Bed and breakfast

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Breakfast at a B&B in Quebec City, Canada.

A bed and breakfast (Typically shortened to B&B but also spelled BnB in Internet usage ) is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast, but usually does not offer other meals. Typically, bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodation with fewer than 10 bedrooms available for commercial use.

"Bed and breakfast" is also used as a term to describe the level of catering included in a hotel's room prices (as opposed to room only, half-board, full-board etc.).

Overview[edit]

Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen.

B&Bs and guest houses may be operated as either a secondary source of income or a primary occupation. Often the owners themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms, but some bed and breakfasts hire staff for cleaning or cooking. Properties with hired professional management are uncommon (unlike inns or hotels) but may exist if the same owner operates multiple B&B's.

Some B&Bs operate in a niche market. Floating bed and breakfasts are boats or houseboats which offer B&B accommodation; the CCGS Alexander Henry museum ship was one example. In some communities, former lighthouse keeper quarters have been turned into B&B rooms after the light has been automated or decommissioned.

Regional differences[edit]

Australia[edit]

Despite the cultural similarities and a population more than twenty times greater, there are far fewer B&Bs in the whole of Australia than there are in just the South Island of New Zealand.[1]

Since the 1960s the average per capita disposable income of Australians has been greater than that of New Zealanders and this has mitigated the powerful incentive to let out rooms in their homes to travellers.[citation needed] Another factor may be that Australia has, apart from City States such as Singapore, the greatest concentration of city dwellers anywhere on the globe and these cities are amply supplied with budget hotels and motels.[citation needed]

China[edit]

In China expatriates have remodelled traditional structures in quiet picturesque rural areas and opened a few rustic boutique hotels with minimum amenities. Most patrons are tourists but they are growing in popularity among the Chinese.[2]

Cuba[edit]

In Cuba, which opened up to tourism in the 1990s after the financial support of the Soviet Union ended, a form of B&B called casa particular ("private home") became the main form of accommodation outside the tourist resorts.

Hungary[edit]

In Hungary B&B is very popular. Usually is a small family-run hotel, an intimate ambience and a pleasant atmosphere. It provides an affordable alternate for the hotels. In Hungarian the B&B is called "Panzió" or "Szálló".

India[edit]

In India, the government is promoting the concept of bed & breakfast.[3] The government is doing this to increase tourism, especially keeping in view the demand for hotels during the 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi.[4] They have classified B&B in 2 categories - Gold & Silver B&B. All B&B will be approved by the Ministry of Tourism who will then categorize it as Gold or Silver based upon the pre-defined criteria.[5]

Enormous growth in metro cities like Delhi, Gurgaon, Pune, Bangalore and Mumbai; people are rushing to these cities in terms to have a respective job and Bed & Breakfast is becoming a favourite option among them. Average B&B service provider are providing these service as standard in their premises like Air-conditioner or air cooler, free food, free wifi internet; and premium provider are providing whole bunch of extra services like lift system in the building, no electricity bill for air-conditioner and geyser usage, 50mbps to 100mbps leased internet line for guests, intercom, security with IP cameras (which is mandatory by local state government and police department) and security guard 24*7. Charges for standard B&B is around $100 to $120 each head for a month and for premium B&B services starts from $180 and above.[6]

Ireland[edit]

Registered Irish B&Bs are star rated by Fàilte Ireland and along with the majority unregistered B&Bs, form the B&B Owners Association Ireland. Generally, B&Bs in Ireland are family owned & run, with a small percentage being leased/managed but still with the personal service expected in this sector. Owners / Managers nearly always live on premises. Breakfast can mean a cooked "Irish Fry" or continental style buffet.

