Bear attack

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A bear attack is an attack by any mammal of the Ursidae family, on another animal, although it usually refers to bears attacking humans or domestic pets. Bear attacks are relatively rare, but frequent enough to be of concern for those who are in bear habitats. Bear attacks can be fatal and often hikers, hunters, fisherman, and others in bear country take precautions against bear attacks.

According to Taylor Y. Cardall MD and Peter Rosen MD, in their article "Grizzly Bear Attack" published in the Journal of Emergency Medicine, there were 162 bear-inflicted injuries reported in the United States between 1900 and 1985. This constitutes approximately two reported bear-inflicted injuries per year.[1] Likewise, Stephen Herrero, a Canadian biologist, reports that during the 1990s bears killed around three people a year in the U.S. and Canada, as compared to the 15 people killed every year by dogs.[2] Multiple reports remark that one is more likely to be struck by lightning than to be attacked by a bear when outdoors; around 90 people are killed by lightning each year.[3] However, with the increase in habitat destruction, interactions between bears and humans have increased and one would expect bear attacks to likewise be on the rise.[1]

History of human–bear relationships[edit]

A drum or barrel trap used to safely relocate bears parked adjacent to a building in Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming, USA

In Wild Bears of the Worlds, by Paul Ward and Suzanne Kynaston, human contact with bears has existed since the time of the Neanderthals and the European cave bear around 200,000 to 75,000 years ago.[4] There is some evidence of cave bear worship during these early years: between the years 1917 and 1922, Emil Bachler discovered a large stone chest filled with cave bear skulls in the Drachenloch Cave, one of the Wildkirchli; between 1916 and 1922, Konrad Hormann found narrow niches filled with five cave bear skulls.[4] However, at these sites, there have been little evidence of any human presence, and so some scientists have come to regard such discoveries as the result of some natural cause.[4]

Ward and Kynaston go on to report that Cro-Magnon humans, who first appeared nearly 35,000 years ago, show more obvious evidence of cave bear worship in the forms of paintings, sculptures, and engravings; however, there is still some doubt as to whether these works specifically depict the cave bear or the European brown bear.[5]

In the 1900s, bear populations had been decreasing because of increased hunting of bears for sustenance (done mostly by native peoples such as the Inupiat of Alaska and the Inuvialuit of Canada) and for trophy prizes.[6] Polar bear skins became popular as a sign of wealth and prestige, especially in Europe during the Victorian era.[7] Comparatively, the pelts of giant panda, were also highly valued, priced at around 176,000 U.S. dollars.[8]

More recently, laws have been instated to protect the dwindling populations of bears; however, as stated in Return of the Grizzly by David Whitman, these laws have increased the tensions between bears and humans. While this allows bear populations to recuperate, it also prevents people from killing bears that have invaded their property and killed their livestock.[9]

Species, and respective aggressiveness[edit]

American black bears[edit]

Damage done by a black bear to a car door in Yosemite Valley

Unlike grizzly bears, which became a subject of fearsome legend among the European settlers of North America, black bears were rarely considered overly dangerous, even though they lived in areas where the pioneers had settled. Black bears rarely attack when confronted by humans, and usually limit themselves to making mock charges, emitting blowing noises and swatting the ground with their forepaws. However, according to Stephen Herrero in his Bear Attacks: Their Causes and Avoidance, 23 people were killed by black bears from 1900 to 1980. The number of black bear attacks on humans is higher than those of brown bears, though this is largely because the black species outnumbers the brown rather than their being more aggressive. Compared to brown bear attacks, violent encounters with black bears rarely lead to serious injury. However, the majority of black bear attacks tend to be motivated by hunger rather than territoriality, and thus victims have a higher probability of surviving by fighting back rather than submitting. Unlike grizzlies, female black bears do not display the same level of protectiveness to their cubs, and will seldom attack humans in their vicinity.[10] The worst recorded fatality incident occurred in May 1978, in which a black bear killed three teenagers fishing in Algonquin Park in Canada.[11] The majority of attacks happened in national parks, usually near campgrounds, where the bears had become habituated to human contact and food.[10] 1028 incidences of black bears acting aggressively toward people, 107 of which resulted in injury, were recorded from 1964 to 1976 in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, and occurred mainly in tourist hotspots, where people regularly fed the bears handouts.[11]

