|Full name||Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü|
(The Black Eagles)
|Founded||19 March 1903|
|Ground||İnönü Stadium, Istanbul
|2011–12||Süper Lig, 4th|
|Website||Club home page|
Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü (English: Beşiktaş Gymnastics Club), Beşiktaş is a Turkish sports club. The club's football team is one of the major teams in Turkey. The professional sports club, founded in 1903, is based in the Beşiktaş district in Istanbul, Turkey. Beşiktaş Gymnastics Club, established the first sport club of Turkey in 1903. The club competes in numerous branches including football, basketball, volleyball, handball, athletics, boxing, wrestling, chess, bridge, gymnastics, rowing, table tennis, paralympic sports and beach football.
The home ground of Beşiktaş is BJK İnönü Stadium with a 32,145 seating capacity. The club last won the Turkish Süper Lig championship during the 2008–2009 season, also achieving the double after winning the Turkish Cup.
|Active departments of Beşiktaş J.K.|
Early years 
Beşiktaş established in 1903 during the late Ottoman period. A group of 22 young individuals gathered on certain days of the week to perform bodily exercises in the Serencebey neighborhood of Beşiktaş. They began in the fall of 1902, in the garden of the mansion of Osman Paşa, who was then a part of the Medine Guard. The various sporting activities that these youths participated in included the horizontal bar, parallel bar, wrestling, weight lifting and gymnastics. They included such members as the sons of Osman Paşa, Mehmet Şamil and Hüseyin Bereket, and other youths of the neighborhood – Ahmet Fetgeri, Mehmet Ali Fetgeri, Nazım Nazif, Cemil Feti and Şevket. Sultan Abdul Hamid II had secret agents go around the city, reporting on any gathering activities that might be political in nature. When these agents heard about the group, the exercising youths were taken to the police station after a raid. The tense situation was relaxed as some of these youths were close to palace officers. Since others did not play football, which was in disfavor in those days, they only participated in bodily exercises. In fact, Şehzade Abdülhalim, who had relations with the Palace, supported these youths and started to watch their practices frequently. Famous boxer and Wrestler Kenan Bey came to the practices and started to show wrestling and boxing tricks.
Bereket Gymnastic Club was founded under special permission in 1903. Their sporting activities gained more freedom with the declaration of the Constitutional Monarchy in 1908. After the political events of March 31, 1909, Fuat Balkan and Mazhar Kazancı, who were in Edirne, came to Istanbul with the Movement Army. After the political events settled down, Fuat Balkan, who was a good fencing coach and Mazhar Kazancı, who was a good wrestler and weight lifter, found the youths involved in gymnastics in Serencebey and got them to agree to participate in sports together. Fuat Balkan made the space under his home in Ihlamur the Club’s headquarters, and the title of Bereket Gymnastics Club was changed to Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club. Thus, a stronger sports club where gymnastics, wrestling, boxing, fencing and athletics were emphasized was formed. Refik and Şerafettin Beys, friends of Fuat Bey, were also good fencers.
In the meantime, Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club became the first registered Turkish sports club on January 13, 1910 with the encouragement of Beyoğlu Governor Muhittin Bey. The interest among the youths of the neighborhood in the sports club grew and the number of members involved in sports suddenly went up to 150. The headquarters of the club was moved from Ihlamur to Building 49 in Akaretler. When this building became too small, Building 84, also in Akaretler, became their headquarters. The yard behind this building was turned into a sports pitch.
Some of the young patriots from the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul formed two football clubs called "Valideçeşme" and "Basiret" under the leadership of Şeref Bey. The Valideçeşme and Basiret football clubs joined under the Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club in 1911. In a very short time, football became the foremost branch in the club.
