|Traded as||FWB: BAYN|
|Founded||August 1, 1863|
|Founder||Friedrich Bayer, Johann Friedrich Weskott|
|Marijn Dekkers (CEO), Werner Wenning (Chairman of the supervisory board)|
|Products||Veterinary drugs, diagnostic imaging, general and specialty medicines, women's health products, over-the-counter drugs, diabetes care, pesticides, plant biotechnology, polymers, coatings, adhesives|
|Revenue||€39.76 billion (2012)|
|€3.960 billion (2012)|
|Profit||€2.446 billion (2012)|
|Total assets||€51.34 billion (end 2012)|
|Total equity||€18.57 billion (end 2012)|
Number of employees
|110,500 (FTE, 2012)|
|Subsidiaries||Bayer MaterialScience, Bayer Corporation, Bayer Schering Pharma, Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Bayer CropScience|
Bayer AG (//; German pronunciation: [ˈbaɪ̯ɐ]) is a German multinational chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in Barmen (today a part of Wuppertal), Germany in 1863. It is headquartered in Leverkusen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and well known for its original brand of aspirin. Bayer's primary areas of business include human and veterinary pharmaceuticals; consumer healthcare products; agricultural chemicals and biotechnology products; and high value polymers. The company turned 150 years old on 1 August 2013.
- 1 History
- 2 Operations
- 3 Corporate structure
- 4 Bayer 04 Leverkusen
- 5 Controversies
- 6 Chemical accidents
- 7 Awards and recognition
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes and references
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Bayer's first major product was acetylsalicylic acid (originally discovered by French chemist Charles Frederic Gerhardt in 1853), a modification of salicylic acid or salicin, a folk remedy found in the bark of the willow plant. By 1899, Bayer's trademark Aspirin was registered worldwide for Bayer's brand of acetylsalicylic acid, but because of the confiscation of Bayer's US assets and trademarks during World War I by the United States – and the subsequent widespread usage of the word to describe all brands of the compound —, "Aspirin" lost its trademark status in the United States, France, and the United Kingdom. It is now widely used in the US, UK, and France for all brands of the drug. However in over 80 other countries, such as Canada, Mexico, Germany, and Switzerland, it is still a registered trademark of Bayer.
In 1903 Bayer licensed the patent for the hypnotic drug diethylbarbituic acid from its inventors, Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering. It was marketed under the trade name Veronal as a sleep aid beginning in 1904. Systematic investigations of the effect of structural changes on potency and duration of action at Bayer led to the discovery of phenobarbital in 1911 and the discovery of its potent anti-epileptic activity in 1912. Phenobarbital was among the most widely used drugs for the treatment of epilepsy through the 1970s, and as of 2014, remains on the World Health Organizations list of essential medications.
World War I and II
As part of the reparations after World War I, Bayer assets, including the rights to its name and trademarks, were confiscated in the United States, Canada, and several other countries. In the United States and Canada, Bayer's assets and trademarks were acquired by Sterling Drug, a predecessor of Sterling Winthrop.
Bayer became part of IG Farben, a German chemical company conglomerate, in 1925. In the 1930s, IG Farben scientists Gerhard Domagk, Fritz Mietzsch, and Joseph Klarer, discovered Prontosil, the first commercially available antibacterial drug. The discovery and development of this first sulfonamide drug opened a new era in medicine. Domagk received the Nobel Prize in Medicine for this work in 1939.
During World War II, IG Farben used slave labor in factories attached to large slave labor camps, notably I.G. Auschwitz, and the sub-camps of the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. IG Farben engaged in human experimentation on Auschwitz prisoners, often with fatal results.  After World War II, the Allies broke up IG Farben and Bayer reappeared as an individual business. IG Farben board member Fritz ter Meer, sentenced to seven years in prison during the IG Farben Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, was elected Bayer's supervisory board head in 1956.
Acquisitions and partnerships
In 1978, Bayer purchased Miles Laboratories and its subsidiaries Miles Canada and Cutter Laboratories (along with product lines including Alka-Seltzer, Flintstones vitamins and One-A-Day vitamins, and Cutter insect repellent).
