Callicarpa

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Callicarpa
Purple Beautyberry Callicarpa dichotoma 'Early Amethyst' Berries Closeup 2875px.jpg
Callicarpa dichotoma 'Early Amethyst' (Purple Beautyberry)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Callicarpa
L.
Synonyms[1]
  • Tomex L.
  • Johnsonia Mill.
  • Burchardia Duhamel
  • Illa Adans.
  • Spondylococcos Mitch.
  • Porphyra Lour.
  • Rodschiedia Dennst.
  • Geunsia Blume
  • Aganon Raf.
  • Amictonis Raf.
  • Sphondylococcum Schauer

Callicarpa (beautyberry) is a genus of shrubs and small trees in the family Lamiaceae.[2][3][4] They are native to east and southeast Asia (where the majority of the species occur), Australia, Madagascar, southeast North America and South America.[1][5][6][7][8]

Growth[edit]

The temperate species are deciduous, the tropical species evergreen. The leaves are simple, opposite, and 5–25 cm long. The flowers are in clusters, white to pinkish. The fruit is a berry, 2–5 mm diameter and pink to red-purple with a highly distinctive metallic lustre, are very conspicuous in clusters on the bare branches after the leaves fall. The berries last well into the winter or dry season and are an important survival food for birds and other animals, though they will not eat them until other sources are depleted. The berries are highly astringent but are made into wine and jelly. Callicarpa species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Endoclita malabaricus and Endoclita undulifer.

Species[edit]

Flowers.

American Beautyberry Callicarpa americana is native to the southeastern United States.[9] It can typically reach 1 to 2 meters in height. A jelly can be made from its ripe berries.

Bodinier's Beautyberry Callicarpa bodinieri, native to west-central China (Sichuan, Hubei, Shaanxi), is more cold-tolerant than C. americana, and is the species most widely cultivated in northwestern Europe. It can reach 3 meters tall.

Japanese Beautyberry Callicarpa japonica, native to Japan, is also cultivated in gardens. It is called Murasakishikibu in Japanese, in honor of Murasaki Shikibu.

Uses[edit]

Insect repellent[edit]

American beautyberry has been used as a folk remedy to prevent mosquito bites.[10][11] Four chemicals isolated from Callicarpa have been shown to act as insect repellents: borneol,[12] callicarpenal, intermedeol, and spathulenol.[13] The use of callicarpenal has been patented by the United States Department of Agriculture's Agriculture Research Service as a mosquito repellent.[10]

Wine uses[edit]

It has also been used to produce wine.[14]

Species[edit]

Accepted species[1]

