Bedford–Stuyvesant, Brooklyn

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Bedford-Stuyvesant
Neighborhood of New York City
Bedstuybrownstone1.jpg
Country  United States
State  New York
City New York City
Borough Brooklyn
Area[1]
 • Total 7.21 km2 (2.782 sq mi)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 157,530
 • Density 22,000/km2 (57,000/sq mi)
Ethnicity
 • White 10.1%
 • Black 70.1%
 • Hispanic 15.0%
 • Asian 1.8%
 • Other 3.0%
ZIP codes 11205, 11206, 11216, 11221, 11233
Bedford–Stuyvesant (red) in Brooklyn (yellow) and New York City (light gray).

Bedford–Stuyvesant (/ˈbɛdfərdˈstvəsənt/; colloquially known as Bed-Stuy) is a neighborhood of 153,000 inhabitants in the north central portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. The neighborhood is part of Brooklyn Community Board 3, Brooklyn Community Board 8, and Brooklyn Community Board 16.[2] The neighborhood is patrolled by the NYPD's 79th[3] and 81st[4] precincts. In the City Council, the district is represented by Robert Cornegy of the 36th Council District.

Bedford–Stuyvesant is bordered by Flushing Avenue to the north (bordering Williamsburg), Classon Avenue to the west (bordering Clinton Hill), Broadway to the east (bordering Bushwick), and Atlantic Avenue to the south (bordering Crown Heights and Brownsville).[5] It is served by Postal Service zip codes 11205, 11206, 11216, 11221, 11233, and 11238. The main north–south thoroughfare is Nostrand Avenue, but the main shopping street is Fulton Street, which lies above the main subway line for the area (serving the A C trains). Fulton Street runs east–west the length of the neighborhood and intersects high-traffic streets including Bedford Avenue, Nostrand Avenue, and Stuyvesant Avenue. Bedford–Stuyvesant is actually made up of four neighborhoods: Bedford, Stuyvesant Heights, Ocean Hill, and Weeksville. Part of Clinton Hill used to be considered part of Bedford–Stuyvesant.

For decades, it has been a cultural center for Brooklyn's African American population. Following the construction of the IND Fulton Street Line[6] in 1936, African Americans left an overcrowded Harlem for greater housing availability in Bedford–Stuyvesant. From Bedford–Stuyvesant, African Americans have since moved into the surrounding areas of Brooklyn, such as East New York, Crown Heights, Brownsville, and Fort Greene. Bedford–Stuyvesant has many historic brownstones. These homes were developed by speculative developers for the expanding middle to upper middle class from the 1890s to the late 1910s. Many of these homes contain highly ornamental detailing throughout the interior of the home and have classical architectural elements, such as brackets, quoins, fluting, finials, elaborate frieze and cornice banding.

History[edit]

Founding[edit]

Macon Street and Arlington Place
Along Stuyvesant Avenue.
Row houses on MacDonough Street.

The neighborhood's name is a combination of the names of the Village of Bedford and Stuyvesant Heights neighborhoods. The name Stuyvesant derives from Peter Stuyvesant, the last governor of the colony of New Netherland.

17th and 18th centuries[edit]

In the second half of the 17th century, the lands which comprise the present neighborhood belonged to three Dutch settlers, Dirck Janse Hooghland, who operated a ferryboat on the East River, Jan Hansen and Leffert Pietersen van Haughwout, both farmers. In pre-revolutionary Kings County, Bedford was the first major settlement east of the then Village of Brooklyn on the ferry road to the town of Jamaica and eastern Long Island. Stuyvesant Heights, however, was farmland; the area became a community after the American Revolutionary War. In 1838 the Weeksville subsection was recognized as one of the first free African American communities in the United States.[7]

For most of its early history, Stuyvesant Heights was part of the outlying farm area of the small hamlet of Bedford, settled by the Dutch during the 17th century within the incorporated town of Breuckelen. The hamlet had its beginnings when a group of Breuckelen residents decided to improve their farm properties behind the Wallabout section, which gradually developed into an important produce center and market. The petition to form a new hamlet was approved by Governor Stuyvesant in 1663. Its leading signer was Thomas Lambertsen, a carpenter from Holland. A year later the British capture of New Netherland signaled the end of Dutch rule. In Governor Nicolls' Charter of 1667 and in the Charter of 1686. Bedford is mentioned as a settlement within the Town of Brueckelen. Bedford hamlet had an inn as early as 1668, and in 1670 the people of Breuckelen purchased from the Canarsie Indians an additional area for common lands in the surrounding region.