In 1994, Bayer AG purchased Sterling Winthrop's over-the-counter drug business from SmithKline Beecham and merged it with Miles Laboratories, thereby reacquiring the U.S. and Canadian trademark rights to "Bayer" and the Bayer cross, as well as the ownership of the Aspirin trademark in Canada.
On 2 November 2010, Bayer AG signed an agreement to buy Auckland-based animal health company Bomac Group.
In 2014 Bayer agreed to buy Merck's consumer health business for $14.2 billion which would provide Bayer control with brands such as Claritin, Coppertone and Dr. Scholl's. Bayer would attain second place globally in nonprescription drugs.
Discoveries by Bayer
Bayer has discovered, among others:
- Aspirin, an analgesic, antipyretic, and anticoagulant medicine
- Heroin (diacetylmorphine), a now illegal addictive drug, was originally sold as a substitute for morphine. Heroin was a Bayer trademark, until after World War I.
- Prontosil, the first sulfonamide (while part of IG Farben)
- Ciprofloxacin, an antibiotic used to treat anthrax and urinary tract infections
- Levitra, a treatment for erectile dysfunction
- Polyurethane, a very versatile polymer used for a wide variety of applications
- Polycarbonate, a thermoplastic used in electronics, data storage, and construction (Makrolon).
- Parathion, insecticide
- Propoxur, insecticide
- Primodos, hormone pregnancy testing
The company's corporate logo, the Bayer cross, was introduced in 1904. It consists of the horizontal word "BAYER" crossed with the vertical word "BAYER", both words sharing the "Y", and enclosed in a circle. An illuminated version of the logo lights up the skyline of Leverkusen, where Bayer is headquartered. Installed in 1958, this is the largest illuminated advertisement in the world.
To separate operational and strategic managements, Bayer AG was reorganized into a holding company in December 2003. The group's core businesses were transformed into limited companies, each controlled by Bayer AG. These companies are: Bayer CropScience AG; Bayer HealthCare AG; Bayer MaterialScience AG and Bayer Chemicals AG, and the three service limited companies Bayer Technology Services GmbH, Bayer Business Services GmbH and Bayer Industry Services GmbH & Co. OHG. Bayer AG shares are listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, the London Stock Exchange and previously on the New York Stock Exchange.
Following the reorganization, its chemicals activities (with the exception of H.C. Starck and Wolff Walsrode) were combined with certain components of the polymers segment to form the new company Lanxess on 1 July 2004. Lanxess was listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange in early 2005. Bayer HealthCare's Diagnostics Division was acquired by Siemens Medical Solutions in January 2007.
In 2004, Bayer HealthCare AG acquired the over-the-counter (OTC) Pharmaceutical Division of Roche Pharmaceuticals.
On 11 March 2008, Bayer HealthCare announced an agreement to acquire the portfolio and OTC division of privately owned Sagmel, Inc., a US-based company that markets OTC medications in most of the Commonwealth of Independent States countries such as Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus, and others.
- Germany – headquarters of the holding company, as well as the subsidiary companies Bayer CropScience, Bayer MaterialScience and Bayer HealthCare
- Belgium – including production facilities for Makrolon and polyurethanes (in Antwerp)
- Canada – Toronto headquarters and offices in Montreal and Calgary
- Finland – Nordic Headquarters in Espoo including one of the largest Bayer research facilities and production facility in Turku
- France – including European headquarters of Bayer CropScience (in Lyon)
- Indonesia – including production of Canesten, Autan and Baygon
- Italy – including five production facilities
- Switzerland – including production facilities of Bayer CropScience (Muttenz) and offices in Basel, Fribourg and Zürich
- The Netherlands – including eight facilities and subsidiaries with 600 employees in three different sectors; Marketing and Sales, Production and Research.
- United States – Bayer USA (Bayer Corporation) operates a suburban Pittsburgh regional corporate headquarters and research center
- United Kingdom – Newbury, Berkshire
- Spain - Asturias produce the acetylsalicylic acid.
Bayer AG comprises three subgroups and three services companies. The subgroups and service companies operate independently, led by the management holding company.
