Bayan-Ölgii Province

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This article is about the aimag (province) in Mongolia. For other uses, see Ölgii (disambiguation).
Bayan-Ölgii Province
Баян-Өлгий аймаг
ᠪᠠᠶ᠋ᠠᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠢᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ
Province
Olgii
Olgii
Flag of Bayan-Ölgii Province
Flag
Coat of arms of Bayan-Ölgii Province
Coat of arms
Bayan-Ölgii in Mongolia.svg
Coordinates: 48°18′N 89°30′E / 48.300°N 89.500°E / 48.300; 89.500Coordinates: 48°18′N 89°30′E / 48.300°N 89.500°E / 48.300; 89.500
Country Mongolia
Established 1940
Capital Ölgii
Area
 • Total 45,704.89 km2 (17,646.76 sq mi)
Population (2013)
 • Total 90,404
 • Density 2.0/km2 (5.1/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+7
Area code(s) +976 (0)142
ISO 3166 code MN-071
Vehicle registration БӨ_
Website www.bayan-olgii.gov.mn

Bayan-Ölgii (Mongolian: Баян-Өлгий; Kazakh: Бай-Өлке, Rich cradle/region, alternately spelled Olgiy, Ulgii, etc.) is the westernmost of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia. The country's only Muslim and Kazakh-majority aimag, it was established in 1940. Its capital is Ölgii.

Geography[edit]

The aimag is located in the extreme west of the country, and shares borders with both Russia and China. The border between the two neighbouring countries is very short here, though, and ends after about 40 km at the eastern end of Kazakhstan. Within Mongolia, the neighbouring aimags are Uvs in the north east and Khovd in the south east..

Lake Tolbo

Bayan-Ölgii is the highest Mongolian aimag. For the most part it is located in the Mongolian Altay, at the transition point to the Russian Altay. About 10% of the territory are covered by forests, consisting primarily of Siberian Larch.

The Nairamdal Peak (also Friendship Peak, Chinese: Youyi Feng) of the Altai Tavan Bogd (five saints mountain) massif mountain marks the corner between the three neighbouring countries. About 2.5 km further south on the Mongolian-Chinese border, the Hüiten Peak is the highest point of Mongolia with 4374 m. The massif includes several glaciers, such as the 19 km Potanin Glacier, and is only accessible to experienced climbers with local guidance.

The Khovd River (the longest in the western Mongolian Great Lakes Depression) has its origin in this aimag. It is fed by the three lakes Khoton, Khurgan, and Dayan, and in turn feeds the lake Khar-Us Lake in the Khovd Aimag. The Tolbo Lake is a large saline lake about 50 km south of the aimag capital. It features clear and cold water on an elevation of 2080 m.

Population[edit]

Most inhabitants of Bayan-Ölgii are Kazakhs (88.7%). Smaller parts of the population are composed of Uriankhai (7.2%), Dörvöd (1.5%),[1] Khalkha, Tuva and Khoshuud. A significant portion of the population speaks Kazakh as their mother tongue and the Mongolian language only as a second language, if at all.

After democratization, many inhabitants moved to their historical homeland, Kazakhstan, assuming they would find a better future there. The result was a noticeable loss of population in 1991-1993, when approx. 30,000 were repatriated to Kazakhstan. A noticeable number of former immigrants have been returning, so that the population has risen again.

Bayan-Ölgii aimag population [2][3][4][5][6][7][8]
1956
census
1960
est.
1963
census
1969
census
1975
est.
1979
census
1981
est.
1985
est.
1989
census
1991
est.
1993
est.
1995
est.
1998
est.
2000
census
2002
est.
2004
est.
2005
est.
2008
est.
2009
est.
38,800 44,600 47,800 58,100 66,600 71,400 74,500 82,400 90,900 102,817 75,043 82,259 87,341 94,094 98,066 99,112 95,758 93,931 93,017

Culture[edit]

Landscape in Bayan-Ölgii Province.
Further information: Islam in Mongolia

The culture of the Kazakh majority is strongly influenced by Islamic traditions. The mosque of Ölgii also houses the Islamic Center of Mongolia. It is placed at an unusual angle within the fabric of the city, because the building was oriented exactly towards Mecca. There's also a Madrasah (Islamic school) at the same place.

The aimag is famous for the traditional hunting method using trained eagles.[9][10][11][12][13] The captive eagles work in a similar way as hunting falcons do. While eagles are used for hunting in other parts of the world, particularly Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, most are in Bayan-Ölgii. An estimated 80% of the world's eagle hunters live here.[14] An annual Eagle festival is held in Ölgii every October to display their skill with about 70 eagle hunters participating on average.[15][16]

Traffic[edit]

The Ölgii Airport (ULG/ZMUL) has one runway, unpaved until 2011. It offers regular flights to Ulaanbaatar and irregular flights to Ulaangom and Moron in Mongolia and Almaty in Kazakhstan.

A road connecting to Russia starts in Tsagaannuur.

The border with China is open only for a short time in the summer.

National parks[edit]

The Altai Tavan Bogd National Park covers 6,362 km² and is located south of the highest mountain of Mongolia. It includes the lakes Khoton, Khurgan, and Dayan. The protected area offers a home for many species of alpine animal, such as the Argali sheep, Ibex, Red deer, Beech marten, Moose, Snow cock, and Golden eagle.

The Khökh Serkhiin Nuruu Protected Area (659 km²) and the Siilkhemiin Nuruu National Park (1,428 km²) are of similar character.

The Develiin Aral Natural Reserve (103 km²) is established around Develiin Island at the confluence of the rivers Lsan Khooloi and Khovd. Since 2000 it has provided protection for various birds and animals including pheasants, boars, and beavers.