Bedford Corners, located approximately where the present Bedford Avenue meets Fulton Street, and only three blocks west of the present Historic District, was the intersection of several well traveled roads. The Brooklyn and Jamaica Turnpike, one of the oldest roads in Kings County, ran parallel to the present Fulton Street, from the East River ferry to the village of Brooklyn, thence to the hamlet of Bedford and on toward Jamaica via Bed–Stuy. Farmers from New Lots and Flatbush used this road on their way to Manhattan. Within the Stuyvesant Heights Historic District, the Turnpike ran along the approximate line of Decatur Street. Cripplebush Road to Newtown and the Clove Road to Flatbush also met at Bedford Corners. Hunterfly Road which joined the Turnpike about a mile to the east of Clove Road, also served as a route for farmers and fishermen of the Canarsie and New Lots areas.

At the time of the Revolution, Leffert's son Jakop was a leading citizen of Bedford and the town clerk of Brooklyn. His neighbor Lambert Suydam was captain of the Kings County troop of horse cavalry in 1776. An important part of the Battle of Long Island took place with the Historic District and in its vicinity. In 1784, the people of the Town of Brooklyn held their first town meeting since 1776.

19th century[edit]

In 1800, Bedford was designated one of the seven districts of the Town of Brooklyn, and in 1834 it became part of the seventh and ninth wards of the newly incorporated City of Brooklyn.

The present gridiron street system was laid out in 1835, as shown by the Street Commissioners map of 1839, and the blocks were lotted. The new street grid system led to the abandonment of the Brooklyn and Jamaica Turnpike in favor of a continuation of Brooklyn's Fulton Street, which was opened up just south of the Historic District in 1842. The lands for the street system within what is now Bedford–Stuyvesant however were not sold to the City of Brooklyn until 1852. Earlier in the same year Charles C. Betts had purchased Maria Lott's tract of land. This marked the end of two centuries of Dutch patrimonial holdings. Betts, as Secretary of the Brooklyn Railroad Company acquired the land for the horsecar, later trolley, lines on Fulton Street and for investment purposes. Most of the streets were not actually opened, however, until the 1860s. Streets in Bedford–Stuyvesant were named after prominent figures in American history. Francis Lewis was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, whilst Bainbridge, Chauncey, Decatur and MacDonough were naval heroes of the Tripolitan War and the War of 1812. the Dripps Map of 1869 shows that the area was still largely rural with a few freestanding houses mostly on MacDonough Street. The real development of the district began slowly at first, accelerating between 1885 and 1900, and gradually tapering off during the first two decades of the 20th century.

With the building of the Brooklyn and Jamaica Railroad in 1833, along Atlantic Avenue, Bedford was established as a railroad station near the intersection of current Atlantic Avenue and Franklin Avenues. In 1836, the Brooklyn and Jamaica Railroad was taken over by the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR). In 1878, the Brooklyn, Flatbush and Coney Island Railway established its northern terminal with a connection to the LIRR at the same location.[8]

Construction of masonry row houses in the 1870s began to transform the rural district into an urban area. The first row of masonry houses in Stuyvesant Heights was built in 1872 on MacDonough Street for developer Curtis L. North. In the 1880s and 1890s, more rows were added, most of the Stuyvesant Heights north of Decatur Street looked much as it does today. Stuyvesant Heights was emerging as a neighborhood entity with its own distinctive characteristics. The houses had large rooms, high ceilings, and large windows. The people who brought these houses were generally upper-middle-class families, mostly lawyers, shopkeepers, and merchants of German and Irish descent, with a sprinkling of English people; there were also a few professionals. A contemporary description calls it a very well kept residential neighborhood, typical of the general description of Brooklyn as "a town of homes and churches."