  1. Callicarpa aculeolata Schauer - Dominican Republic
  2. Callicarpa acuminata Kunth - Latin America from Mexico to Bolivia
  3. Callicarpa acutidens Schauer - Vietnam
  4. Callicarpa acutifolia C.H.Chang - Guangxi, Guangdong
  5. Callicarpa albidotomentella Merr. - Luzon
  6. Callicarpa alongensis Dop - Vietnam
  7. Callicarpa americana L. - southeastern United States from Texas to Maryland; Cuba, Bermuda, Bahamas
  8. Callicarpa ampla Schauer - Puerto Rico
  9. Callicarpa angusta Schauer - Philippines
  10. Callicarpa angustifolia King & Gamble - Indochina, southern China
  11. Callicarpa anisodonta Bramley - Sulawesi
  12. Callicarpa anisophylla C.Y.Wu ex W.Z.Fang - Guangxi, Guangdong
  13. Callicarpa anomala (Ridl.) B.L.Burtt - Sarawak
  14. Callicarpa apoensis Elmer - Mindanao
  15. Callicarpa arborea Roxb. - southern China, Tibet, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, Andaman Islands, New Guinea
  16. Callicarpa areolata Urb. - Cuba
  17. Callicarpa argentii Bramley - Kalimantan
  18. Callicarpa badipilosa S.Atkins - Brunei
  19. Callicarpa barbata Ridl. - Borneo
  20. Callicarpa basilanensis Merr. - Basilan, Mindanao
  21. Callicarpa basitruncata Merr. ex Moldenke - Hainan
  22. Callicarpa baviensis Moldenke - Vietnam
  23. Callicarpa bicolor Juss - Philippines, Sulawesi, Bismarck Archipelago, Palau
  24. Callicarpa bodinieri H.Lév - Indochina, southern China
  25. Callicarpa bodinieroides R.H.Miao - Guizhou
  26. Callicarpa borneensis Moldenke - Borneo
  27. Callicarpa bracteata Dop - Vietnam
  28. Callicarpa brevipes (Benth.) Hance - Vietnam, Cambodia, southern China
  29. Callicarpa brevipetiolata Merr. - Sumatra
  30. Callicarpa brevistyla Munir - Northern Territory of Australia
  31. Callicarpa bucheri Moldenke - Cuba
  32. Callicarpa candicans (Burm.f.) Hochr. - China, Bangladesh, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, northern Australia, Micronesia
  33. Callicarpa cathayana C.H.Chang - southern China
  34. Callicarpa caudata Maxim. - Maluku, Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Queensland
  35. Callicarpa cinnamomea (Hallier f.) Govaerts - Sulawesi
  36. Callicarpa collina Diels - Guangdong, Jiangxi
  37. Callicarpa coriacea Bramley - Sabah
  38. Callicarpa crassinervis Urb. - Cuba
  39. Callicarpa cubensis Urb. - Cuba
  40. Callicarpa cuneifolia Britton & P.Wilson - Cuba
  41. Callicarpa denticulata Merr. - Batan in Phlippines
  42. Callicarpa dentosa (H.T.Chang) W.Z.Fang - Guangdong
  43. Callicarpa dichotoma (Lour.) K.Koch - China, Japan, Korea, Ryukyu Islands, Vietnam
  44. Callicarpa dolichophylla Merr. - southern China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Luzon
  45. Callicarpa endertii (Moldenke) Bramley - Kalimantan
  46. Callicarpa erioclona Schauer - Vietnam, Borneo, Sulawesi, Java, Philippines, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago
  47. Callicarpa erythrosticta Merr. & Chun - Hainan
  48. Callicarpa fasciculiflora Merr. - Bucas Grande in Philippines
  49. Callicarpa ferruginea Sw. - Cuba, Jamaica
  50. Callicarpa flavida Elmer - Mindanao, Dinagat
  51. Callicarpa floccosa Urb. - Cuba
  52. Callicarpa fulva A.Rich. - Cuba
  53. Callicarpa fulvohirsuta Merr. - Sabah
  54. Callicarpa furfuracea Ridl. - Thailand, Malaysia
  55. Callicarpa gibaroana Baro & P.Herrera - Cuba
  56. Callicarpa giraldii Hesse ex Rehder - China
  57. Callicarpa glabra Koidz. - Ogasawara-shoto (Bonin Islands)
  58. Callicarpa glabrifolia S.Atkins - Borneo
  59. Callicarpa gracilipes Rehder - Sichuan, Hubei
  60. Callicarpa grandiflora (Hallier f.) Govaerts - Sumatra, Sulawesi
  61. Callicarpa grisebachii Urb. - Cuba
  62. Callicarpa havilandii (King & Gamble) H.J.Lam - Borneo
  63. Callicarpa heterotricha Merr. - Vietnam
  64. Callicarpa hispida (Moldenke) Bramley - Sabah
  65. Callicarpa hitchcockii Millsp. - Bahamas, Cuba
  66. Callicarpa homoeophylla (Hallier f.) Govaerts - Borneo, Sulawesi
  67. Callicarpa hungtaii C.Pei & S.L.Chen - Guangdong
  68. Callicarpa hypoleucophylla T.P.Lin & J.L.Wang - Taiwan
  69. Callicarpa inaequalis Teijsm. & Binn. ex Bakh. - Java
  70. Callicarpa integerrima Champ. ex Benth. - southern China
  71. Callicarpa involucrata Merr. - Borneo
  72. Callicarpa japonica Thunb. - China, Japan, Korea, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan
  73. Callicarpa kerrii Leerat. & A.J.Paton - Thailand
  74. Callicarpa kinabaluensis Bakh. & Heine - Sabah
  75. Callicarpa kochiana Makino - China, Japan, Vietnam, Taiwan
  76. Callicarpa kwangtungensis Chun - southern China
  77. Callicarpa laciniata H.J.Lam - Timor
  78. Callicarpa lamii Hosok - Mariana Islands
  79. Callicarpa lancifolia Millsp. - Cuba
  80. Callicarpa leonis Moldenke - Cuba
  81. Callicarpa lingii Merr. - Anhui, Jiangxi, Zhejiang
  82. Callicarpa loboapiculata Metcalf - Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan.
  83. Callicarpa longibracteata C.H.Chang - Hong Kong