Initial years of football 
With football becoming the main sport of the Ottoman Empire around 1910, Beşiktaş members slowly started to give more attention to football. In August 1911, Ahmet Şerafettin Bey started the football team. Beşiktaş didn't enter in the Istanbul Friday and Sunday leagues, and didn't have any championships until 1918, when they won the Istanbul Turkish 1st Sports League. In 1921 they won it again. 1921 also was the leagues final season. In 1924, Beşiktaş entered the Istanbul Football League along with Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and other Istanbul teams. Beşiktaş became the leagues first champion in 1924, but wasn't able to get more success in the league. Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe were the 2 dominant teams until the 1930s. Beşiktaş won their 2nd Istanbul League championship in 1934, as well as their first Turkish Football Championship in the same year. In 1937 the Turkish National League was formed. Beşiktaş finished in 4th place in the Istanbul League, giving Beşiktaş a berth in the National League. Beşiktaş finished 3rd place in the National league behind Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray. In 1938 Beşiktaş finished 3rd place in the Istanbul league and 2nd place in the National league behind Güneş. Beşiktaş won a record 5 consecutive Istanbul league championships between 1939 and 1943. In the National league Beşiktaş finished 4th in 1939, 5th in 1940, 1st in 1941 and 3rd in 1943 (1942 was not held). Beşiktaş won the Istanbul league in 1945 and 1946, as well as the National league in 1944, and 1947.
After 1959 
In 1959 the Turkish First League was formed. It was Turkey's first professional league. Beşiktaş came in 3rd place in inaugural year of the league. Beşiktaş won the league title in 1960. In 1960 they also took part in the European Cup, and became the first Turkish team ever to participate in that cup. Beşiktaş finished 3rd place in 1961 and 1962 and a second place in 1963, 1964 and 1965 till consistency paid off and they were finally the champions again in 1966 and 1967. In 1967 they also won their first Turkish Super Cup. In 1968 Beşiktaş finished in 2nd place.
Silent 1970s 
After 1968 Beşiktaş' performance declined greatly, finishing in 9th, 11th, 5th, 6th many times, while Trabzonspor, Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray continued their success however Beşiktaş had shown a good performance to put a stop to their success. Beşiktaş only finished 2nd place 1 time in 70s (1974).
1980s Revival 
Beşiktaş put an end to their bad performance in 1982 with a surprise Turkish championship. Beşiktaş got another championship in 1986 as well. They finished the league in the second place four times in the second half of the decade except the championship in 1985–86 season. Hooliganism was also a major problem that had started in Europe and spread throughout Turkey as well. Besiktas fan hooliganism has been a major issue with many fights inside and outside the stadium however fan violence has decreased recently for a couple years.
Milne era 
Beşiktaş had their most successful run in the Süper Lig with three consecutive championships under the management of Gordon Milne in the early 90s. Three players of the squad; Metin Tekin, Ali Gültiken, Feyyaz Uçar were notable for significant contributions to the team during this period. These players had been called Metin-Ali-Feyyaz (shorty: MAF) and they formed the front of the team line-up. The supporters composed various chants for the trio devoted to their delighting style on the pitch, their goals and above all for their friendship and modesty. They are regarded by supporters as the best trio and attacking line of the club ever.
This was the only three-in-a-row title term of club history in 1989–90, 1990–91 and 1991–92 seasons. Most notably, Beşiktaş became the first undefeated champion in Süper Lig history. It is the only team to achieve the honors.
Milne had adopted the 4–4–2 system. By playing down the lines and crossing, the team scored many goals through aerial challenges. On 15 October 1989, Beşiktaş broke the Süper Lig record for the biggest margin in a game with a 10–0 victory over Southern Turkey team Adana Demirspor. This match was enrolled as one of the 16 biggest matches of the club history.
Legend of the Black Eagles 
There is a legend surrounding the initial naming of the team "The Black Eagles." Beşiktaş, the title holder of the previous two seasons started the 1940–41 season with a young and renewed team. Beşiktaş, which opened up its lead as weeks went by, was the leader in the league. With five weeks remaining to the end, the opponent was Süleymaniye. Beşiktaş had started the game in Şeref Stadium refereed by Semih Turansoy on Sunday January 19, 1941, with the following players: Faruk, Yavuz, İbrahim, Rıfat, Halil, Hüseyin, Şakir, Hakkı, Şükrü, Şeref, Eşref. As in all games of that season, the team played well. Halfway through the second half of the game, Beşiktaş attacked continuously despite being in front. And then, according to legend, a voice was heard from the stands towards which Beşiktaş was attacking. The voice said "Come on Black Eagles. Attack Black Eagles". The Beşiktaş players who had so successfully defeated their opponents that season, being described as "Black Eagles” and the football they played compared to “Attacking like Black Eagles”. According to legend, the owner of the voice from the stands was a fisherman called Mehmet Galin. Beşiktaş closed the game with a 6–0 win with 3 goals volleyed in by Şeref Görkey, who was known as volleyer Şeref and one goal each by Captain Hakkı, Şakir and Şükrü.
