Beşiktaş J.K.

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Beşiktaş
Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü
Full name Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü[1]
Nickname(s) Kara Kartallar (Black Eagles)[2][3]
Siyah Beyazlılar (Black and Whites)
Founded 19 March 1903; 111 years ago (1903-03-19),[1]
as Beşiktaş Bereket Jimnastik Kulübü[4]
Ground Vodafone Arena, Istanbul, Turkey
Ground Capacity 41,903[5][6]
Chairman Fikret Orman[7]
Manager Slaven Bilić[8]
League Süper Lig
2013–14 Spor Toto Süper Lig, 3rd
Website Club home page
Current season

Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü (Turkish pronunciation: [beˈʃiktaʃ], English: Beşiktaş Gymnastics Club), known as Beşiktaş, is a Turkish sports club. The club's football team is the first and one of the major teams in Turkey, having never been relegated to a lower division. The professional sports club, founded in 1903, is based in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey. Beşiktaş Gymnastics Club, established the first sport club of Turkey in 1903. The club competes in numerous branches including football, basketball, volleyball, handball, athletics, boxing, wrestling, chess, bridge, gymnastics, rowing, table tennis, paralympic sports and beach football.[9]

The home ground of Beşiktaş was the İnonu Stadium BJK İnönü Stadium with a seating capacity of 32,086, however this has been shut down in order for the Vodafone Arena to be opened on the same land. Whether or not an increase in the capacity by around 9,000 will be appreciated is unknown as the fans are already surprised and worried about the new stadium still being very small relative to their competitors. The club last won the Turkish Süper Lig championship during the 2008–2009 season, also achieving the double after winning the Turkish Cup.[10]

As of January 2014, the club is ranked 66th in UEFA's club coefficient rankings.[11]

History[edit]

Active departments of Beşiktaş
Football pictogram.svg Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg
Football Volleyball (Men's) Volleyball (Women's)
Basketball pictogram.svg Basketball pictogram.svg Wheelchair basketball - Paralympic pictogram.svg
Basketball (Men's) Basketball (Women's) Wheelchair Basketball
Table tennis pictogram.svg Handball pictogram.svg Athletics pictogram.svg
Table Tennis Handball Athletics
Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg Boxing pictogram.svg Wrestling pictogram.svg
Gymnastics Boxing Wrestling
Rowing pictogram.svg Poker-sm-211-As.png Chess pictogram.svg
Rowing Bridge Chess

Early years[edit]

Beşiktaş was established in 1903 during the late Ottoman period. A group of 22 young individuals gathered on certain days of the week to perform bodily exercises in the Serencebey neighborhood of Beşiktaş. They began in the fall of 1902, in the garden of the mansion of Osman Paşa, who was then a part of the Medine Guard. The various sporting activities that these youths participated in included the horizontal bar, parallel bar, wrestling, weight lifting and gymnastics. They included such members as the sons of Osman Paşa, Mehmet Şamil and Hüseyin Bereket, and other youths of the neighborhood – Ahmet Fetgeri, Mehmet Ali Fetgeri, Nazım Nazif, Cemil Feti and Şevket. At that time, the Sultan Abdul Hamid II was having secret agents go around the city, reporting on any gatherings that might be political in nature. When these agents heard about the group, a raid was conducted and the exercising youths were taken to the police station. The tense situation was relaxed as some of these youths were close to palace officers. Since football, which was in disfavor in those days, was unpopular, they only participated in bodily exercises. In fact, Şehzade Abdülhalim, who had relations with the Palace, supported these youths and started to watch their practices frequently. Famous boxer and Wrestler Kenan Bey came to the practices and started to show the group wrestling and boxing tricks.

Beşiktaş in 1903

Bereket Gymnastic Club was founded under special permission in 1903. Their sporting activities gained more freedom with the declaration of the Constitutional Monarchy in 1908. After the political events of 31 March 1909, Fuat Balkan and Mazhar Kazancı, who were in Edirne, came to Istanbul with the Movement Army. After the political events settled down, Fuat Balkan, who was a good fencing coach and Mazhar Kazancı, who was a good wrestler and weight lifter, found the youths involved in gymnastics in Serencebey and got them to agree to participate in sports together. Refik and Şerafettin Beys, friends of Fuat Bey, were also good fencers. Fuat Balkan made the space under his home in Ihlamur the Club’s headquarters, and the title of Bereket Gymnastics Club was changed to Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club. Thus, a stronger sports club, where gymnastics, wrestling, boxing, fencing and athletics were emphasized, was formed.