Asian black bears[edit]

An Asian black bear, shot after charging the "Old Shekarry", as illustrated in Wild sports of the world: a boy's book of natural history and adventure

Though usually shy and cautious animals, Asian black bears are more aggressive toward humans than the brown bears of Eurasia.[12] According to Brigadier General R.G. Burton:

The Himalayan black bear is a savage animal, sometimes attacking without provocation, and inflicting horrible wounds, attacking generally the head and face with their claws, while using their teeth also on a prostrate victim. It is not uncommon to see men who have been terribly mutilated, some having the scalp torn from the head, and many sportsmen have been killed by these bears.

A Book of Man Eaters, Chapter XVII Bears

A Dr. E. T. Vere of Srinagar, Kashmir wrote of how his hospital received dozens of black bear victims annually. He wrote that, when attacking humans, black bears will rear up on their hind legs and knock victims over with their paws. They then make one or two bites on an arm or leg and finish with a snap to the head, this being the most dangerous part of the attack.[13] There are no records of predation on humans by Asiatic black bears in Russia[14] and no conflicts have been documented in Taiwan.[15] However, in India, attacks on humans have been increasing yearly and have occurred largely in the northwestern and western Himalayan region. In the Chamba District of Himachal Pradesh, the number of black bear attacks on humans has gradually increased from 10 in 1988–89 to 21 in 1991–92.[16] Recent bear attacks on humans have been reported from Junbesi and Langtang National Park in Nepal, and occurred in villages as well as in the surrounding forest.[17] Li Guoxing, the second person in history to have received a facial transplant, was a victim of a black bear attack.[18][19] Nine people were killed by black bears in Japan between 1979–1989,[20] and more recently, in September 2009 it was reported that a black bear attacked a group of tourists, seriously injuring four, while they were waiting at a bus station in the built-up area of Takayama, Gifu in central Japan.[21] The majority of attacks tend to occur when black bears are encountered suddenly, and in close quarters. Because of this, black bears are generally considered more dangerous than sympatric brown bears, which live in more open spaces and are thus less likely to be surprised by approaching humans.[10] They are also likely to attack when protecting food.[22]

Brown bears[edit]

Illustration of a brown bear attacking Russian hunters

As a rule, brown bears seldom attack humans on sight, and usually avoid people. They are, however, unpredictable in temperament, and will attack if they are surprised or feel threatened.[23] Sows with cubs account for the majority of injuries and fatalities in North America. Habituated or food conditioned bears can also be dangerous, as their long-term exposure to humans causes them to lose their natural shyness, and in some cases associate humans with food. Small parties of one or two people are more often attacked than large groups, with no attacks being recorded against parties of more than seven people.[24] In contrast to injuries caused by American black bears, which are usually minor, brown bear attacks tend to result in serious injury and in some cases death.[23] In the majority of attacks resulting in injury, brown bears precede the attack with a growl or huffing sound,[10] and seem to confront humans as they would when fighting other bears: they rise up on their hind legs, and attempt to "disarm" their victims by biting and holding on to the lower jaw to avoid being bitten in turn.[25] Such a bite can be as severe as that of a tiger, and has been known to crush the heads of some human victims.[13] Most attacks occur in the months of July, August and September, the time when the number of outdoor recreationalists, such as hikers or hunters, is higher. People who assert their presence through noises tend to be less vulnerable, as they alert bears to their presence. In direct confrontations, people who run are statistically more likely to be attacked than those who stand their ground. Violent encounters with brown bears usually last only a few minutes, though they can be prolonged if the victims fight back.[10]