Built in 1863, the Capitoline Grounds were the home of the Brooklyn Atlantics baseball team.[9] The grounds were bordered by Nostrand Avenue, Halsey Street, Marcy Avenue, and Putnam Avenue.[9] During the winters, the operators would flood the area and open an ice-skating arena. The grounds were demolished in 1880.[citation needed]

In 1890, the city of Brooklyn founded another subsection Ocean Hill, a working-class predominantly Italian enclave.

In the last decades of the 19th century, with the advent of electric trolleys and the Fulton Street Elevated, Bedford–Stuyvesant became a working-class and middle-class bedroom community for those working in downtown Brooklyn and Manhattan in New York City. At that time, most of the pre-existing wooden homes were destroyed and replaced with brownstone rowhouses.

20th century[edit]

During the 1930s, major changes took place due to the Great Depression years. Many of the original property owners had become either too old or too poor to maintain their spacious quarters. More and more dwelling were sold to Blacks, who were attracted from Harlem to the South. There is a solid tradition of private home ownership, good schools and the relatively smoke free air. This created the second largest Black community in New York. It has a historic district between Throop Avenue and Malcolm X Boulevard just north of Fulton Street with well-kept brownstones with middle-income African American families residing in them.[10] Many churches are well known in the area, including Our Lady of Victory, Our Lady of the Presentation (both Roman Catholic Churches), and the United House of Prayer for all People.

1960s to 1980s[edit]

Youngsters play in their waterless public swimming pool in Bedford–Stuyvesant on the Fourth of July weekend, 1974. Photo by Danny Lyon.

Gang wars erupted in 1961 in Bedford–Stuyvesant. During the same year, Alfred E. Clark of The New York Times referred to it as "Brooklyn's Little Harlem".[11] One of the first urban riots of the era took place there. Social and racial divisions in the city contributed to the tensions, which climaxed when attempts at community control in the nearby Ocean Hill-Brownsville school district pitted some black community residents and activists (from both inside and outside the area) against teachers, the majority of whom were white, many of them Jewish. Charges of racism were a common part of social tensions at the time.

In 1964, race riots broke out in the Manhattan neighborhood of Harlem after an Irish American NYPD lieutenant, Thomas Gilligan, shot and killed an African American teenager, James Powell, aged 15.[12] The riot spread to Bedford–Stuyvesant and resulted in the destruction and looting of many neighborhood businesses, many of which were Jewish-owned[citation needed]. Race relations between the NYPD and the city's black community were strained as police were seen as an instrument of oppression and racially biased law enforcement; further, at that time, few black policemen were present on the force.[13] In predominantly black New York neighborhoods, arrests and prosecutions for drug-related crimes were higher than anywhere else in the city, despite evidence that illegal drugs were used at at least the same rate in the white community, further contributing to the problems between the white dominated police force and black community. Coincidentally, the 1964 riot took place throughout the NYPD's 28th and 32nd precincts, in Harlem, and the 79th precinct, in Bedford–Stuyvesant, which at one time were the only three police precincts in the NYPD where black police officers were allowed to patrol.[14] Race riots followed in 1967 and 1968, as part of the political and racial tensions in the United States of the era, aggravated by continued high unemployment among blacks, continued de facto segregation in housing, and the failure to enforce civil rights laws.

Following the 1964 election, Robert F. Kennedy was elected as the US Senator for the State of New York. One of Kennedy's major tasks as senator was fighting the war on poverty as race riots broke out across the urban north while the issues of the civil rights movement in southern states were still more of a priority for African American rights activists. Rather than focus on problems facing African Americans outside of New York, Kennedy launched a study of problems facing the urban poor in Bedford–Stuyvesant, which received almost no federal aid and was the city's largest non-white community.[15][16] With the help of local activists and politicians, such as Civil Court Judge Thomas Jones, grassroots organizations of community members and businesses willing to aid were formed and began the rebuilding of Bedford–Stuyvesant. Kennedy's program was soon used as a nationwide model used in other large urban areas to fight the War on Poverty.