The Tsambagarav Uul National Park includes 1,115 km² of land around the glaciers near the Khovd aimag and protects the snow leopards living there, among others.

Administrative subdivisions[edit]

Sums of Bayan-Ölgii
The Sums of Bayan-Ölgii aimag
Sum Mongolian Sum
population
(1985)[citation needed]
Sum
population
(1994)[17]
Sum
population
(2005)[3]
Sum
population
(2008)[7]
Sum
population
(2009)[8]
Sum
centre
population
(2009)[8]
Area
(km²)[18]
Density
(/km²)
Distance
from

Ölgii
city(km)

Altai Алтай 3,400 3,237 3,914 3,659 3,811 973 3,163.56 1.20 112
Altantsögts Алтанцөгц 3,300 3,038 3,038 3,114 3,080 826 1,786.10 1.72 43
Bayannuur Баяннуур 4,800 4,507 5,320 5,012 5,033 1,784 2,339.50 2.15 126
Bugat Бугат 3,300 2,777 3,604 3,741 3,642 1,161 2,049.10 1.78 5
Bulgan Булган 5,000 5,115 5,901 5,827 5,528 944 4,977.33 1.11 294
Buyant Буянт 2,300 2,546 3,002 2,683 2,514 653 1,845.67 1.36 72
Delüün Дэлүүн 6,600 6,782 8,183 7,078 7,133 1,642 5,594.99 1.27 158
Nogoonnuur Ногооннуур 7,500 * 6,331 6,539 6,566 6,375 2,165 5,221.94 * 1.22 * 92
Ölgii Өлгий 24,000 21,569 28,248 28,496 28,448 28,448 100.92 281.89 0
Sagsai Сагсай 4,100 3,746 5,185 5,174 5,089 1,375 3,139.99 1.62 27
Tolbo Толбо 4,100 3,746 4,260 4,076 4,136 1,067 2,974.69 1.39 76
Tsagaannuur Цагааннуур - 1,878 1,528 1,452 1,473 1,473 - - 69
Tsengel Цэнгэл 6,700 6,539 8,364 8,305 8,348 2,028 6,463.17 1.29 79
Ulaankhus Улаанхус 7,300 6,807 8,672 8,748 8,407 1,480 6,047.93 1.39 46

* - Tsagaannuur including

References[edit]

  1. ^ Official website: Main Page
  2. ^ Statoids (Gwillim Law) web page
  3. ^ a b , Statistics office of Bayan-Ölgii aimag
  4. ^ National Statistical Office
  5. ^ National Economy of the Mongolian People's Republic (1921 - 1981), Ulaanbaatar 1981
  6. ^ GeoHive: Global Statistics
  7. ^ a b [1]
  8. ^ a b c Bayan-Ölgii Aimag Statistical Office. Annual Report 2009 (prelim.) (mong.)
  9. ^ Soma, Takuya. 2012. ‘Contemporary Falconry in Altai-Kazakh in Western Mongolia’The International Journal of Intangible Heritage (vol.7), pp. 103–111. [2]
  10. ^ Soma, Takuya. 2012. ‘The Art of Horse-Riding Falconry by Altai-Kazakh Falconers’. In HERITAGE 2012 (vol.2): Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Heritage and Sustainable Development, edited by R. Amoêda, S. Lira, & C. Pinheiro, pp. 1499–1506. Porto: Green Line Institute for Sustainable Development, ISBN 978-989-95671-8-4.
  11. ^ Soma, Takuya. 2012. ‘Horse-Riding Falconry in Altai-Kazakh Nomadic Society: Anthropological Researches in Summertime Activities of Falconers and Golden Eagle’. Japanese Journal of Human and Animal Relation 32: pp. 38–47.
  12. ^ Soma, Takuya. 2013. ‘Hunting Arts of Eagle Falconers in the Altai-Kazakhs: Contemporary Operations of Horse-Riding Falconry in Sagsai County, Western Mongolia’. Japanese Journal of Human and Animal Relation 35: pp. 58–66.
  13. ^ Soma, Takuya. 2013. ‘Ethnographic Study of Altaic Kazakh Falconers’, Falco: The Newsletter of the Middle East Falcon Research Group 41, pp. 10–14. 2013. [3]
  14. ^ Official Tourism Website
  15. ^ http://www.touristinfocenter.mn/en/cate3_more.aspx?ItemID=14
  16. ^ Soma, Takuya & Battulga, Sukhee. 2014. 'Altai Kazakh Falconry as Heritage Tourism: “The Golden Eagle Festival” of Western Mongolia', "The International Journal of Intangible Heritage vol. 9", edited by Alissandra Cummins, pp. 135-148. Seoul: The National Folk Museum of Korea. [4]
  17. ^ http://www.reliefweb.int/library/documents/oxfamannex1-4.pdf
  18. ^ Bayan-Ölgii Aimag Annual Statistical Report 2008

Further reading[edit]

  • Soma, Takuya & Battulga, Sukhee. 2014. 'Altai Kazakh Falconry as Heritage Tourism: “The Golden Eagle Festival” of Western Mongolia', "The International Journal of Intangible Heritage vol. 9", edited by Alissandra Cummins, pp. 135-148. Seoul: The National Folk Museum of Korea. [5] 
  • Soma, Takuya. 2014. 'Current Situation and Issues of Transhumant Animal Herding in Sagsai County, Bayan Ulgii Province, Western Mongolia', E-journal GEO 9(1): pp. 102-119. [6]
  • 相馬拓也 2014 「モンゴル西部バヤン・ウルギー県サグサイ村における移動牧畜の現状と課題」『E-Journal GEO vol. 9 (no. 1) 』: pp. 102-189. [7]

External links[edit]