Attacks on humans are considered extremely rare in the former Soviet Union, though exceptions exist in districts where they are not pursued by hunters.[26] East Siberian Brown Bears for example tend to be much bolder toward humans than their shyer, more persecuted European counterparts.[27] In 2008, a platinum mining compound in the Olyotorsky district of northern Kamchatka was besieged by a group of 30 Kamchatka Brown Bears that killed two guards and prevented workers from leaving their homes.[28] In Scandinavia, only three fatal attacks were recorded in the 20th century.[29] Due to increasing brown bear population in Turkey, attacks still occur in mountainous areas of Northeastern Turkey.[30]

Native American tribes whose territories overlapped with those of grizzly bears often viewed them with a mixture of awe and fear. North American brown bears were so feared by the Natives that they were rarely hunted, especially alone. When Natives hunted grizzlies, the act was done with the same preparation and ceremoniality as inter-tribal warfare, and was never done except with a company of 4 to 10 warriors. The tribe members who dealt the killing blow were highly esteemed among their compatriots. Californian Indians actively avoided prime bear habitat, and would not allow their young men to hunt alone, for fear of bear attacks. During the Spanish colonial period, some tribes, instead of hunting grizzlies themselves, would seek aid from European colonists to deal with problem bears. Many authors in the American west wrote of Natives or voyagers with lacerated faces and missing noses or eyes due to attacks from grizzlies.[25] Within Yellowstone National Park, injuries caused by grizzly attacks in developed areas averaged approximately 1 per year during the 1930s through the 1950s, though it increased to 4 per year during the 1960s. They then decreased to 1 injury every 2 years (0.5/year) during the 1970s. Between 1980-2002, there were only 2 grizzly bear-caused human injuries in a developed area. However, although grizzly attacks were rare in the back-country before 1970, the number of attacks increased to an average of approximately 1 per year during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s.[31]

Sloth bears[edit]

In some areas of India and Burma, sloth bears are more feared than tigers, due to their unpredictable temperament.[32] In Madhya Pradesh, sloth bear attacks accounted for the deaths of 48 people and the injuring of 686 others between the years 1989 and 1994, probably due in part to the density of population and competition for food sources.[33] One specimen, known as the Sloth bear of Mysore, was single-handedly responsible for the deaths of 12 people and the mutilation of 2 dozen others before being shot by Kenneth Anderson. Sloth bears defend themselves when surprised, with the majority of confrontations occurring at night. They typically charge on all fours with their head held low, before rearing on their hind legs and striking at their attackers with their claws and teeth.[34]

Natural weapons: human versus bear[edit]

The various species of bears are well-developed for survival, both for attaining food and defending against predators, including unarmed humans. The different species all have the same general physical characteristics and senses that allow them to adapt to situations that threaten their survival.

Fur[edit]

A bear's fur is often very thick, and it can function much like armor. In situations between bears and other predators, such as humans, this thick fur acts with the bear's thick skin and layers of fat as a buffer against most physical attacks, sometimes buffering to some extent even against firearms.[35] According to Charles Fergus' Wild Guide: Bears, bear fur is also a source of insulation that allows bears to inhabit almost any habitat, from the hot jungles inhabited by sun bears to the frozen tundra inhabited by polar bears, thus occupying most of the same territory as man.[36]

Muscle[edit]

A Bear's muscular structure is highly suited for strength and power. Polar bears are known to swim for miles in search of food and to scoop 450-pound seals out of the water.[36] An analogue to a bear for muscle for its size is a dog, an animal stronger than humans per unit of weight and never bred to sizes of an adult black bear.

Grizzly bears can bring down prey, such as bison or moose, that outweigh the bear by several hundred pounds and can steal kills from entire packs of wolves. Their top speed running on all fours has been reported to be around 40 mph;[37][38] comparably, Usain Bolt ran at a record-breaking speed of 27 mph (43 km/h) at the 2008 Summer Olympics.[39] Most people are incapable of reaching speeds even remotely close to this number; thus, it is impossible for a human to outrun a bear.