Bayer CropScience has products in crop protection and nonagricultural pest control. It also has activities in seeds and plant traits.
In 2002, Bayer AG acquired Aventis (now part of Sanofi) CropScience and fused it with their own agrochemicals division (Bayer Pflanzenschutz or "Crop Protection") to form Bayer CropScience. The company is now one of the world's leading innovative crop science companies in the areas of crop protection (i.e. pesticides), nonagricultural pest control, seeds and plant biotechnology. In addition to conventional agrochemical business, it is involved in genetic engineering of food. The Belgian biotech company Plant Genetic Systems became part of the company by the acquisition of Aventis CropScience.
Also in 2002, Bayer AG acquired the Dutch seed company Nunhems.
In 2006, the U.S. Department of Agriculture announced that Bayer CropScience's LibertyLink genetically modified rice had contaminated the U.S. rice supply. Shortly after the public learned of the contamination, the E.U. banned imports of U.S. long-grain rice and the futures price plunged. In April 2010, a Lonoke County, Arkansas jury awarded a dozen farmers $48 million. The case is currently on appeal to the Arkansas Supreme Court. On 1 July 2011 Bayer CropScience agreed to a global settlement for up to $750 million. In a statement to the media Bayer said: "Although Bayer CropScience believes it acted responsibly in the handling of its biotech rice, the company considers it important to resolve the litigation so that it can move forward focused on its fundamental mission of providing innovative solutions to modern agriculture."
Bayer HealthCare is Bayer's pharmaceutical and medical products subgroup. It is involved in the research, development, manufacture and marketing of products that aim to improve the health of people and animals. Bayer HealthCare comprises a further four subdivisions: Bayer Schering Pharma, Bayer Consumer Care, Bayer Animal Health and Bayer Medical Care.
In 2007, Bayer took over Schering AG and formed Bayer Schering Pharma. The acquisition of Schering was the largest take-over in Bayer's history. The name was changed to Bayer Pharma in 2011.
Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals is divided into two business units – General Medicine and Specialty Medicine.
Women's healthcare is an example of a General Medicine business unit. Bayer Pharma produces the birth control pills Yaz and Yasmin. Both pills use a newer type of progesterone hormone called drospirenone in combination with estrogen. Yaz is advertised as a treatment for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and moderate acne. Other key products include the cancer drug Nexavar, the multiple sclerosis drug betaferon/betaseron and the blood-clotting drug, Kogenate.
An example of a Specialty Medicine Business Unit is Diagnostic Imaging. Contrast agents from this unit helps play a crucial role in precise and early diagnosis and the selection of optimal treatment. Diagnostic imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound are used to make tissues and organs visible in their natural position inside the body along with contrast. Work is also focused on the development of tracers for positron emission tomography (PET). The PET tracer florbetaben F18 in Bayer's pipeline makes it possible to recognize beta amyloid, one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, with high accuracy very early on and while the patient is still alive.
Bayer Consumer Care
Bayer Consumer Care manages Bayer's OTC medicines portfolio. Key products include analgesics such as Bayer Aspirin and Aleve, food supplements Redoxon and Berocca, and skincare products Bepanthen and Bepanthol.
Bayer Animal Health
Bayer HealthCare's Animal Health Division is the maker of Advantage Multi (imidacloprid + moxidectin) Topical Solution for dogs and cats, Advantage flea control for cats and dogs and K9 Advantix, a flea, tick, and mosquito control product for dogs. Advantage Multi, K9 Advantix and Advantage are trademarks of Bayer. The division specializes in parasite control and prescription pharmaceuticals for dogs, cats, horses, and cattle. North American operation for the Animal Health Division are headquartered in Shawnee, Kansas. Bayer Animal Health is a division of Bayer HealthCare LLC, one of the world's leading healthcare companies.
Bayer Diabetes Care
Bayer Diabetes Care manages Bayer's medical devices portfolio. Key products include the blood glucose monitors Contour Next EZ (XT), Contour, Contour USB and Breeze 2 used in the management of diabetes.
Bayer MaterialScience is a supplier of high-tech polymers, and develops solutions for a broad range of applications relevant to everyday life.