In 1965, Andrew W. Cooper, a journalist from Bedford–Stuyvesant, brought suit under the Voting Rights Act against racial gerrymandering.[17] The lawsuit claimed that Bedford–Stuyvesant was divided among five congressional districts, each represented by a white Congress member.[18] It resulted in the creation of New York's 12th Congressional District and the election in 1968 of Shirley Chisholm, the first black woman and West Indian American ever elected to the US Congress.[19] In early 1975, when Seatrain Shipbuilding, inside the Brooklyn Navy Yard, experienced a massive layoff of shipbuilders—80% of those affected living in and around Bedford–Stuyvesant—it was Congresswoman Chisholm who came to their rescue. Chisholm convinced the government to restructure existing loans and guarantee new loans backed by the VLCC's Stuyvesant and Bay Ridge so the shipbuilders could resume building them. From 1968 through 1979, Seatrain Shipbuilding was the largest employer inside the Brooklyn Navy Yard, providing an estimated $750 million in economic stimulus to the City of New York by way of its shipbuilding activities in those years.[citation needed]

In 1977, a power outage occurred across New York City due to a power failure at the Con Edison Plant. Looters took advantage of the outage, and Bedford–Stuyvesant and neighboring Bushwick were two of the worst-hit areas. Thirty-five blocks of Broadway, the street dividing the two communities, were affected, with 134 stores looted, 45 of which were set ablaze.[citation needed]

In the late 1980s, resistance to illegal drug-dealing included, according to Rita Webb Smith, following police arrests with a civilian Sunni Muslim 40-day patrol of several blocks near a mosque, the same group having earlier evicted drug sellers at a landlord's request, although that also resulted in arrests of the Muslims for "burglary, menacing and possession of weapons", resulting in a probationary sentence.[20]

Recent history[edit]

Bedford–Stuyvesant brownstones, 2006

2000s[edit]

Beginning in the 2000s, the neighborhood began to experience gentrification.[6] The two significant reasons for this were the affordable housing stock consisting of brownstone rowhouses located on quiet tree-lined streets and the marked decrease of crime in the neighborhood. The latter is partly attributable to the decline of the national crack epidemic as well as heightened policing. Many properties were renovated after the start of the 21st century, and crime declined. New clothing stores, mid-century collector furniture stores, florists, bakeries, cafes, and restaurants opened, and Fresh Direct began delivering to the area. As a result, Bedford–Stuyvesant became increasingly racially, economically, and ethnically diverse, with an increase of foreign-born Afro-Caribbean and African residents as well as residents of other ethnic backgrounds. As is expected with gentrification, the influx of new residents has contributed to the displacement of poorer residents. In other cases, newcomers have rehabilitated and occupied formerly vacant and abandoned properties.

Through a series of "wallscapes" (large outdoor murals), the campaign honored famous community members, including community activist and poet June Jordan, activist Hattie Carthan, and rapper The Notorious B.I.G.[21] The campaign sought to show off the area's positive accomplishments.[22]

Several long-time residents and business owners expressed concern that they would be priced out by newcomers, whom they disparagingly characterize as "yuppies and buppies [black urban professionals]", according to one neighborhood blog.[23] They feared that the neighborhood's ethnic character would be lost. However, Bedford–Stuyvesant's population has experienced much less displacement of the black population, including those who are economically disadvantaged, than have other areas of Brooklyn, such as Williamsburg and Cobble Hill.[24] Many of the new residents[who?] are upwardly mobile middle-income African American families, as well as immigrants from Africa and the Caribbean. Neighborhoods surrounding Bedford–Stuyvesant in Northern and Eastern Brooklyn are also majority black, such as Brownsville, Canarsie, Crown Heights, East Flatbush, Prospect-Lefferts Gardens, East New York, and Fort Greene. Together these neighborhoods have a population of about 940,000 and are roughly 82% black, making them the largest concentration of African Americans in the United States.[25]

