A bed base, sometimes called foundation, is the part of a bed that supports the mattress. The bed base is itself held in place and framed by the bedstead. In the United States, box spring bed bases are very common (to the point where 'bed base' and 'box spring' may be used synonymously). In Europe, sprung slats are much more common.
The modern day bed base is quite the luxury when compared to the earlier forms of bedding. The earliest designs which were made from hay and other plant materials. These original materials included palm leaves, animal skins and dried bracken. The earliest bedding dates back to 77,000BC in the Sibudu Cave, South Africa.
An important innovation from these beds was being able to raise the bedding off the ground. This helped the levels of exposure to dirt, lice and other pests associated with bad health. Some of the first evidential cases of this being done were found in Scotland. These bed bases were made of stone, and were dated to around 3200BC..
Since the early Dynastic Period at least there existed beds with wooden frames on legs, onto which strips of leather or cloth were fastened. These frames were put together using tenons and mortises. The legs, at first shaped like cattle legs and later more and more like lion paws, were of unequal length, the bed sloping slightly from head towards the foot end, where there often was a foot support. Beds were at times decorated with images of protective household deities such as Bes or Taweret.
A number of bed frames have survived, as have a few foldable camping beds; double beds are known from clay models and canopies from depictions. The bedsteads were covered with white linen bed sheets. No mattresses have been found, although pictures of them exist.
As we entered the 12th century, luxury bedding became more common and bedsteads were made out of wood that was decorated with carvings and painted ornamentation.
In the 14th century the woodwork became of less importance, due to the emphasis being on what covered the bed base. These coverings included rich materials such as silk, velvet and in some instances cloth of gold. It was at around this time that the four posted beds made an appearance, the bed being slung from the ceiling or fastened to the walls.
By the time Elizabeth I came to the throne in the Medieval Age, people still arranged beds in much the same way. Except for the introduction of the four-poster in wealthy households and a few inns, and the disappearance of the head sheet, the elements were familiar. But more and more people acquired comfortable bedding and, overall, people's sleeping habits changed. 
Types of bed frames
Bed frames support mattresses or the foundations or box springs underneath a mattress. In all, they should provide total stability for the rest of the bed. There are several types of bed frames as well as significant cost variation among different types.
The simple bed frame made of metal, and sits on low wheels or casters. This type of frame usually comes in twin/full, queen and king sizes. On metal king size frames, the width of the bed requires center support, so these usually have a metal strip in the middle of the frame to provide that extra support. Each side of the frame, in any size, has slightly raised edges with an inch or two (2.54-5.08 cm) of metal support to keep the mattress from slipping off the frame.
Waterbeds require a type of platform bed frame that normally has much higher edges. These are less common since waterbeds are no longer as popular as they were in earlier decades. Another variant on the platform frame is the captain’s bed, often a good choice for kids. Captain’s bed frames often feature useful drawers underneath the bed for storage.
- platform bed frame;– consists of a long box-like platform that completely supports the mattress or box springs. Actually, platform beds are often used with only a mattress, since the support of the wood beneath the mattress is frequently adequate
- captain bed frame;– Another variant on the platform frame is the captain’s bed, often a good choice for kids. Captain’s bed frames often feature useful drawers underneath the bed for storage.
- box bed frame;- a bed frame that has a modern design look and compact design, made for space utilization 
- waterbed;– Waterbeds require a type of platform bed frame that normally has much higher edges. These are less common since waterbeds are no longer as popular as they were in earlier decades.
Innovation in bed bases is based around good design, style, comfort and functionality. Furniture manufacturers are trying to develop ways in bed bases can be more attractive and more useful for the modern person.
We have seen innovations in the area of sofa beds. Ikea has also been focused on creating beds that are focused on increasing the space of a bedroom by building multi level spaces. Desks and cupboard space being built below beds, meaning less room congestion is one of the more innovative directions that bed bases are developing towards.
The capsule bed has already been seen in futuristic movies and in some designer’s collections. Future capsule or pod beds are designed to create a surrounding atmosphere for the occupant that includes temperature control, surround sound, and special lighting for a more peaceful sleep. .
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- "10 crazy predictions for the future of beds". SitNSleep. Retrieved 2014-10-14.
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