Wray, live in 2003
|Birth name||Fred Lincoln Wray Jr.|
May 2, 1929|
Dunn, North Carolina, United States
|Died||November 5, 2005
|Genres||Rock and roll, rockabilly, roots rock, country, instrumental rock, surf rock, proto-punk|
|Associated acts||Robert Gordon|
Frederick Lincoln "Link" Wray Jr (May 2, 1929 – November 5, 2005) was an American rock and roll guitarist, songwriter and vocalist who first came to popularity in the late 1950s.
Building on the overdriven, distorted electric guitar sound of early electric blues records, his 1958 instrumental hit "Rumble" by Link Wray and his Ray Men invented "the power chord, the major modus operandi of modern rock guitarists", making possible "punk and heavy rock". Rolling Stone placed Wray at number 45 of the 100 greatest guitarists of all time. In 2013 he was announced as a nominee for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
Wray was born in Dunn, North Carolina, to Fred Lincoln Wray,Sr. and his wife Lillian M. Coats. Wray frequently spoke of his half Shawnee Indian ancestry in performances and interviews. Three songs he performed were named for American Indian tribes: "Shawnee", "Apache", and "Comanche". "Apache" was an instrumental composed by Jerry Lordan; it was a hit in the United Kingdom for The Shadows in 1960. Wray recorded a cover version 30 years later, when it was also associated with The Ventures and the Incredible Bongo Band.
Wray served in the US Army during the Korean War, and contracted tuberculosis, which laid him up in a hospital for a year. His stay concluded with the removal of a lung, which doctors predicted would mean he would never be able to sing again.
After his initial hits, Wray's career had periods of retirement followed by renewed popularity, particularly in Europe. To escape the "trap" of big business involvement in music, he began recording albums using a three-track studio he converted from a chicken shack.
While living in the San Francisco Bay Area in the early 1970s, Wray was introduced to Quicksilver Messenger Service guitarist John Cipollina by bassist James Hutchinson. He subsequently formed a band initially featuring special guest Cipollina along with the rhythm section from Cipollina's band Copperhead, bassist Hutch Hutchinson, and drummer David Weber. They opened for the band Lighthouse at The Whisky a Go Go in Los Angeles from May 15–19, 1974. He later did numerous concerts and radio broadcasts in the Bay Area including KSAN (FM) and the Bill Graham venue, Winterland Ballroom, with Les Lizama later replacing Hutchinson on bass. He toured and recorded two albums with retro-rockabilly artist Robert Gordon in the late 1970s. The 1980s to the present day saw a large number of reissues as well as new material. One member of his band in the 1980s, drummer Anton Fig, later became drummer in the CBS Orchestra on the Late Show with David Letterman. In 1994, he played on four songs of the album Chatterton by French rocker Alain Bashung.
Wray's first three marriages—to Elizabeth Canady Wray, Ethel (Kitty) Tidwell Wray, and Sharon Wray—each ended in divorce. He had three children with Kitty: Link Elvis, Belinda, and Mona Kay. Link Elvis in his youth was a small town singer/ guitar player in Maryland. Belinda is a successful artist whose works range from pencil to paintings, in North Carolina. Mona Kay is mainly known in the small town of Sumter, South Carolina, for her singing, along with her son, Jonathan Tidwell, for his dancing, in bars and grills. Although Wray had eight children with his first three wives, he had little contact with any of them after settling in Denmark.
Wray moved to Denmark in the 1980s after marrying his wife Olive, a Danish student who had been studying Native American culture. He spent his last years on a Danish island, touring frequently. He died of heart failure, at the age of 76, in 2005 at his home in Copenhagen. He was buried in the crypt of the Christian's Church, Copenhagen.
Jack Rose cited Wray as an influence, as did Iggy Pop. Jimmy Page says that Link Wray had a "real rebel attitude" and credits him in It Might Get Loud as a major influence in his early career. According to Rolling Stone, Peter Townshend of The Who once said, "If it hadn't been for Link Wray and 'Rumble,' I never would have picked up a guitar."
