Bayesian cognitive science
This work often consists of testing the hypothesis that cognitive systems behave like rational Bayesian agents in particular types of tasks (past work has applied this idea to categorization, language, motor control, sequence learning, reinforcement learning, theory of mind. At other times, Bayesian rationality is assumed, and the goal is to infer the knowledge that agents have, and the mental representations that they use.
See also 
- John R. Anderson (1990) "The Adaptive Character of Thought". Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
- T. L. Griffiths, and J. B. Tenenbaum (2006) "Optimal Predictions in Everyday Cognition" Psychological Science 17(9), 767-773.
- M. Oaksford and N. Chater (1999) - "Rational Models of Cognition"