Claws[edit]

Claws and pawprints of an American black bear (left) and brown bear

Bears have five digits on each dextrous paw, each digit with a long non-retractable claw. The shape of the claw differs between the bear species: black bear claws are strong and curved, which allows them to claw at tree bark; grizzly bear claws are long and straight, ideal for digging, and can be up to six inches long;[40][41] polar bear claws are thick and sharp for holding the slippery skins of seals.[40]

Jaws[edit]

The jaws of a bear reflect its omnivorous eating habits. A bear has forty-two teeth, with canines, which can be even longer than those of a tiger of which the lower ones are very suitable curved to ram. While a bear's canines can pierce flesh and tear meat, a bear's back teeth are relatively flat, better suited for eating plants rather than meat. However, the jaws of bears are controlled by large muscles that are capable of crushing bones, which gives access to the nutritious marrow within.[9][42] Some grizzly bears have jaws that can bite through 6-inch-thick (150 mm) pine trees.[43]

Humans in contrast have thirty-two teeth, sixteen on each jaw, each tooth less than a half-inch long. Of these teeth, there are four incisors, two canines, four premolars, and six molars. While human incisors are capable of biting into meat, bears have more powerful jaw muscles, which make their bite more destructive to flesh.[44] More appropriate comparisons to bear dentition are to those of dogs whose teeth are similar in proportion to those of bears (and of course much smaller, although capable of inflicting much damage even at their smaller size).

Other senses and characteristics[edit]

Bears' senses are likely similar to those of dogs, animals that at times have much the same build and dietary habits of bears.

Bears' sense of smell is dependent on a Jacobson's organ, or vomeronasal organ, which allows the bear to easily detect airborne scents.[45] Bears use this sense of smell not only to hunt, but to detect other bears as well; male bears use smell to stay away from other male bears and to find female bears during mating season. Bears have the ability to climb faster than they can run when in pursuit. While humans have a sense of olfaction, or smell, they do not use it for communication or for hunting; its usual range is around 10 square centimeters as compared to a polar bear that can smell a seal from twenty miles away.[45][46]

Little is known about a bear's hearing, but scientists concluded that it is at least as good as a human's.[40] Some scientists believe that bears may even be able to detect ultrasonic sounds as well.[40]

Natural observers believe that most bear species are near-sighted, which allows bears to forage for small objects such as berries.[40] However, bears are also capable of discerning faraway movements, helping them hunt prey.[40] The Kodiak bear, when compared to other species, appears to have vision comparable to a human (not near-sighted). Experiments show that black bears can see color, unlike many mammals.[40] With scientists still working to determine exactly how perceptive bear eyes are, it is difficult to compare bear eyesight with human eyesight.

Causes of bear attacks[edit]

Almost all recorded bear attacks in the wild have resulted from the human surprising the bear. Hunters are the people most at risk of bear attacks because, as Tom Smith, a U.S. Geographical Survey research biologist, describes, "Hunters typically aren't making any noise, and they sleuth around while wearing camo."[47] Hunters try to be silent and, though many hunters wear reflective clothing so as not to become targets for other hunters, they try to hide their movements so as not to startle game. Most bear attacks result from hunters suddenly appearing in front of them, startling a bear into an instinctive act of aggression.

However, a bear's first reaction upon detecting a human is to run away.[2] Fergus lists a few possible causes for this instinctive reaction, each a speculation or theory based more on intuition rather than physical evidence. Some speculate that bears inherit their cautious nature from thousands of years ago when they had to be wary of larger and more dangerous carnivores.[2] Some believe that bears have come to relate a human presence to firearms, or other weaponry, that they have come to fear.[2] Still others think that hunters tend to target more aggressive bears, thus leaving only the more shy and timid bears to reproduce, creating a population of bears less hostile than before.[2]

Protecting young[edit]

One of the most dangerous situations that lead to bear attacks is when a bear perceives a threat to her offspring. Female bears are very defensive of their young, devoting years of their life just to raise their cubs and teach them to hunt, hence the term "mama bear" to refer to extremely protective mothers of humans. [48] While solo bears will usually retreat, a mother bear protecting her cubs is mostly likely to attack any sudden threat. Black bears present something of an exception to this, however, as mother black bears sometimes urge their cubs to climb trees for safety instead of remaining on the ground to protect their young.[49]