|Release date||A-side||B-side||Label||Catalog number||US|
|April 1958||"Rumble"||"The Swag"||Cadence||1347||16|
|January 1959||"Raw-Hide"||"The Dixie-Doodle"||Epic||5-9300||23|
|1959||"Vendetta" (as Ray Vernon)||"Roughshod"||"Scottie"||NRS-3020|
|March 1960||"Trail Of The Lonesome Pine"||"Golden Strings" (based On A Chopin Etude)||Epic||5-9361|
|October 1960||"Ain't That Lovin' You Babe"||"Mary Ann"||Epic||5-9419|
|July 1961||"Jack The Ripper"||"The Stranger"||Rumble||1000||64|
|August 1961||"El Toro"||"Tijuana"||Epic||5-9454|
|1962||"Big City After Dark"||"Hold It"||(as Ray Vernon & the Raymen)||Mala|
|March 1962||"Big City Stomp"||"Poppin' Popeye"||Trans Atlas|
|March 1963||"Rumble Mambo"||"Hambone"||Okeh||4-7166|
|April 1963||"The Black Widow"||"Jack The Ripper"||Swan||S-4137|
|September 1963||"Week End"||"Turnpike U.S.A."||Swan||S-4154|
|November 1963||"Run Chicken Run"||"The Sweeper"||Swan||S-4163|
|March 1964||"The Shadow Knows"||"My Alberta"||Swan||S-4171|
|July 1964||"Deuces Wild"||"Summer Dream"||Swan||S-4187|
|February 1965||"Good Rockin' Tonight"||"I'll Do Anything For You"||Swan||S-4201|
|1965||"I'm Branded"||"Hang On"||Swan||S-4211|
|1965||"Girl from the North Country"||"You Hurt Me So"||Swan||S-4232|
|1965||"Ace of Spades"||"The Fuzz"||Swan||S-4239|
|1966||"The Batman Theme" (with Bobby Howard)||"Alone"||Swan||S-4244|
|1966||"Ace of Spades"||"Hidden Charms"||Swan||S-4261|
|1967||"Let the Good Times Roll" (with Kathy Lynn)||"Soul Train"||Swan||S-4273|
|1967||"Jack The Ripper"||"I'll Do Anything For You"||Swan||S-4284|
|May 1979||"It's All Over Now Baby Blue"||"Just That Kind"||Charisma||CB-333|
|Release date||Title||Label||Catalog Number|
|1960 US||Link Wray & The Wraymen||Epic||LN 3661|
|1962 US||Great Guitar Hits by Link Wray||Vermillion||V-1924|
|1963 US||Jack The Ripper||Swan||S-LP 510|
|1964 US||Link Wray Sings and Plays Guitar||Vermillion||V-1925|
|1963/2006||Link Wray Early Recordings||Rollercoaster/Ace|
|1971 US||Link Wray||Polydor||PD-24-4064|
|1971 US||Mordicai Jones (w/ Bobby Howard)||Polydor||PD-5010|
|1972 US||Be What You Want To||Polydor||PD-5047|
|1973 US||Beans and Fatback (rec. 1971)||Virgin||V-2006|
|1974 US||The Link Wray Rumble||Polydor||PD-6025|
|1975 US||Stuck in Gear||Virgin Records Ltd||Stereo 27 266 XOT|
|1979 US||Bullshot||Visa||VISA 7009|
|1979 US||Live at the Paradiso||RCA||PL-44012|
|1990 UK||Wild Side of the City Lights|
|1993 DE||Indian Child||Sony Music||EPC 473100 2|
|1997 UK||Walking Down a Street Called Love - live|
|2000 US||Barbed Wire|
|Release date||Title||Label||Catalog Number|
|1969 US||Yesterday and Today||Record Factory||LP 1929|
|May 1993||Rumble! The Best of Link Wray||Rhino Records|
|2002||Mr. Guitar||Norton Records|
|2003||Hillbilly Wolf - Missing Links Volume 1||Norton Records|
|2003||Streets of Chicago - Missing Links Volume 4||Norton Records|
|2006||Big City After Dark - Missing Links Volume 2||Norton Records|
|2006||Some Kinda Nut - Missing Links Volume 3||Norton Records|
|2007||King of the Wild Guitar||Ace Records||B000PATZPQ|
With Robert Gordon
|1977 UK||Robert Gordon w/ Link Wray|
|1978 UK||Fresh Fish Special||Private Stock||PS 7008|
- Cub Koda & Steve Leggett (2008). "Link Wray" Biography, AllMusic.
- Simmonds, Jeremy (2008). The Encyclopedia of Dead Rock Stars: Heroin, Handguns, and Ham Sandwiches, p.559. ISBN 1-55652-754-3.
- "Link Wray | Rolling Stone Music | Lists". Rollingstone.com. Retrieved 2010-08-09.
- "Nirvana, Kiss, Hall and Oates Nominated for Rock and Roll Hall of Fame". Rolling Stone. October 16, 2013. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
- Deborah Wray: daughter-in-law
- "Ancestry of Link Wray". Wargs.com. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
- Meadows, Dick (28 August 1971). "Link: Doing it his Way". Sounds (Spotlight Publications). p. 8.
- "The Leading Bands Site on the Net". BayAreaBands.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
- [dead link]
- "Link Wray". wolfgangsvault.com. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
- Prown, Pete & Newquist, HP (1997). Legends of Rock Guitar: The Essential Reference of Rock's Greatest Guitarists, p. 25. Hal Leonard Corporation.
- Chatterton (album booklet). Alain Bashung. Barclay Records. 1994. 523 111-2.
- Adam Bernstein (November 22, 2005). "Guitarist Link Wray Dies; Influenced Punk, Grunge". Washington Post. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- Link Wray at Find a Grave
- US. "jack rose | Gratis muziek, tourneedata, foto's, video's". Myspace.com. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
- "Iggy Pop - The Colbert Report - 2013-29-04 - Video Clip | Comedy Central". Colbertnation.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
- Strong, Martin C. (2000). The Great Rock Discography (5th ed.). Edinburgh: Mojo Books. pp. 1084–1085. ISBN 1-84195-017-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Link Wray.|
- LinkWray.com (formerly WraysShack3Tracks.com)
- Link Wray's entry at the Rockabilly Hall of Fame
- Link Wray's Place
- Punk Rock Articles: Masculine Studs into Guitars, Link Wray - Photo Gallery
- Perfect Sound Forever: Be Wild, Not Evil: The Link Wray Story
- Mr. Guitar's City After Dark: Link Wray Obituary
- Induct Link Wray
- Vernon Wray - features some unreleased Link photos
- Be Wild Not Evil: The Link Wray Story