In the meantime, Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club became the first registered Turkish sports club on 13 January 1910 with the encouragement of Beyoğlu Governor Muhittin Bey. The interest among the youths of the neighborhood in the sports club grew and the number of members involved in sports suddenly went up to 150. The headquarters of the club was moved from Ihlamur to Building 49 in Akaretler. When this building became too small, Building 84, also in Akaretler, became their headquarters. The yard behind this building was turned into a sports pitch.

Some of the young patriots from the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul formed two football clubs called "Valideçeşme" and "Basiret" under the leadership of Şeref Bey. The Valideçeşme and Basiret football clubs joined under the Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club in 1911. In a very short time, football became the foremost branch in the club.

The club's colours, which were originally "red and white" were changed into "black and white" following the loss of Turkish territories in the Balkan peninsula with the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, as a sign of mourning. Many of the club's founding members were Turks with either ancestral links or personal memories in the former Balkan (Rumelian) provinces of the Ottoman Empire.

Initial years of football[edit]

1923–24 Istanbul League champions
Players of Beşiktaş before the match against Galatasaray, 19 March 1939.

With football becoming the main sport of the Ottoman Empire around 1910, Beşiktaş members slowly started to give more attention to football. In August 1911, Ahmet Şerafettin Bey started the football team. Beşiktaş didn't enter the Istanbul Friday and Sunday leagues, and didn't have any championships until 1918, when they won the Istanbul Turkish 1st Sports League. In 1921, that particular league's final season, they won it again. In 1924, Beşiktaş entered the Istanbul Football League along with Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and other Istanbul teams. Beşiktaş became the league's first champion in 1924, but wasn't able to get more success in the league. Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe were the two dominant teams through the middle of the 1930s. Beşiktaş won their second Istanbul League championship in 1934, as well as their first Turkish Football Championship in the same year. In 1937, the Turkish National League was formed. In the Istanbul League season prior to the National League's first season, Beşiktaş finished in 4th place, which earned them a berth in the National League. Beşiktaş finished 3rd place in the National league behind Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray. In 1938 Beşiktaş finished 3rd place in the Istanbul league and 2nd place in the National league behind Güneş. Beşiktaş won a record 5 consecutive Istanbul league championships between 1939 and 1943. In the National league Beşiktaş finished 4th in 1939, 5th in 1940, 1st in 1941 and 3rd in 1943 (1942 was not held). Beşiktaş won the Istanbul league in 1945 and 1946, as well as the National league in 1944, and 1947.

After 1959[edit]

In 1959 the Turkish First League was formed. It was Turkey's first professional league. Beşiktaş came in 3rd place in the inaugural year of the league. Beşiktaş won the league title in 1960. In 1960 they also took part in the European Cup, and became the first Turkish team ever to participate in that cup. Beşiktaş finished in 3rd place in 1961 and 1962 and 2nd place in 1963, 1964 and 1965. After that, their consistency paid off and they were finally the champions again in 1966 and 1967. In 1967, they also won their first Turkish Super Cup. In 1968, Beşiktaş finished in 2nd place.

Silent 1970s[edit]

After 1968 Beşiktaş' performance declined greatly, finishing in 9th, 11th, 5th, 6th many times, while Trabzonspor, Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray continued their success however Beşiktaş had shown a good performance to put a stop to their success. Beşiktaş only finished 2nd place 1 time in 70s (1974).

1980s Revival[edit]

Beşiktaş put an end to their bad performance in 1982 with a surprise Turkish championship. Beşiktaş got another championship in 1986 as well. They finished the league in the second place four times in the second half of the decade except the championship in 1985–86 season. Hooliganism was also a major problem that had started in Europe and spread throughout Turkey as well. Besiktas fan hooliganism has been a major issue with many fights inside and outside the stadium however fan violence has decreased recently for a couple years.