Hunger[edit]

Another dangerous situation is when a human is faced with a hungry bear that has lost its natural fear of humans. With the decrease of hunting grounds and food crops such as berries and bark, bears often become more desperate and aggressive.[43] However, this hunger has also triggered an unexpected reaction: bears began to follow gunshots because they realized that gunshots often result in dead animals that they can eat.[43]

Once a bear claims an animal carcass, it becomes very protective of its kill. This becomes a problem when a bear claims a hunter's kill, as the hunter may not wish to kill the bear as well. By avoiding a bear over a carcass, the risk of attack is reduced by around fifty percent.[47]

Recovery from bear attacks[edit]

Aside from the large lacerations and wounds that can result from bear attacks, infections are also physically detrimental. A bear's mouth is full of potentially harmful bacteria, especially if the bear has been feeding on a gut pile or feces. Bear bites can result in gangrene, the rotting of flesh, which can spread six inches an hour, or crepitus, the grinding of the two sides of a broken bone fracture.

Recovery from bear attacks depends on the extent of damage, but often involves long-term medical treatment. As shown in the medical procedure led by Professor Shuzhong Guo, extreme cases of bear attacks have resulted in plastic surgeries and even facial transplants that, while successful, may take several years to complete.[50]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cardall, Taylor Y. and Peter Rosen. "Grizzly Bear Attack" p. 331.
  2. ^ a b c d e Fergus, Charles. Wild Guide: Bears, p. 97
  3. ^ "Death Statistics Comparison" par. 5
  4. ^ a b c Ward, Paul and Suzanne Kynaston. Wild Bears of the World p. 9
  5. ^ Ward, Paul and Suzanne Kynaston. Wild Bears of the World pp. 9-10
  6. ^ Ward, Paul and Suzanne Kynaston. Wild Bears of the World p. 176
  7. ^ Ward, Paul and Suzanne Kynaston. Wild Bears of the World p. 174
  8. ^ Ward, Paul and Suzanne Kynaston. Wild Bears of the World p. 177
  9. ^ a b Whitman, David. The Return of the Grizzly p. 28
  10. ^ a b c d e A Book of Man Eaters by Brigadier General R. G. Burton, Mittal Publications
  11. ^ a b Hunter and hunted: relationships between carnivores and people by Hans Kruuk, published by Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-521-89109-4
  12. ^ Bear Anatomy and Physiology from Gary Brown's The Great Bear Almanac, Lyons & Burford, Publishers, 1993
  13. ^ a b The living animals of the world; a popular natural history with one thousand illustrations Volume 1: Mammals, by Cornish, C. J. (Charles John), 1858-1906; Selous, Frederick Courteney, 1851-1917; Johnston, Harry Hamilton, Sir, 1858-1927; Maxwell, Herbert, Sir, published by New York, Dodd, Mead and Company
  14. ^ "Human-bear interactions" from Status and management of the Asiatic black bear in Russia by Igor Chestin and Victor Yudin in Asiatic Black Bear Conservation Action Plan, chapter 10 of Bears: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan compiled by Christopher Servheen, Stephen Herrero and Bernard Peyton, published by IUCN/SSC Bear Specialist Group
  15. ^ "Human-bear interactions" from Status and management of the Formosan black bear in Taiwan by Ying Wang in Asiatic Black Bear Conservation Action Plan, chapter 10 of Bears: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan compiled by Christopher Servheen, Stephen Herrero and Bernard Peyton, published by IUCN/SSC Bear Specialist Group
  16. ^ "Human-bear interactions" from Status and management of the Asiatic black bear in India by S. Sathyakumar in Asiatic Black Bear Conservation Action Plan, chapter 10 of Bears: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan compiled by Christopher Servheen, Stephen Herrero and Bernard Peyton, published by IUCN/SSC Bear Specialist Group