Israel[edit]

In the patio of a guest house in Tamchy, Kyrgyzstan

The Israeli B&B is known as a zimmer (German for room). All over the country, but especially in northern Israel (Galilee, Upper Galilee and Golan Heights) the zimmers has developed an extensive industry. Settlements belonging to private families and rural settlements are rented for a short period. This industry began to develop in the 1990s, when agriculture became less profitable, and many families with farms in community, kibbutzim, farms and individual seats decided to try their luck in the business of hospitality. In the last decade, there has been development of bed and breakfasts also in southern Israel in the Negev.[7][8]

Italy[edit]

In Italy, regional law regulates B&Bs. There is a national law "Legge 29 marzo 2001, n. 135" but each region maintains a specific regulation. Each region can adopt different regulations but they must observe the national law on Tourism (Law N° 135 /2001). [9]

Netherlands[edit]

Bed & Breakfast in the Netherlands literally means what it says, namely 'bed with breakfast'. In the Netherlands, it is also often referred to as lodgings with breakfast, a guestroom or guesthouse. Bed & Breakfast is a small-scale type of accommodation, which is available to guests for a short stay. Nearly all bed & breakfasts are established in a residential home and are run by the owners of that particular residence. There are approximately 5,000 bed & breakfasts in the Netherlands.[citation needed]

New Zealand[edit]

A Centre of New Zealand Bed and Breakfast
The front yard of the Dupont at the Circle B&B, located at 1604 19th Street, N.W., in the Dupont Circle neighborhood of Washington, D.C. Snow continues to pile up during the Second North American blizzard of 2010.

Bed and breakfasts in New Zealand tend to be more expensive than motels and often feature historic homes and furnished bedrooms at a commensurate price.[citation needed]

Pakistan[edit]

The trend of B&Bs in Pakistan is quite widespread. Popular resorts like Murree, which attract many tourists from different parts of the country, have a number of such resthouses. The expenses can vary, depending on the quality of facilities. Most bed and breakfast facilities tend to expediently cater to families, given the high level of group tourism, and offer suitable overnight lodging.

Carriage B&B Hinto Panzio in Transylvania, Odorheiu-Secuiesc (Szekelyudvarhely), Romania

Romania[edit]

While exploring Romania's countryside, smaller cities or traditional villages, visitors can stay at a bed and breakfast (usually called "Pensiune"). Bed and Breakfast in Romania are rated with daisies, from one to three, three daisies being the best rating. A Bed and Breakfast offers clean and inexpensive accommodations as well as the opportunity to learn about the day-to-day life and culture of rural part Romania especially in Transylvania where B&B is more popular. Visitors will have the chance to try fresh, organic farm products.

Spain[edit]

Bed and breakfast were only available in Spain since the 21st century. In the earlier days, there is the same thing like bed and breakfast in Spain, known as "Habitacion con derecho a cocina" which means “ room along with use of the kitchen area”. In Spain, Bed and breakfast offers are provided by hotels, hostels, apartments, houses and Inns. Normally Bed and breakfasts flats or houses consist of 5-7 rooms but as they are not really regulated and people are free to provide their houses as bed and breakfast to pay for some of the bills. This particularly resulted in degeneration with bed and breakfast standards. However the proprietors of the apartments and houses are doing the work with regard to business keep the things ideal.

Sweden[edit]

Bed and Breakfast was more or less a direct import from the British style B&B. The B&B isn't evenly spread over the country, most are in southern province of Skåne or near one of the three larger cites, Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. Some breakfast hotels and other minor hotels trying to profit from the name also call their accommodation B&B.

No laws in Sweden restricts such advertising; the only restriction is from the authority of traffic (Trafikverket), they only give permission to put up the Bed and Breakfast sign by the local road if the owner lives in the same building as the guests. If the proprietor has less than eight beds, no permissions from the police office is required to run public accommodations, but fire-safety and food-safety applies to all new facilites, regardless of the number of beds.

On a Swedish B&B using the kitchen is not allowed for guests. Standard is usually nice but sometimes with en-suite bathroom or sometimes a shared bathroom in the corridor. Most people in Sweden speak and understand English, but in small establishments it often can be tricky to pay with Visa card or Euro. You find Swedish Bed and Breakfast through local or regional tourist organizations or the owners web-homepage.

United Kingdom[edit]

Little Langford Farmhouse, Salisbury, Wiltshire

B&Bs and guest houses are generally a budget option compared to hotels, although some up-market B&Bs also exist. Concentrations of B&Bs can be found in seaside towns where historically the working classes holidayed, such as Blackpool.