Milne era[edit]

Main article: Metin-Ali-Feyyaz

Beşiktaş had their most successful run in the Süper Lig with three consecutive championships under the management of Gordon Milne in the early 90s. Three players of the squad; Metin Tekin, Ali Gültiken, and Feyyaz Uçar were notable for significant contributions to the team during this period. These players had been called Metin-Ali-Feyyaz (shorty: MAF) and they formed the front of the team's line-up. The supporters composed various chants for the trio devoted to their delighting style on the pitch, their goals and above all for their friendship and modesty. The trio is regarded by supporters as the best ever attacking line of the club.

The only three-in-a-row title term in club history occurred in the 1989–90, 1990–91 and 1991–92 seasons. Most notably, Beşiktaş became the first undefeated champion in Süper Lig history.[12][13] So far, Beşiktaş is the only team that has achieved these honors.

Under Milne, the team adopted the 4–4–2 system. By playing down the lines, crossing, and winning balls in the air, the team scored many goals. On 15 October 1989, Beşiktaş broke the Süper Lig record for the biggest winning margin in a game with a 10–0 victory over Southern Turkey team Adana Demirspor.[14] This match was designated as one of the 16 biggest matches in club history.[15]

Legend of the Black Eagles[edit]

There is a legend surrounding the initial naming of the team "The Black Eagles." Beşiktaş, the title holder of the previous two seasons started the 1940–41 season with a young and renewed team. As the weeks went by, this team was more and more securely the leader in the league. With five weeks remaining in the season, the opponent was Süleymaniye. Beşiktaş had started the game in Şeref Stadium refereed by Semih Turansoy on Sunday 19 January 1941, with the following players: Faruk, Yavuz, İbrahim, Rıfat, Halil, Hüseyin, Şakir, Hakkı, Şükrü, Şeref, Eşref. As in all games of that season, the team played well and went ahead in the first half. Halfway through the second half of the game, Beşiktaş attacked continuously, despite being in front. And then, according to legend, a voice was heard from the stands towards which Beşiktaş was attacking. The voice said "Come on, Black Eagles! Attack, Black Eagles!" According to legend, the owner of the voice from the stands was a fisherman called Mehmet Galin. Beşiktaş finished the game with a 6–0 win, with 3 goals volleyed in by Şeref Görkey, who was known as volleyer Şeref, and one goal each by Captain Hakkı, Şakir and Şükrü. The Beşiktaş players, who had so successfully defeated their opponents that season, were being described as "Black Eagles”, and the football they played was being compared to “Attacking like Black Eagles”. The comparison resonated with the team and the fans, and so it was adopted by the Beşiktaş community as their team's nickname.

Colours and badge[edit]

BJK İnönü Stadium entrance, displaying the club emblem and stars for Turkish Super League championships.

Since only individual sports were done at the beginning in the Osman Pasha Mansion, there was no need for any colours for a uniform. However, the number of sportsmen increased with new youths who joined sport teams each passing day. Mehmet Şamil Bey (first president of the Club), who had graduated from the French school gathered the Founders Committee. He removed the pin he used in his school days bearing the colours of his school from his lapel and showed it around. He said “We must have a pin just like this one made and we must force all members who attend sports in our Club to bear this pin”. Those attending the meeting eagerly agreed to Mehmet Şamil Bey’s proposal. At the end of the meeting, the colours of the Club to be shown on the pin were decided. The two principal colours of nature in full contrast to each other were chosen as the Club colours: black and white.

The date Beşiktaş’s first badge was made was written as “1906” in Latin years inspired by the badges in the French school. On top, it said “Beşiktaş” in Arabic letters, the letter “J” was placed on the rights and letter “K” was placed on the left. On the back of the badge, there was a script saying it was made in Constantinople and there was the seal of the craftsmen who made the badge on the inside. It is interesting that the star on the crest on the badge has 6 points. This 6-pointed star was used until the 2nd Constitutional Monarchy (1908). This badge was donated by Iskender Yakak to Süleyman Seba, the Honorary President of Beşiktaş J.K.

