chronicle. 
  3. ^ Artz, Matthew (2009-02-10). "BART preparing to start Warm Springs extension". Fremont Argus / InsideBayArea.com (ANG Newspapers). Retrieved 2009-02-11. 
  4. ^ a b "BART - Warm Springs Extension Project Overview". BART. Retrieved 2012-09-15. 
  5. ^ "Construction to begin on subway section of Fremont BART extension". BART. 2009-08-24. Retrieved 2011-06-28. 
  6. ^ Officials Greenlight BART's Warm Spring Station Extension, KTVU, 2011-06-24, retrieved 2011-06-28 
  7. ^ "City of Fremont - Legislative Guiding Principles and Priorities 2013". City of Fremont. 2013. p. 8. Retrieved 2014-02-18. 
  8. ^ "San Francisco's rapid rail gets $900 million for Silicon Valley extension". CNN. 2012-03-14. 
  9. ^ Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA). "Silicon Valley Rapid Transit Corridor/BART to Silicon Valley". Archived from the original on 22 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 
  10. ^ "BART to Berryessa: Sales tax projections force VTA to scale back plans". San Jose Mercury News. 2009-02-27. Retrieved 2009-02-27. 
  11. ^ Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) (2005-06-22). "Minutes of Silicon Valley Rapid Transit Corridor BART Extension Policy Advisory Board Meeting". Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 
  12. ^ Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) (2002-05-14). "Downtown San Jose Subway Fact Sheet" (PDF). Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 
  13. ^ ABC KGO-TV San Francisco (May 8, 2009). "South Bay BART initiatives move forward". Retrieved September 17, 2010. 
  14. ^ Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal (December 2002). "Union Pacific closes land and track sale to VTA". Silicon Valley/San Jose Business Journal. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 
  15. ^ http://apps.mtc.ca.gov/meeting_packet_documents/agenda_448/6c_Bulger.doc.
  16. ^ "History of BART to the South Bay". San Jose Mercury News. January 8, 2005. Archived from the original on 23 January 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  18. ^ http://www.vta.org/inside/boards/correspondence/2008/08_08_08.pdf
  19. ^ "Measure B reaches two-thirds approval in late vote counting". San Jose Mercury News. 2008-11-17. Retrieved 2008-11-17. 
  20. ^ "BART backers pop open champagne, celebrate vision for San Jose's Grand Central Station". San Jose Mercury News. 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  21. ^ "November 4 Presidential Primary Election SUMMARY RESULTS - MEASURE B". Santa Clara County Government. November 21, 2008. Archived from the original on 16 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  22. ^ a b "Oakland Airport Connector". BART. July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-04. 
  23. ^ "Oakland Airport Connector - BART Special Board Meeting" (pdf). BART. December 2009. Retrieved 2013-07-04. 
  24. ^ "Oakland Airport Connector, Oakland, USA". Retrieved July 28, 2013. 
  25. ^ http://oaklandnorth.net/2010/02/21/70-million-for-airport-connector-project-to-be-diverted-to-regional-transit-agencies/
  26. ^ http://www.bart.gov/news/articles/2010/news20101020.aspx?utm_source=bartnews_rss&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+BARTNews+%28BART+News%29
  27. ^ "East Contra Costa BART Extension (eBART)". BART. April 3, 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-26. 
  28. ^ "$479 Million "eBART" Project Will Extend Service 10 Miles". BART. Archived from the original on 3 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  29. ^ BART Press Release, October 14, 2010
  30. ^ "Livermore Extension". BART. January 23, 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-26. 
  31. ^ "Pleasanton Station | ACE Rail Stations". Altamont Commuter Express. Archived from the original on 3 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 
  32. ^ "Wheels - Timetables - Route 54 - Pleasanaton Fairgrounds ACE Shuttle". Livermore Amador Valley Transit Authority. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 
  33. ^ "Wheels - Fares and Sales". Livermore Amador Valley Transit Authority. Archived from the original on 1 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 
  34. ^ "BART Board selects alignment for Livermore extension". Transbayblog.com. Retrieved 2008-11-17. 
  35. ^ Courtney, Jennifer (12 July 2011). "City Council OKs Initiative to Keep BART on I-580". Livermore Patch. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  36. ^ "BART to Livermore Extension Project EIR Notice of Preparation". BART. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  37. ^ John T. Warren and Associates, Inc. (May 2003). San Francisco County Planning: 30th Street Infill Station Study (PDF). BART. Archived from the original on 30 November 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-07. 
  38. ^ "Alameda County Planning: Expansion Projects". BART. December 2004. Archived from the original on 6 January 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-07. 
  39. ^ "BART Metro Vision Update". Retrieved 9 April 2014. 

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