Because I could not stop for Death

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Emily Dickinson in a daguerreotype, circa December 1846 or early 1847

"Because I could not stop for Death" is a lyrical poem by Emily Dickinson first published posthumously in Poems: Series 1 in 1890. The poem is about Death. Dickinson personifies him (death) as a gentleman caller who takes a leisurely carriage ride with the poet to her grave. According to Thomas H. Johnson[disambiguation needed]'s variorum edition of 1955 the number of this poem is 712.

Summary[edit]

The poem was published posthumously in 1890 in Poems: Series 1, a collection of Dickinson's poems assembled and edited by her friends Mabel Loomis Todd and Thomas Wentworth Higginson. The poem was published under the title "The Chariot". It is composed in six quatrains with the meter alternating between iambic tetrameter and iambic trimeter. Stanzas 1, 2, 4, and 6 employ end rhyme in their second and fourth lines, but some of these are only close rhyme or eye rhyme. In the third stanza, there is no end rhyme, but "ring" in line 2 rhymes with "gazing" and "setting" in lines 3 and 4 respectively. Internal rhyme is scattered throughout. Figures of speech include alliteration, anaphora, paradox, and personification. The poem personifies Death as a gentleman caller who takes a leisurely carriage ride with the poet to her grave. She also personifies immortality.[1]

Text[edit]


     Because I could not stop for Death—
     He kindly stopped for me—
     The Carriage held but just Ourselves—
     And Immortality.

5 We slowly drove—He knew no haste
     And I had put away
     My labor and my leisure too,
     For His Civility—

     We passed the School, where Children strove
10 At Recess—in the Ring
     We passed the Fields of Gazing Grain—
     We passed the Setting Sun—

     Or rather—He passed Us—
     The Dews drew quivering and chill—
15 For only Gossamer, my Gown—
     My Tippet—only Tulle—

     We paused before a House that seemed
     A Swelling of the Ground—
     The Roof was scarcely visible—
20 The Cornice—in the Ground—

     Since then—'tis Centuries—and yet
     Feels shorter than the Day
     I first surmised the Horses' Heads
     Were toward Eternity—

Critique[edit]

In 1936 Allen Tate wrote, "[The poem] exemplifies better than anything else [Dickinson] wrote the special quality of her mind ... If the word great means anything in poetry, this poem is one of the greatest in the English language; it is flawless to the last detail. The rhythm charges with movement the pattern of suspended action back of the poem. Every image is precise and, moreover, not merely beautiful, but inextricably fused with the central idea. Every image extends and intensifies every other ... No poet could have invented the elements of [this poem]; only a great poet could have used them so perfectly. Miss Dickinson was a deep mind writing from a deep culture, and when she came to poetry, she came infallibly.”[2]

Musical settings[edit]

The poem has been set to music by Aaron Copland as the twelfth song of his song cycle Twelve Poems of Emily Dickinson. And again, by John Adams as the second movement of his choral symphony Harmonium, and also set to music by Nicholas J. White as a single movement piece for chorus and chamber orchestra. Natalie Merchant and Susan McKeown have created a song of the same name while preserving Dickinson's exact poem in its lyrics.

References[edit]

  1. ^ ""Because I could not stop for Death": Study Guide". Retrieved July 10, 2011. 
  2. ^ Tate 1936, pp. 14-5

External links[edit]