B&Bs are graded by local tourist authorities and may be rated on a star system, or for example as:

  • Deluxe: This might have additional furniture or a jacuzzi in the bathroom.
  • En-Suite: Includes a private bathroom with WC and washbasin, and a shower or bath or both.
  • Standard: Shared bathroom facilities in another nearby room. Usually there will be a washbasin in the room.

United States[edit]

The custom of opening one's home to travellers dates back the earliest days of Colonial America. Lodging establishments were few and far between in the 18th century and, apart from a limited number of coaching inns, wayfarers relied on the kindness of strangers to provide a bed for the night. Hotels became more common with the advent of the railroad and later the automobile; most towns had at least one prominent hotel.

During the Great Depression, tourist homes provided an economic advantage to both the traveller and the host. Driving through town on US Highways (in a pre-Interstate highway era), travellers stopped at houses with signs reading Tourists or Guests, where one could rent a room for the night for approximately $2. While little more than short-stay boarding houses, the rooms brought needed income for the home owner and saved money for the traveller. A tourist home or guest house represented an intermediate option between inexpensive campgrounds or cabins and costly railway hotels. (The motel fad of the 1950s and 1960s later filled this niche, now occupied by economy limited service hotels.) Travellers of colour could consult The Negro Motorist Green Book, a printed directory, to find lodging at which they would be welcome despite racial segregation and widespread discrimination.

After World War II, middle-class Americans began travelling in Europe in large numbers, many experiencing the European-style B&Bs (Zimmer frei in Germany, chambres d'hotes in France) for the first time. Some were inspired to open B&Bs in the U.S.; tourist home owners updated their properties as B&Bs. The interest in B&Bs coincided with an increasing interest in historic preservation, spurred by the U.S. Bicentennial in 1976 and assisted by two crucial pieces of legislation: the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, and the Tax Reform Act of 1976, which provided tax incentives for the restoration and reuse of historic structures.

Through the 1980s and 1990s, B&Bs increased rapidly in numbers and evolved from homestay B&Bs with shared baths and a simple furnishings to beautifully renovated historic mansions with luxurious décor and amenities. Many B&Bs created a historical ambiance by adapting historic properties (such as the 1830s Federal-style Holladay House in Orange, Virginia) as guesthouses decorated with antique furniture.[citation needed] Printed directories listed options in various cities. By the mid-1990s, the Internet made it more affordable for innkeepers to promote their properties worldwide; it provided on-line reservation software and allowed travellers to view detailed photos, videos, and reviews.

B&B and Inn owners have been adding amenities such as wireless Internet access, free parking, spa services or nightly wine and cheese hours. To stay competitive with the rest of the lodging industry, larger bed and breakfast inns have expanded to offer wedding services, business conference facilities, and meeting spaces as well as many other services a large hotel might offer.

B&Bs are found in all states, in major cities and remote rural areas, occupying everything from modest cottages to opulent mansions, and in restored structures from schools to cabooses to churches.

Regulations[edit]

Regulations and laws vary considerably between jurisdictions both in content and extent and in enforcement.

The most common regulations B&Bs must follow pertain to safety. They are usually required by local and national ordinances to have fire resistance, a sufficient fire escape plan in place, and smoke detectors in each guest room. Kitchens and equipment used to serve meals are also often required to be monitored for hygienic operation, but there are significant national and local differences.

In Hawaii, it is illegal to open a new bed & breakfast on Oahu as of 1989.[10] The reason for the moratorium is to force home owners with extra room to rent out their extra space to low income residents who otherwise cannot afford housing on crowded Oahu.

Professional and trade associations[edit]

Many inns and bed and breakfasts are members of professional associations. There are international, national, regional, and local associations, all of which provide services to both their members and the travelling public. Many require their members to meet specific standards of quality, while others simply require a lodging establishment to pay dues. These associations also facilitate marketing of the individual B&Bs and provide a stamp of approval that the business in question is reputable.