Colours and badge 
Since only individual sports were done at the beginning in the Osman Pasha Mansion, there was no need for any colours for a uniform. However, the number of sportsmen increased with new youths who joined sport teams each passing day. Mehmet Şamil Bey (first president of the Club), who had graduated from the French school gathered the Founders Committee. He removed the pin he used in his school days bearing the colours of his school from his lapel and showed it around. He said “We must have a pin just like this one made and we must force all members who attend sports in our Club to bear this pin”. Those attending the meeting eagerly agreed to Mehmet Şamil Bey’s proposal. At the end of the meeting, the colours of the Club to be shown on the pin were decided. The two principal colours of nature in full contrast to each other were chosen as the Club colours: black and white.
The date Beşiktaş’s first badge was made was written as “1906” in Latin years inspired by the badges in the French school. On top, it said “Beşiktaş” in Arabic letters, the letter “J” was placed on the rights and letter “K” was placed on the left. On the back of the badge, there was a script saying it was made in Constantinople and there was the seal of the craftsmen who made the badge on the inside. It is interesting that the star on the crest on the badge has 6 points. This 6-pointed star was used until the 2nd Constitutional Monarchy (1908). This badge was donated by Iskender Yakak to Süleyman Seba, the Honorary President of Beşiktaş J.K.
The current emblem of Beşiktaş symbolizes the foundation date. There are two white and three black bars on the emblem. It consists of nine parts in total. There is one white bar, three black bars, and another white bar, and there are nine parts in total. Thus: 1319, the year of the club's foundation. (The Islamic calendar was still used in the Ottoman Empire at the time of the club's foundation. 1319 is the equivalent of 1903 in Gregorian Calendar.)
Colours of Beşiktaş used to be red and white also, but when the ottoman empire lost the balkan war and Besiktas lost many athletes, they decided to change their colours to black and white out of respect for those that died, till the Ottoman empire regained the lost territories in the balkan, since that never happened the colours of the club remained black-white.
BJK İnönü Stadium is located near the Bosphorus and very close to Taksim Square. the stadium can be reached easily by every means of public transport (bus, ferry, metro, light-rail, funicular etc.) easily due to its central location.
There are four different parts in the stadium; 1."Kapalı" is where the most hot-blooded fans stay in the upper part during the matches; 2."Yeni Açık" is the larger side, which has a view of the sea; 3."Eski Açık" is the smaller curve on the seaside, where visitor supporters are typically placed; 4."Numaralı" where press, VIP and protocol stands can be found.