There was a belief that neighborhood change would benefit all residents of the area, bringing with it greater neighborhood safety and more local jobs and creating a demand for improved retail services along the major commercial strips, such as Fulton Street (recently co-named Harriet Tubman Avenue),[26] Nostrand Avenue, Tompkins Avenue, Greene Avenue, Lewis Avenue, Flushing Avenue, Park Avenue, Myrtle Avenue, Dekalb Avenue, Putnam Avenue, Bedford Avenue, Marcy Avenue, Malcolm X Boulevard, Gates Avenue, Madison Street, and Jefferson Avenue. To that effect, both the Fulton Street and Nostrand Avenue commercial corridors became part of the Bed-Stuy Gateway Business Improvement District, bringing along with it a beautification project that provides various pedestrian and landscape improvements.[27]

In July 2005, the NYPD designated the Fulton Street–Nostrand Avenue business district in Bedford–Stuyvesant as an "Impact Zone". The designation directed significantly increased levels of police protection and resources to the area centered on the intersection of Fulton Street and Nostrand Avenue for a period of six months. It was renewed for another six-month period in December 2005. Since the designation of the Impact Zone in Bedford–Stuyvesant, crime within the district decreased 15% from the previous year. The police department has ranked Bedford–Stuyvesant as one of the neighborhoods that has experienced a steady decline in crime and has had improved safety. Despite the improvements and increasing stability of the community, Bedford–Stuyvesant has continued to be stigmatized in some circles. In March 2005 a campaign was launched to supplant the "Bed-Stuy, Do-or-Die" slogan with "Bed-Stuy, and Proud of It".[28] Also, the threat of crime taking over certain neighborhoods did not disappear, as violent crime remains a problem in the area. Much like Brownsville and East New York, Bed-Stuy is well known for drive-bys, robberies, murders, and assaults. The two precincts that cover Bedford–Stuyvesant reported a combined 37 murders in 2010.[29][30] The 81st precinct was also accused in 2010 of not reporting crimes and recording felonies as misdemeanors to make the crime rate appear lower.[31]

The view southeast across Lafayette Avenue, looking toward Patchen Avenue

2010s[edit]

Despite the largest recession to hit the United States in the last 70 years, gentrification continues steadily throughout the neighborhood, if not accelerated by the relatively affordable prices of living in Bedford–Stuyvesant. The strong community and abundant attractive brownstone townhouses in the neighborhood contribute to its growth and charm. Since 2008 a score of new cafes, restaurants, bakeries, boutiques, galleries, and wine bars have sprung up in the area, with concentrated growth along the western and southern parts of the neighborhood; the blocks north of the Nostrand Avenue and Fulton Street intersection and west of Fulton Street and Stuyvesant Avenues were particularly impacted. These areas are serviced by the express A train subway stops at Nostrand Avenue and Utica Avenue, with commute times of as little as 20 minutes to Lower Manhattan and 35 minutes to Midtown Manhattan. In 2011, Bedford–Stuyvesant listed three Zagat-rated restaurants for the first time. Today there are over ten Zagat-rated establishments,[32] and in June 2013, 7 Arlington Place, the setting for Spike Lee's 1994 film Crooklyn, was sold for over its asking price, at $1.7 million.[33]

A diverse mix of students, hipsters, artists, creative professionals, architects, and attorneys of all races continue to move to the neighborhood. A business improvement district has been launched along the Fulton and Nostrand Corridor with a redesigned streetscape to include new street trees, street furniture, pavers, and signage and improved cleanliness in an effort to attract more business investment.[34] Major infrastructure upgrades have been performed or are in progress. Brooklyn's first Bus Rapid Transit service along Nostrand and Bedford Avenues in Bedford–Stuyvesant, the B44 Select Bus Service route began operation on November 17, 2013, running from Williamsburg to Coney Island.[35] Other infrastructure upgrades in the neighborhoodd include major sewer and water modernization projects.[36] Verizon FiOS and Cablevision also continue to expand high-speed fiber-optic and cable service to the area.[37] Improved natural and organic produce continue to become available at local delis and grocers, the farmer's market on Malcolm X Boulevard, and through the Bed-Stuy Farm Share.[38] FreshDirect services the neighborhood, and a large member constituency of the adjacent Greene-Hill Food Coop are from Bedford–Stuyvesant.

