Beatus of Liébana
Duchy of Cantabria, Kingdom of Asturias
Liébana, Cantabria, Kingdom of Asturias
|Honored in||Roman Catholic Church, Orthodox Catholic Church|
Saint Beatus of Liébana (c. 730 – c. 800) was a monk, theologian and geographer from the former Duchy of Cantabria and Kingdom of Asturias, in modern Cantabria, northern Spain, who worked and lived in the Picos de Europa mountains of the region of Liébana. He is best remembered today as the author of the Commentary on the Apocalypse, written in 776, then revised in 784 and again in 786. His feast day is February 19.
He created an important Christian cultural and religious focal point during the 8th century. He corresponded with Alcuin, and took part in the Adoptionist controversy, criticizing the views of Felix of Urgel and Elipandus of Toledo. As confessor to Adosinda, wife of Silo of Asturias, and as the master of Alcuin and Etherius of Osma, Beatus exercised wide influence. He is best remembered today as the author of the Commentary on the Apocalypse, written in 776, then revised in 784 and again in 786. This commentary was popular during the Middle Ages and survives in at least 34 manuscripts (usually called a beatus) from the 10th through the 16th centuries. At least 26 of those manuscripts contain illuminations. Though Beatus may have written his commentaries as a response to Adoptionism in Hispania of the late 700s, many believe that the book's popularity in monasteries stemmed from the presence in Iberia of Islam, which the Christian religious believed to represent the Antichrist. Not all of the manuscripts are complete, and some exist only in fragmentary form. Twenty-six of these manuscripts are lavishly decorated in the Mozarabic, Romanesque, or Gothic style of illumination.
Author and theologian
It is a work of erudition but without great originality, made up principally of compilations. Beatus includes long extracts from the texts of the Fathers of the Church and Doctors of the Church, especially Augustine of Hippo (Saint Augustine), Ambrose of Milan (Saint Ambrose), Tyconius, Irenaeus of Lyon (Saint Irenaeus), and Isidore of Seville (Saint Isidore). He adds to this the commentary on the Book of Daniel by Jerome of Stridon (Saint Jerome).
The Beatus text was regarded as a symbol of Christian resistance to the Muslim Arabs who dominated much of the Iberian Peninsula in the early Middle Ages.
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For more information on Beatus of Liébana or on the Beatus Apocalypse manuscripts, see the studies carried out by John Williams, Mireille Mentre, José Camón Aznar, Wilhelm Neuss and Joaquín Yarza Luaces.
- Cancionero de Liébana 1977 ("Collection of verse of Liebana", 1977). Republished in 2006. Written by the Spanish poet from Cantabria Matilde Camus.
- Forbes, Andrew ; Henley, David (2012). Apocalypse: The Illustrated Book of Revelation. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B008WAK9SS
- Beatus of Liébana (before 1072). "Monstrous Cavalry, Beatus de Saint-Sever". Commentary on the Apocalypse.
- "L'Apocalypse de Saint-Sever", University of Arizona