Domestic championships 
- Süper Lig:
- Turkish Cup:
- Turkish Super Cup:
Defunct domestic competitions 
- Amatör Futbol Şampiyonası: (shared-record)
- Winners (4): 1934, 1951, 1985, 1988
- Milli Küme Şampiyonası:
- Turkish Federation Cup:
- Chancellor Cup:
- Winners (8): 1943–44, 1946–47, 1973–74, 1976–77, 1987–88, 1996–97
- TSYD Cup: (shared-record)
- Winners (12): 1964–65, 1965–66, 1971–72, 1972–73, 1974–75, 1983–84, 1984–85, 1988–89, 1989–90, 1990–91, 1993–94, 1996–97
- Atatürk Cup:
- Winners (1): 2000
- Istanbul Turk Idman Birligi Ligi:
- Winners (2): 1919-20, 1920-21
- Istanbul Football League:
- Istanbul Futbol Kupası: (shared-record)
- Istanbul Shield:
- Winners (1): 1935
- Spor-Toto Cup: (record)
- Winners (4): 1966, 1968, 1970, 1972
- Fleet Cup:
- Winners (1): 1986
UEFA achievements 
Records & Achievements 
According to the official web site:
- The only undefeated winner of the Süper Lig (1991–92 season)
- Biggest win ever in the Süper Lig against Adana Demirspor with 10–0 during the 1989–90 season. Goals by Ali Gültiken (4), Metin Tekin (3) ve Feyyaz Uçar (3)
- Longest streak of undefeated games in the Süper Lig with 56 games, hence the nickname Yenilmez Armada (Invincible Armada)
- 10 seasons unbeaten at home against teams from outside of Istanbul in the Süper Lig (with the exception of rival Istanbul teams Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray)
- Most games won in a row by any club in the Süper Lig with 18 games
- Won 5 consecutive Istanbul League titles (1939–1943)
- Most goals scored in the Istanbul League, 90 goals in a season, 599 in 8 seasons
- First winner of the Turkish Super Cup in 2006 against Galatasaray, 1–0
- The record away win in a UEFA competition match in the club's history was against FK Olimpik Sarajevo with 0–5 during the 2002–03 UEFA Cup
- Most winner of the Istanbul Football League title (15)
- Only club to win the Istanbul Football League title 5 times in a row (1939-1943)
- Most goals scored in Istanbul League history (90 Goals in a season, 599 Goals in 8 seasons)
- Highest number of undefeated titles (7)
- Only team that won the Turkish National League Championship with a perfect record
- Only team selected to represent the Turkey national football team
- Only team to carry a Turkish Flag on its Emblem
- Most winner of the ‘Fair-Play’ Cup (19)
- Most winner of the Istanbul and Turkish titles in the youth leagues (30)
- Only football club with a title in fencing (Balkan Championship)
- Only Turkish club to help legitimize Commemoration of Atatürk, Youth and Sports Day
- Only club that introduced Greco-Roman wrestling to other clubs in Turkey
- Only Turkish club that have titles in athletics, fencing, boxing, basketball, wrestling and football.
- Only club that introduced pole vault to Turkey (Painter Namik Ismail)
- The club that teach physical education at schools
- Owner of Turkey’s greatest sports facilities
- Only club with “sports schools” in almost every sports section
- The team that has raised the highest number of talented players from their youth organization
- Only team with a 56-match unbeaten streak
- Most consecutive wins in football tournaments (18)
- The team that posted only one loss in two seasons
- The team with the longest unbeaten streak in league history (48 matches). After losing 2-0 to Gençlerbirliği in Week 26 of the1991-92 season, the Black and White's did not lose a match until a 3-1 setback against Galatasaray in Week 13 of the following season, a span of 48 weeks.
- Most consecutive wins in National Football League Championship (13) (1959–60)
- In comparison to other clubs, which mostly have ISO 9001:1994, Beşiktaş is the first Turkish sports club to receive ISO 9001: 2000 certification through highly efficient sports departments and facilities management, advanced marketing and selling of club products and modern press, public and fan communications services.