The current emblem of Beşiktaş symbolizes the foundation date. There are two white and three black bars on the emblem. It consists of nine parts in total. There is one white bar, three black bars, and another white bar, and there are nine parts in total. Thus: 1319, the year of the club's foundation. (The Islamic calendar was still used in the Ottoman Empire at the time of the club's foundation. 1319 is the equivalent of 1903 in Gregorian Calendar.)

Colours of Beşiktaş also used to be red and white, but when the Ottoman Empire lost the First Balkan War and Beşiktaş lost many athletes, they decided to change their colours to black and white out of respect for those that died, until the Ottoman Empire regained the lost territories in the Balkans. This never happened, so the colours of the club remained as black and white.

Stadium[edit]

Main article: BJK İnönü Stadium

BJK İnönü Stadium is located near the Bosphorus and very close to Taksim Square. the stadium can be reached easily by every means of public transport (bus, ferry, metro, light-rail, funicular etc.) easily due to its central location.

There are four different parts of the stadium; 1."Kapalı" is where the most hot-blooded fans stay during the matches; 2."Yeni Açık" is the larger side, which has a view of the sea; 3."Eski Açık" is the smaller curve on the seaside, where visitor supporters are typically placed; 4."Numaralı" is where press, VIP and protocol stands can be found.

2013 was the last season of the İnönü Stadium as Beşiktaş' home ground. The club will play the 2013/14 season using the Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Stadium for their home games. The new stadium is scheduled to be completed by September 2014.

Supporters[edit]

Players[edit]

Current squad[edit]

As of July 2014[16]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
1 Turkey GK Cenk Gönen
3 Turkey DF İsmail Köybaşı
6 Czech Republic DF Tomáš Sivok
8 Austria MF Veli Kavlak
9 Senegal FW Demba Ba
10 Turkey MF Olcay Şahan
11 Turkey FW Mustafa Pektemek
13 Canada MF Atiba Hutchinson
15 Turkey MF Oğuzhan Özyakup
17 Turkey MF Gökhan Töre
19 Colombia DF Pedro Franco
20 Turkey MF Necip Uysal
No. Position Player
21 Turkey MF Kerim Frei
22 Turkey DF Ersan Gülüm
25 Turkey DF Uğur Boral
27 Turkey DF Serdar Kurtuluş
29 Turkey GK Tolga Zengin (captain)
31 Brazil DF Ramon Motta
37 Slovakia FW Filip Hološko
49 Turkey MF Muhammed Demirci
77 Turkey FW Ömer Şişmanoğlu
99 Turkey GK Emre Metin
Turkey FW Cenk Tosun

Out on loan[edit]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
Turkey GK Günay Güvenç (at Mersin İdmanyurdu until 30 June 2015)
No. Position Player

Not in squad[edit]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
Turkey MF Sezer Öztürk
Turkey DF İbrahim Toraman
No. Position Player
Nigeria FW Michael Eneramo
Turkey DF Gökhan Süzen

Reserves and academy squads[edit]

For the reserve and academy team squads, see Beşiktaş J.K. A2

Former players[edit]

For all players with a Wikipedia article, see Category:Beşiktaş J.K. footballers

Honours[edit]

Picture of the 2002–03 Süper Lig champions' trophy, won by Beşiktaş during the club's centenary year (1903–2003)

Domestic championships[edit]

Defunct domestic competitions[edit]

Picture of the 2006–07 Turkish Cup Trophy, won by Beşiktaş.

UEFA achievements[edit]

European record[edit]

Current ranking[edit]

As of 25 July 2013[17]
Rank Team Coefficient
58 Italy Fiorentina 33.321
59 Turkey Beşiktaş 33.240
60 Romania Steaua București 33.026
61 Scotland Celtic 31.838
62 Germany Hamburg 31.728
63 Belgium Club Brugge 31.220

Statistics[edit]

As of 12 July 2014[18]
Competition Pld W D L GF GA GD
UEFA Champions League 64 20 12 32 59 101 −42
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup 20 4 4 12 21 38 −17
UEFA Europa League 80 36 14 30 125 101 +24
Total 164 60 30 74 205 240 −35