While various local governments have regulations and inspect lodging establishments for health and safety issues, membership in a state/provincial/national bed and breakfast association can indicate a higher standard of hospitality. Associations sometimes review their members' properties and tend to have additional standards of care.

In the US for example, each state has an innkeeping association (usually non-profit) that exists to promote the industry and tourism. Within those state associations, many city and regional bed and breakfast associations can be found. Many state, city and regional associations, have inspection criteria that often exceed government requirements for safety and cleanliness.

In Australia, the industry is represented by the Bed & Breakfast, Farmstay and Accommodation Australia Ltd (BBFAA).

In the British Isles the national approval boards set up by governments are far more stringent than others,while in Ireland there is an association that will only use the national tourist board's approved members (Almara Accommodations Dublin)

Studies[edit]

Tourism Queensland study[edit]

In January 2003 Tourism Queensland conducted a review of current research to gain a better understanding of the Bed & Breakfast (B&B) market:[11]

Michigan State University study[edit]

According to a study by Michigan State University:[12]

According to this study, many bed and breakfast visitors make use of evaluations, given by other guests. This system of independent reviews is one of the fastest growing consumer content oriented sites on the net.

ComScore study[edit]

Another study suggests that people trust online reviews posted by previous guests:[13]

Journal of Travel Research study[edit]

A study by the Journal of Travel Research stated:[14]

Prince Edward Island study[edit]

A 2007 study on Prince Edward Island[15]

TIME magazine[edit]

According to TIME magazine:[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Private Stay Accommodation Directory, "Australia", accessed 4 April 2007 shows 43 pages for Australia as a country and a combined total of 51 pages for various regions of the South Island of "New Zealand"
  2. ^ Mike Ives (August 13, 2013). "From Outsiders to Innkeepers in China’s Sleepy Countryside". The New York Times. Retrieved August 14, 2013. 
  3. ^ Guidelines For Approval and Registration of 'Incredible India Bed And Breakfast' Establishments (MS Word Document)
  4. ^ Delhi tourism department promoting B&B in Delhi.
  5. ^ Ministry of Tourism B&B criteria in Delhi.
  6. ^ Singh. "Bed & Breakfast services in Indian metro cities". http://www.boyspgingurgaon.in/. https://plus.google.com/+BoyspgingurgaonIndia. Retrieved 2 December 2014. 
  7. ^ Mirovsky, Arik, There's gold in them thar hills..., Hareetz.com, retrieved 2009-04-05 
  8. ^ end, week, Everything about zimmers..., Roy engel, archived from the original on 6 June 2011, retrieved 2011-06-13 
  9. ^ Bed and Breakfast in Europe
  10. ^ Legislative concepts, regulation & permitting of vacation rentals & B&Bs on Oahu
  11. ^ Bed & Breakfast Tourism, Tourism Queensland, January 2003, retrieved 2009-04-05 
  12. ^ Koth, Barbara A, Assistant Extension Specialist; William C. Norman, Ph.D. candidate (6 June 2002), The Minnesota Bed and Breakfast Market: A Guest Profile (Research Summaries), University of Minnesota Minnesota Extension Service 
  13. ^ Aun, Fred (3 December 2007), ComScore Study Reinforces Online Reviews' Impact on Offline Sales, ClickZ.com, archived from the original on 6 November 2009, retrieved 2009-10-04 
  14. ^ Monty, Ben (2003), "Hedonic Pricing and Willingness to Pay for Bed and Breakfast Amenities in Southeast Wisconsin", Journal of Travel Research (La Follette School of Public Affairs at the University of Wisconsin—Madison, University of Wisconsin—Whitewater) 42 (2): 195–199, doi:10.1177/0047287503257500 
  15. ^ Significant research of bed & breakfast and country inns, The Association of Prince Edward Island, Tourism Research Center: At the University of Prince Edward Island, 2007 
  16. ^ Marchant, Valerie; Witkowski, Tom; Benson, Jyl; Monday, Harriet (18 November 2002), "Bed, Breakfast And Beyond", TIME magazine (Time-Life), retrieved 2009-05-04