In spring 2013, the Bedford–Stuyvesant YMCA received a $25,000 donation from DKNY following the wishes of a resident photographer whose work had been used by the company without his permission.[39]

Ethnicity of residents[edit]

African Americans migrated from the Southern United States in the early- to mid-20th century, pursuing what they perceived as the racial equality and freedoms of the north. This movement is known as the Great Migration. Many African Americans moved north in search of new industry. The Bedford–Stuyvesant neighborhood became a popular landing ground for African Americans.[40] To this day, it is widely known[who?] as the black cultural mecca of Brooklyn, similar to what Harlem is to Manhattan. As of the 2010 census, Bed-Stuy was 70.1% Black, 15% Hispanic, 10.1% White, 1.8% Asian, and 3% other. Bedford–Stuyvesant is a predominantly African American neighborhood, though there are significant populations of Puerto Ricans and Dominican Americans in the eastern portion, near Broadway, and Caucasians in the western portion, toward Downtown Brooklyn.

Education[edit]

PS 93, Prescott School

Several public schools serve Bedford-Stuyvesant. The zone high school for the neighborhood is Boys and Girls High School on Fulton Street. At the eastern edge of the neighborhood is Paul Robeson High School for Business and Technology.

For the early grades (kindergarten and first grade in 2012), Success Academy Bed-Stuy 1 and 2 are charter schools; one is open and the other opened in August 2012. Bed-Stuy is also home to the Brooklyn Waldorf School, which moved to Claver Castle (at 11 Jefferson Avenue) in 2011.

Other institutions include:

Transportation[edit]

Bedford–Stuyvesant is served by several New York City Bus Brooklyn bus routes.

It is served by the New York City Subway IND Fulton Street Line (A C trains), which opened in 1936. This underground line replaced the earlier, elevated BMT Fulton Street Line on May 31, 1940. The IND Crosstown Line (G train), running underneath Lafayette Avenue and Marcy Avenue, opened for service in 1937. The elevated BMT Jamaica Line (J M Z trains) also serves the neighborhood, running alongside its northern boundaries at Broadway. Bedford–Stuyvesant is also served by the Nostrand Avenue and East New York stations of the Long Island Railroad.

Until 1950, the BMT Lexington Avenue Line served Lexington Avenue in the neighborhood. Likewise, the BMT Myrtle Avenue Line served Myrtle Avenue in the north until 1969.