  84. Callicarpa longifolia Lam. - China, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago, Christmas Island, Queensland
  85. Callicarpa longipes Dunn - Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangxi
  86. Callicarpa longipetiolata Merr. - Luzon
  87. Callicarpa luteopunctata C.H.Chang - Sichuan, Yunnan
  88. Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. - China, Himalayas, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Queensland
  89. Callicarpa madagascariensis Moldenke - Madagascar
  90. Callicarpa magnifolia Merr. - Luzon
  91. Callicarpa maingayi King & Gamble - Thailand to Malaya
  92. Callicarpa membranacea C.H.Chang - China
  93. Callicarpa mendumiae Bramley - Sulawesi
  94. Callicarpa micrantha S.Vidal - Philippines, Micronesia
  95. Callicarpa moana Borhidi & O.Muñiz - Cuba
  96. Callicarpa moldenkeana A.Rajendran & P.Daniel - Meghalaya
  97. Callicarpa mollis Siebold & Zucc. - Japan, Korea
  98. Callicarpa nipensis Britton & P.Wilson - Cuba
  99. Callicarpa nishimurae Koidz. - Ogasawara-shoto (Bonin Islands)
  100. Callicarpa nudiflora Hook. & Arn. - China, Himalayas, Indian Subcontinent, Indochina
  101. Callicarpa oblanceolata Urb. - Cuba
  102. Callicarpa oligantha Merr. - Guangdong
  103. Callicarpa oshimensis Hayata - Ryukyu Islands
  104. Callicarpa pachyclada Quisumb. & Merr. - Luzon, Samar
  105. Callicarpa paloensis Elmer - Luzon, Leyte
  106. Callicarpa parvifolia Hook. & Arn. - Nayarit
  107. Callicarpa pauciflora Chun ex H.T.Chang - Guangdong, Jiangxi
  108. Callicarpa pedunculata R.Br. - China, Himalayas, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Melanesia, Australia
  109. Callicarpa peichieniana H.Ma & W.B.Yu - Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan
  110. Callicarpa pentandra Roxb. - Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, New Guinea, Solomon Islands
  111. Callicarpa petelotii Dop - Vietnam
  112. Callicarpa phuluangensis Leerat. & A.J.Paton - Thailand
  113. Callicarpa pilosissima Maxim. - Taiwan
  114. Callicarpa pingshanensis C.Y.Wu ex W.Z.Fang - Sichuan
  115. Callicarpa platyphylla Merr. - Luzon, Polillo
  116. Callicarpa plumosa Quisumb. & Merr. - Luzon
  117. Callicarpa prolifera C.Y.Wu - Yunnan, Guangxi
  118. Callicarpa pseudorubella C.H.Chang - Guangdong
  119. Callicarpa pseudoverticillata Bramley - Sulawesi
  120. Callicarpa psilocalyx C.B.Clarke - Meghalaya, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia
  121. Callicarpa pullei (H.J.Lam) Govaerts - New Guinea
  122. Callicarpa quaternifolia (Hallier f.) Govaerts - Borneo, Sulawesi
  123. Callicarpa ramiflora Merr. - Philippines
  124. Callicarpa randaiensis Hayata - Taiwan
  125. Callicarpa remotiflora T.P.Lin & J.L.Wang - Hengchun Peninsula in Taiwan
  126. Callicarpa remotiserrulata Hayata - Hengchun Peninsula in Taiwan
  127. Callicarpa resinosa C.Wright & Moldenke - Cuba
  128. Callicarpa reticulata Sw. - Jamaica
  129. Callicarpa revoluta Moldenke - Cuba
  130. Callicarpa ridleyi S.Moore - Java
  131. Callicarpa roigii Britton - Cuba
  132. Callicarpa rubella Lindl. - China, Himalayas, Southeast Asia
  133. Callicarpa rudis S.Moore - Sumatra
  134. Callicarpa ruptofoliata R.H.Miao - Guangdong
  135. Callicarpa saccata Steenis - Borneo
  136. Callicarpa salicifolia C.Pei & W.Z.Fang - southern China
  137. Callicarpa scandens (Moldenke) Govaerts - Sabah
  138. Callicarpa selleana Urb. & Ekman - Massif de la Selle in Haiti
  139. Callicarpa shaferi Britton & P.Wilson - Cuba
  140. Callicarpa shikokiana Makino - Japan
  141. Callicarpa × shirasawana Makino - Japan (C. japonica × C. mollis)
  142. Callicarpa simondii Dop - Vietnam
  143. Callicarpa siongsaiensis Metcalf - Fujian
  144. Callicarpa sordida Urb. - Dominican Republic
  145. Callicarpa stapfii Moldenke - Sabah
  146. Callicarpa subaequalis Bramley - Kalimantan
  147. Callicarpa subalbida Elmer - Luzon, Mindoro
  148. Callicarpa subglandulosa Elmer - Luzon, Negros
  149. Callicarpa subintegra Merr. - Luzon
  150. Callicarpa subpubescens Hook. & Arn. - Bonin Islands, Volcano Islands
  151. Callicarpa superposita Merr. - Borneo
  152. Callicarpa surigaensis Merr. - Samar, Mindanao
  153. Callicarpa takakumensis Hatus - Mt. Takakuma in Japan
  154. Callicarpa teneriflora Bramley - Kalimantan
  155. Callicarpa thozetii Munir - Queensland
  156. Callicarpa tikusikensis Masam. - Taiwan
  157. Callicarpa tingwuensis C.H.Chang - Guangdong
  158. Callicarpa toaensis Borhidi & O.Muñiz - Cuba
  159. Callicarpa tomentosa (L.) L. - Indian Subcontinent, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaya
  160. Callicarpa × tosaensis Makino - Japan (C. japonica × C. kochiana)
  161. Callicarpa vansteenisii Moldenke - Sumatra
  162. Callicarpa vestita Wall. ex C.B.Clarke - eastern Himalayas, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Assam
  163. Callicarpa woodii Merr. - Borneo
  164. Callicarpa wrightii Britton & P.Wilson - Cuba
  165. Callicarpa yunnanensis W.Z.Fang - Yunnan, Vietnam