Recent seasons[edit]

Season Div. Pos. Pl. W D L GS GA P Cup Europe Manager
2005/06 SL 3 34 15 9 10 52 39 54 Winners UC Group Stage Jean Tigana
2006/07 SL 2 34 18 7 9 43 32 61 Winners UC Group Stage Jean Tigana
2007/08 SL 3 34 23 4 7 58 32 73 Quarter-Final UCL Group Stage Ertuğrul Sağlam
2008/09 SL 1 34 21 8 5 60 30 71 Winners UC 1st Round Ertuğrul Sağlam/Mustafa Denizli
2009/10 SL 4 34 18 10 6 47 25 64 Group Stage UCL Group Stage Mustafa Denizli
2010/11 SL 5 34 15 9 10 53 36 54 Winners UEL Last 32 Bernd Schuster/Tayfur Havutçu
2011/12 SL 4 34+6 15+1 9+2 10+3 50+5 39+9 54+5 Last 16 UEL Last 16 Carlos Carvalhal/Tayfur Havutçu
2012/13 SL 3 34 16 10 8 63 49 58 Last 16 - - Samet Aybaba

Last updated: 29 September 2013
Div. = Division;SL = Süper Lig; Pos. = Position; Pl = Match played; W = Win; D = Draw; L = Lost; GS = Goal Scored; GA = Goal Against; P = Points
UCL = UEFA Champions League; UCWC = UEFA Cup Winners' Cup; UC = UEFA Cup; UEL = UEFA Europa League; Cup = Turkish Cup. Colors: Gold = winner; Silver = runner-up.

Presidents[edit]

Name[19] From–to[19]
Turkey Mehmet Üstünkaya 1981–84
Turkey Süleyman Seba 1984–00
Turkey Serdar Bilgili 2000–04
Turkey Yıldırım Demirören 2004–12
Turkey Fikret Orman 2012–present

Managers[edit]

There had been managers from various European countries at the helm of the club. The longest serving manager of Beşiktaş is Şeref Bey, managing the club for 14 years. The most successful manager is Gordon Milne, winning the league three times in a row and other trophies as well.[20]

Sponsorship[edit]

Years Shirt sponsor Kit manufacturer
1988 None Adidas
1988–1998 Beko
1998–2001 Reebok
2001–2004 Puma
2004–2005 Cola Turka
2005–2009 Umbro
2009–2011 Adidas
2011– Toyota

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü Derneği Tüzüğü". p. 1. Retrieved 6 September 2013.  (Turkish)
  2. ^ "Kara Kartallar Efsanesi". Beşiltaş JK. 22 October 2004. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  3. ^ "Turkey - Club Nicknames". RSSSF. 10 July 2005. Retrieved 8 January 2014. 
  4. ^ "The Club". Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  5. ^ "Tesisler". Retrieved 6 September 2013.  (Turkish)
  6. ^ "Infobank » Stadium Details". Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  7. ^ "Info Bank » Club Details". Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ "Branches, Football". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Basketball". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Volleyball". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Handball". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Athletics". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Boxing". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Wrestling". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Chess". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Cards Bridge". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Gymnastics". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Rowing". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Table Tennis". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Disabled Sports". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Besiktas Beach Football Team is Established". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  10. ^ "Denizlispor:1 – Beşiktaş:2". milliyet.com.tr. 30 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  11. ^ "UEFA Rankings". UEFA. 13 December 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2014. 
  12. ^ "1991–92 League Ranking". Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  13. ^ "1991–92 League Ranking". Turkish Football Association. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  14. ^ "Besiktas – Adana Demirspor : 10–0". Beskitas Official Website. 1 November 2005. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  15. ^ "Basarilarimiz" [Our Achievements]. Beskitas Official Website. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  16. ^ "First Team Squad List". besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 28 June 2014. 
  17. ^ [2]
  18. ^ UEFA club competition record – UEFA.com
  19. ^ a b "Başkanlarımız". Beşiktaş official website. Retrieved 27 October 2013.  (Turkish)
  20. ^ Teknik Direktörlerimiz Beşiktaş JK

External links[edit]