  17. ^ Status of Asiatic black bears in protected areas of Nepal and the effects of political turmoil
  18. ^ "Xinhua - English". Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  19. ^ "'First face transplant' for China". BBC News. 14 April 2006. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  20. ^ Knight, John (2000). Natural Enemies: People-Wildlife conflicts in Anthropological Perspective. p. 254. ISBN 0-415-22441-1. 
  21. ^ Bear attacks tourists in Japan
  22. ^ "Bear Behaviour and Activities" from Gary Brown's The Great Bear Almanac, Lyons & Burford, Publishers, 1993
  23. ^ a b Bear Attacks: Their Causes and Avoidance by Stephen Herrero, Hurtig Publishers Ltd./ Edmonton 1985
  24. ^ "Alaska Bear Incident Update: NOLS Students Injured in Bear Attack in Alaska". National Outdoor Leadership School. July 27, 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2014. 
  25. ^ a b Did Large Predators keep Humans out of North America?
  26. ^ Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol. II Part 1a, Sirenia and Carnivora (Sea cows; Wolves and Bears), V. G. Heptner and N. P. Naumov editors, Science Publishers, Inc. USA. 1998. ISBN 1-886106-81-9
  27. ^ Wolves, Bears and Human Anti-predator Adaptations
  28. ^ Bears besiege Russian mine after killing guards
  29. ^ "Brown Bear". Tooth & Claw. Archived from the original on 16 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-05. 
  30. ^ http://haber.gazetevatan.com/erzurumda-ayi-dehseti-1-olu/397261/7/Haber#.UC5kT6NaeNU
  31. ^ Bear Caused Human Injuries and Deaths In Yellowstone National Park
  32. ^ Perry, Richard (1965). The World of the Tiger. p. 260. ASIN: B0007DU2IU. 
  33. ^ Wolf Trust - Wolves Killing People - Perspective (www.wolftrust.org.uk/a-wkp8-perspective.html)
  34. ^ Brown, Gary (1996). Great Bear Almanac. p. 340. ISBN 1-55821-474-7. 
  35. ^ Brandt, Anthony. Attack p. 46
  36. ^ a b Fergus, Charles. Wild Guide: Bears p. 1
  37. ^ Fergus, Charles. Wild Guide: Bears pp. 1-2
  38. ^ Whitman, David. "The Return of the Grizzly" pp. 26, 28
  39. ^ "Usain Bolt 100m 10 meter Splits and Speed Endurance" by Jimson Lee, dated August 22, 2008 Retrieved on July 1, 2009.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g Fergus, Charles. Wild Guide: Bears p. 7
  41. ^ Whitman, David. The Return of the Grizzly p. 26
  42. ^ Fergus, Charles. Wild Guide: Bears p. 3
  43. ^ a b c Brandt, Anthony. Attack p. 52
  44. ^ "Teeth" par. 2
  45. ^ a b Fergus, Charles. Wild Guide: Bears p. 6
  46. ^ Anitei, Stefan. "The Limits of the Human Nose: How much can a human smell?" par. 7
  47. ^ a b Batin, Christopher. Bear Attacks! p. 46
  48. ^ Ward, Paul and Suzanne Kynaston. Wild Bears of the World p. 146-150
  49. ^ Masterson, Linda. Living with Bears p. 216
  50. ^ Guo, Shuzhong, et al. "Human facial allotransplantation: a 2-year follow-up study" p. 631

Sources[edit]

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  • Brandt, Anthony. "Attack". Outdoor Life 197.1 (1996): 52.
  • Cardall, Taylor Y. and Peter Rosen. "Grizzly Bear Attack". Journal of Emergency Medicine 24.3 (2003): 331-333.
  • "Death Statistics Comparison". UnitedJustice.com. 7 December 2008. 7 December 2008. [2]
  • Driscoll, Jamus. "Bears on the Rampage". Outdoor Life 197.2 (1996): 20.
  • Fergus, Charles. Wild Guide: Bears. Mechanisburg, PA; Stackpole Books, 2005.
  • Guo, Shuzhong, et al. "Human facial allotransplantation: a 2-year follow-up study". The Lancet 372.9639 (2008): 631-638.
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  • Simmons, Shraga. "Olympic Champions". aish.com 22 August 2004. 17 November 2008. [3]
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External links[edit]