Bayer Business Services
Located at the Bayer USA Headquarters in Robinson Township, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Bayer Business Services handles the information technology infrastructure and technical support aspect of Bayer USA and Bayer Canada. This is also the headquarters of the North American Service Desk, the central IT Help Desk for all of Bayer USA and Bayer Canada. Bayer Business Services also employs 4500 specialists in India.
Bayer Technology Services
Bayer Technology Services is engaged in process development and in process and plant engineering, construction and optimization.
Currenta offers services for the chemical industry, including utility supply, waste management, infrastructure, safety, security, analytics and vocational training.
Bayer 04 Leverkusen
In 1904, the company founded the sports club TuS 04 ("Turn- und Spielverein der Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co."), later SV Bayer 04 ("Sportvereinigung Bayer 04 Leverkusen"), finally becoming TSV Bayer 04 Leverkusen ("Turn- und Sportverein") in 1984, generally, however, known simply as Bayer 04 Leverkusen. The club is best known for its football team, but has been involved in many other sports, including athletics, fencing, team handball, volleyball, boxing, and basketball. TSV Bayer 04 Leverkusen is one of the largest sports clubs in Germany. The company also supports similar clubs at other company sites, including Dormagen (particularly handball), Wuppertal (particularly volleyball), and Krefeld-Uerdingen (featuring another former Bundesliga football club, SC Bayer 05 Uerdingen, now KFC Uerdingen 05).
Arthur Eichengrün, a Bayer chemist, claimed to be the first to discover an aspirin formulation which did not have the unpleasant side effects of nausea and gastric pain. Eichengrün also claimed he invented the name aspirin and was the first person to use the new formulation to test its safety and efficacy. Bayer contends aspirin was discovered by Felix Hoffman to alleviate the sufferings of his father, who had arthritis. Various sources support the conflicting claims. Most mainstream historians attribute the invention of aspirin to Felix Hoffman and/or Arthur Eichengrün.
HIV infected blood products
- "After 1978, there were four major companies in the United States engaged in the manufacture, production and sale of Factor VIII and IX: Armour Pharmaceutical Company, Bayer Corporation and its Cutter Biological division, Baxter Healthcare and its Hyland Pharmaceutical division and Alpha Therapeutic Corporation, which have been or are defendants in certain lawsuits.
- "The plaintiffs allege that the companies manufactured and sold blood factor products as beneficial "medicines" that were, in fact, contaminated with HIV and/or HCV and resulted in the mass infection and/or deaths of thousands of haemophiliacs worldwide."
After 52 deaths were blamed on an alleged side effect of Bayer's anticholesterol drug Baycol, its manufacture and sale were discontinued in 2001. The side effect was rhabdomyolysis, causing renal failure, which occurred with a tenfold greater frequency in patients treated with Baycol in comparison to those prescribed alternate medications of the statin class.
2006 Trasylol safety advisory
In September 2006, Bayer was faulted by the FDA for not revealing during testimony the existence of a commissioned retrospective study of 67,000 patients, 30,000 of whom received Trasylol and the rest other antifibrinolytics. The study concluded Trasylol carried greater risks. The FDA was alerted to the study by one of the researchers involved. Although the FDA issued a statement of concern, they did not change their recommendation that the drug may benefit certain patients. In a Public Health Advisory Update dated 3 October 2006, the FDA recommended "physicians consider limiting Trasylol use to those situations in which the clinical benefit of reduced blood loss is necessary to medical management and outweighs the potential risks" and carefully monitor patients. The FDA took Trasylol off the market on 5 November 2007.
Yasmin / Yaz birth control pills
The FDA has warned Bayer for misstating the benefits of Yasmin (also known as Yaz) while understating its risks. In 2011, the FDA's panel of experts voted 15 to 11 that the benefits of Yasmin and related oral contraceptives outweighed the risks, and voted 21-5 that the labeling on Yaz was inadequate and needed more information about the potential risk of blood clots in the legs and lungs. In April 2012, the FDA ordered Bayer to change its U.S. labeling to reference the increased risk for blood clots. Subsequently, a meta analysis suggested that birth control pills of the class Yasmin belongs to raise the risk of blood clots to a greater extent than some other classes of birth control pills.