UEFA ranking 
Current ranking 
- As of 26 April 2012
|63||Club Brugge K.V.||36.880|
|64||FC Steaua Bucureşti||35.604|
|67||Newcastle United FC||31.449|
|68||CFR 1907 Cluj||30.604|
- As of 16 October 2012
|UEFA Champions League||64||20||12||32||59||101||−42|
|UEFA Cup Winners' Cup||20||4||4||12||21||38||−17|
|UEFA Europa League||78||35||14||29||122||99||+23|
Competition finishing positions 
|Year||Süper Lig||Turkish Cup||Turkish Super Cup||UEFA Champions League||UEFA Europa League|
|1958–59||3rd||No Competition||No Competition||Second Round||–|
|1959–60||1st||No Competition||No Competition||–||–|
|1960–61||3rd||No Competition||No Competition||–||–|
|1961–62||3rd||No Competition||No Competition||–||–|
|1962–63||2nd||Round of 16||No Competition||–||–|
|1964–65||2nd||Round of 16||No Competition||–||–|
|1967–68||2nd||Round of 16||–||First Round||–|
|1968–69||3rd||Round of 16||–||–||–|
|1969–70||9th||Round of 16||–||–||–|
|1977–78||5th||Round of 16||–||–||–|
|1979–80||11th||Round of 32||–||–||–|
|1981–82||1st||Round of 16||Runners-up||–||–|
|1985–86||1st||Round of 16||Winners||–||First Round|
|1986–87||2nd||Round of 32||–||Quarter-finals||–|
|1994–95||1st||Round of 16||Runners-up||–||–|
|1999–00||2nd||Round of 16||No Competition||Second Qualifying Round||–|
|2000–01||4th||Semi-finals||No Competition||Group Stage||–|
|2003–04||3rd||Round of 16||No Competition||Group Stage||Third Round|
|2004–05||4th||Round of 16||No Competition||–||Group Stage|
|2009–10||4th||Group Stage||–||Group Stage||–|
|2010–11||5th||Winners||No Competition||–||Round of 32|
|2011–12||4th||Round of 16||–||–||Round of 16|
Current squad 
Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Out on loan 
Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Retired and unused numbers 
16 is forbidden because of the rivalary between Bursaspor
Reserves and Academy squad 
For the reserve and academy team squads, see Beşiktaş J.K. A2
Former players 
For all players with a Wikipedia article, see Category:Beşiktaş J.K. footballers
Beşiktaş managers 
Beşiktaş has had managers from all over Europe. Şeref Bey is the teams longest serving manager, managing the club for 14 years. The most successful manager is Gordon Milne, winning the league 3 times in a row and other trophies.
|Gordon Milne||July 1987–Dec 93|
|Christoph Daum||Jan 1994–May 96|
|Rasim Kara||July 1996–June 97|
|John Toshack||July 1997–Feb 99|
|Karl-Heinz Feldkamp||Feb 1999–Sept 99|
|Hans-Peter Briegel||Sept 1999–June 00|
|Nevio Scala||July 2000–Dec 01|
|Christoph Daum||March 2001–May 02|
|Mircea Lucescu||July 2002–May 04|
|Vicente Del Bosque||June 2004–Jan 05|
|Rıza Çalımbay||Feb 2005–Oct 05|
|Jean Tigana||Oct 2005–May 07|
|Ertuğrul Sağlam||July 2007–Oct 08|
|Mustafa Denizli||Oct 2008–June 10|
|Bernd Schuster||July 2010–March 11|
|Tayfur Havutçu||March 2011–July 11|
|Roland Koch (interim)||July 2011–Aug 11|
|Carlos Carvalhal||Aug 2011–April 12|
|Samet Aybaba||June 2012–present|
According to official web site.
- UEFA Stadiums List UEFA
- "Branches, Football". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
"Branches, Basketball". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
"Branches, Volleyball". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
"Branches, Handball". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
"Branches, Athletics". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
"Branches, Boxing". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
"Branches, Wrestling". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
"Branches, Chess". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
"Branches, Cards Bridge". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
"Branches, Gymnastics". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
"Branches, Rowing". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
"Branches, Table Tennis". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
"Branches, Disabled Sports". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
"Besiktas Beach Football Team is Established". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- "Denizlispor:1 – Beşiktaş:2". milliyet.com.tr. 30 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
- 1991–92 football season ranking "1991–92 League Ranking". Retrieved 18 January 2008.
- "1991–92 League Ranking". Turkish Football Association. Retrieved 18 January 2008.
- "Besiktas – Adana Demirspor : 10–0". Beskitas Official Website. 1 November 2005. Retrieved 18 January 2008.
- "Basarilarimiz (Eng: Our Achievements)". Beskitas Official Website. Retrieved 18 January 2008.
- "Achievements". Besiktas.com.tr. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- UEFA club competition record – UEFA.com
- Teknik Direktörlerimiz Beşiktaş JK
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Beşiktaş JK|
- (Turkish) Beşiktaş, official website
- Beşiktaş news
- (Turkish) Beşiktaş websites
- New Yorker article
- (Turkish)Forza Çarşı, Official Çarşı Website