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website - Lamiales". Missouri Botanical Garden. 
  3. ^ "GRIN Taxonomy for Plants - Callicarpa". United States Department of Agriculture. 
  4. ^ Heywood, V.H., Brummitt, R.K., Culham, A. & Seberg, O. 2007: Flowering Plant Families of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  5. ^ Leeratiwong, C., Chantaranothai, P. & Paton, A.J. (2009). A synopsis of the genus Callicarpa L. (Lamiaceae) in Thailand. Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) 37: 36-58.
  6. ^ Bramley, G.L. (2009). The genus Callicarpa (Lamiaceae) on Borneo. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 159: 416-455.
  7. ^ Bramley, G.L.C. (2013). The genus Callicarpa (Lamiaceae) in the Philippines. Kew Bulletin 68: 369-418.
  8. ^ Flora of China Vol. 17 Page 4, 紫珠属 zi zhu shu, Callicarpa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 111. 1753.
  9. ^ Biota of North Americ Paogram, 2013 county distribution map
  10. ^ a b "Learning from our elders: Folk Remedy Yields Mosquito-Thwarting Compound". Agricultural Research (Agricultural Research Service). February 6, 2006. 
  11. ^ Scientists Confirm Folk Remedy Repels Mosquitoes University Of Mississippi (ScienceDaily) July 3, 2006
  12. ^ "Species Information". sun.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 
  13. ^ Cantrell, C. L.; Klun, J. A.; Bryson, C. T.; Kobaisy, M.; Duke, S. O. (2005). "Isolation and Identification of Mosquito Bite Deterrent Terpenoids from Leaves of American (Callicarpa americana) and Japanese (Callicarpa japonica) Beautyberry". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (15): 5948–53. doi:10.1021/jf0509308. PMID 16028979. 
  14. ^ Eat the Weeds

External links[edit]