In 2013, the European Commission implemented a 2 year suspension on the application of neonicotinoid pesticides to certain flowering crops. The suspension will not apply to cereal crops or other crops not attractive to bees. Bayer is challenging the restrictions.
In 2013, the United States Department of Agriculture organized a stakeholder conference to discuss bee colony collapse disorder in the United States. Approximately 150 stakeholders participated in the conference, including beekeepers, scientists, representatives of advocacy groups, beekeeping supply manufacturers, commodity groups, pesticide producers, academics, and state and federal government regulators. The consensus report issued by the conference attributes colony collapse to a complex mix of factors, of which the parasitic Varroa mite and several associated viruses have been closely associated with overwinter declines. It was concluded that the most pressing research issue was to determine the actual field-relevant pesticide exposure and the effect of pervasive exposure to multiple pesticides on bee health.
The EPA has stated that it is not aware of any data demonstrating that bee colonies are subject to elevated losses due to long-term exposure to clothianidin. However, leaked documents indicate that some agency scientists disagree with this position.
The Australian Government issued a report in January 2014 that notes that "the introduction of the neonicotinoids has led to an overall reduction in the risks to the agricultural environment from the application of insecticides. This view is also balanced with the advice that Australian honeybee populations are not in decline, despite the increased use of this group of insecticides in agriculture and horticulture since the mid-1990s."
On 28 August 2008, an explosion occurred at the Bayer CropScience facility at Institute, West Virginia, United States. A runaway reaction ruptured a tank and the resulting explosion killed two employees. The ruptured tank was close to a methyl isocyanate tank which was undamaged by the explosion.
Awards and recognition
In October 2008, Bayer's Canadian division was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" by Mediacorp Canada Inc. The Canadian division was named one of Greater Toronto's Top Employers by the Toronto Star newspaper. Bayer USA was given a score of 85 (out of 100) in the Human Rights Campaign's 2011 Corporate Equality Index, a measure of gay and lesbian workplace equality.
Notes and references
- Bayer: 150 years - The early years (1863–1881)
- "Annual Report 2012". Bayer. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- Yasiry Z, Shorvon SD (December 2012). "How phenobarbital revolutionized epilepsy therapy: the story of phenobarbital therapy in epilepsy in the last 100 years". Epilepsia. 53 Suppl 8: 26–39. doi:10.1111/epi.12026. PMID 23205960.
- López-Muñoz F, Ucha-Udabe R, Alamo C (December 2005). "The history of barbiturates a century after their clinical introduction". Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 1 (4): 329–43. PMC 2424120. PMID 18568113.
- Hager, Thomas: The Demon Under the Microscope: From Battlefield Hospitals to Nazi Labs, One Doctor's Heroic Search for the World's First Miracle Drug. Harmony Books 2006. ISBN 1-4000-8214-5
- "Gerhard Domagk - Biographical".
- "Wollheim Memorial". Frankfurt am Main: Fritz Bauer Institute.
- Various (2005). "Historia de los campos de concentración: El sistema de campos de concentración nacionalsocialista, 1933–1945: un modelo europeo". Memoriales históricos, 1933–1945 (in Spanish).
- Rees, Laurence (2005). Aushchwitz. London: BBC Books. p. 232. ISBN 0 563 52296 8.
- "Auschwitz:60 Year Anniversary- the Role of IG Farben-Bayer". Ahrp.org. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-14.
- "Bayer Acquires Animal Health Co Bomac In New Zealand". Nasdaq. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
- "Algeta Board OKs $2.9B Acquisition by Bayer". Gen. Eng. Biotechnol. News (paper) 34 (2). January 15, 2014. p. 10.
- Bayer HealthCare to acquire OTC Business of Sagmel, Inc, official press release[dead link]
- "Bayer Buys Over-the-Counter Health Unit From Sagmel". Bloomberg. 11 March 2008.
- "Annual Report 2010". Bayer. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- Bayer Bioscience, sybase website, retrieved Sept 19, 2012.
- Bayer Bioscience description, Bayer corporate website.
- "Bayer Settles With Farmers Over Modified Rice Seeds". The New York Times. 1 July 2011.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- "Archer Daniels Midland Company, Bayer CropScience and Daimler to Cooperate in Jatropha Biodiesel Project". DaimlerChrysler.
- Bayer CropScience to invest $1 billion in U.S. by 2016. Reuters, 4 September 2014
- Bayer launches multi-crop breeding station in Hyderabad | Business Line
- Bayer 04 Leverkusen Fussball GmbH[dead link]
- "Aspirin". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-06-14.
- "Should EPA Accept Human Pesticide Experiments". Ahrp.org. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-14.
- Sneader W (2000). "The discovery of aspirin: a reappraisal". BMJ 321 (7276): 1591–4. doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7276.1591. PMC 1119266. PMID 11124191.
- Mahdi JG, Mahdi AJ, Mahdi AJ, Bowen ID (April 2006). "The historical analysis of aspirin discovery, its relation to the willow tree and antiproliferative and anticancer potential". Cell Prolif. 39 (2): 147–55. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2006.00377.x. PMID 16542349.
- "Bayer Sold HIV-Risky Meds". Cbsnews.com. Retrieved 2011-06-14.
- Furberg, C.; Pitt, B. (2001). "Withdrawal of cerivastatin from the world market". Current controlled trials in cardiovascular medicine 2 (5): 205–207. doi:10.1186/CVM-2-5-205. PMC 59524. PMID 11806796.
- "Trasylol Public Health Advisory Update". Factsandcomparisons.com. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-14.
- "The Official Trasylol Aprotinin Injection by Bayer Pharmaceuticals Corporation Home Page". Trasylol.com. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-14.
- "A Birth Control Pill That Promised Too Much". New York Times. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- "FDA to Review Safety Issues Surrounding Leading Birth Control Pill Yaz". ABC News. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- "Bayer's Yaz Pill Backed by Panel Seeking Clarity on Risk". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- "FDA advisers: revise popular birth control labels". Reuters. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- "Yaz and Yasmin birth control pills linked to 23 deaths: Health Canada documents". CTV News Canada. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- Stegeman BH, de Bastos M, Rosendaal FR et al. (2013). "Different combined oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thrombosis: systematic review and network meta-analysis". BMJ 347: f5298. doi:10.1136/bmj.f5298. PMC 3771677. PMID 24030561.
- Carolina Cardoso (2013-09-03). "Neonicotinoids: Syngenta and Bayer go to court against the European Commission". Slow Food. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
In May 2013, the European Commission announced a two-year restriction on the use of three insecticides: thiamethoxam, imidacloprid and clothianidin.... Two giants of the agro-industrial pesticide industry: Syngenta, manufacturer of thiamethoxam, and Bayer, producer of imidacloprid and clothianidin, have now decided to challenge the European Commission’s decision before the European Court of Justice.
- "Clothianidin – Registration Status and Related Information | Pesticides | US EPA".
- Keim, Brandon (13 December 2010). "Leaked Memo Shows EPA Doubts About Bee-Killing Pesticide | Wired Science". Wired. Retrieved 2011-06-14.
- Tom Philpott. "Leaked document shows EPA allowed bee-toxic pesticide despite own scientists' red flags". Grist. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-14.
- "Bayer CropScience Pesticide Waste Tank Explosion". U.S. Chemical Safety Board. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- "Bayer Pesticide Plant Disaster, 2008, Institute, West Virginia". Semp.us. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-14.
- "Reasons for Selection, 2009 Canada's Top 100 Employers Competition".
- Workplace | Issues | Human Rights Campaign. Hrc.org (2013-07-12). Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
- Blaschke, Stefan (1999). Unternehmen und Gemeinde: Das Bayerwerk im Raum Leverkusen 1891–1914. Cologne: SH-Verlag, ISBN 3-89498-068-0
- Tenfelde, Klaus (2007). Stimmt die Chemie? : Mitbestimmung und Sozialpolitik in der Geschichte des Bayer-Konzerns. Essen: Klartext, ISBN 978-3-89861-888-5