Notable people[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Bedford Stuyvesant neighborhood in New York". Retrieved June 4, 2014. 
  2. ^ Brooklyn Community Boards, New York City. Accessed December 31, 2007.
  3. ^ 79th Precinct, NYPD.
  4. ^ 81st Precinct, NYPD.
  5. ^ "Brooklyn Community District 3" (pdf). New York City Department of City Planning. December 2007. Accessed April 25, 2008.
  6. ^ a b Echanove, Matias. "Bed-Stuy on the Move". Master thesis. Urban Planning Program. Columbia University. Urbanology.org. 2003.
  7. ^ Ramirez, Anthony. "Haven for Blacks in Civil War Riots Now Safeguards History", The New York Times, June 5, 2005. Accessed November 17, 2007.
  8. ^ "The Brooklyn, Flatbush and Coney Island Railroad (The Brighton Line)/The New York and Manhattan Beach Railroad". nycsubway.org. Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  9. ^ a b Ross, Andrew; David Dyte. "Capitoline Grounds". covehurst.net. Retrieved October 31, 2008. 
  10. ^ Historic District Designation Report www.nyc.gov
  11. ^ Clark, Alfred E. "GANG WARS UPSET AREA IN BROOKLYN; Bedford – Stuyvesant Tense Following Two Slayings." The New York Times. Tuesday May 2, 1961. Page 31. Retrieved on January 22, 2010.
  12. ^ Jacoby, Tamar. "How a Campaign for Racial Trust Turned Sour". APF Reporter. Vol. 15, No. 3. Alicia Patterson Foundation.
  13. ^ "No Place Like Home". Time. July 31, 1964.
  14. ^ Darien, Andrew. "Police Fraternity and the Politics of Race and Class in New York City, 1941–1960". Regional Labor Review. Spring 2000.
  15. ^ Paul F. O'Rourke (1968). "A Health Project for Bedford–Stuyvesant". RFK Senate Legislature Papers (SLP), Box 11, JFK Library. Retrieved February 5, 2012. 
  16. ^ Schlesinger, ArthurRobert Kennedy and his times. p. 786. ISBN 0-618-21928-5. 
  17. ^ "The City Sun Editor-in-Chief Andrew W. Cooper dies". Business Wire. January 30, 2002. Retrieved January 30, 2009. 
  18. ^ "Andrew W. Cooper". Answers.com. Retrieved January 30, 2009. 
  19. ^ Lueck, Thomas J. (January 30, 2002). "Andrew W. Cooper, 74, Pioneering Journalist". The New York Times. Retrieved January 30, 2009. 
  20. ^ Smith, Rita Webb, & Tony Chapelle, The Woman Who Took Back Her Streets: One Woman Fights The Drug Wars And Rebuilds Her Community (Far Hills, New Jersey: New Horizon Press, 1991 (ISBN 0-88282-065-6)), pp. 289–291 (quoting p. 290) (author Smith leader of a Harlem anti-drug campaign).
  21. ^ Notorious B.I.G.'s residence: Franklin, Marcus (January 17, 2009). "Much change in Biggie Smalls' neighborhood". The Insider. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2012-12-08. Retrieved 2010-10-10. 
      Other than Notorious B.I.G.'s residence: Grace, Melissa, New P.R. Campaign: "Bed-Stuy and Proud of it", in Gotham Gazette, March 10, 2005, from Daily News, at Wayback Machine, March 3, 2006, 10:12:00 p.m., as accessed October 20, 2013.
  22. ^ Grace, Melissa, New P.R. Campaign: "Bed-Stuy and Proud of it", op. cit.
  23. ^ http://colorlines.com/archives/2013/01/bed_stuy_billboards.html
  24. ^ http://66.111.110.102/newyork/DetailsAr.do?file=features/499/499.thebattlefor.html[dead link] "The Battle for Bed-Stuy: The Price of Art" Time Out New York April 2005
  25. ^ "American FactFinder". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2014-05-13. 
  26. ^ http://www.bedstuygateway.com/ Bed-Stuy Gateway Business District
  27. ^ Beautification of the Bed-Stuy Gateway streetscape receives major financial support
  28. ^ Grace, Melissa. "Say It Loud: Bed-stuy And Proud". NY Daily News. Retrieved February 29, 2012. 
  29. ^ http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/downloads/pdf/crime_statistics/cs079pct.pdf
  30. ^ http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/downloads/pdf/crime_statistics/cs081pct.pdf
  31. ^ Parascandola, Rocco (February 2, 2010). "Brooklyn's 81st Precinct probed by NYPD for fudging stats; felonies allegedly marked as misdemeanors". Daily News (New York). 
  32. ^ "Best Places in New York City | Foodie, Nightlife & Shopping News". Zagat.com. Retrieved 2014-05-13. 
  33. ^ "'Crooklyn' House Sells for $1.7M, a Reflection of Bed-Stuy Real Estate Boom". DNAinfo.com. June 17, 2013. 
  34. ^ "Bedford-Stuyvesant Streetscape Project". NYCEDC. 2014-01-28. Retrieved 2014-05-13. 
  35. ^ "Bus Rapid Transit - Nostrand/Rogers Avenues". Nyc.gov. Retrieved 2014-05-13. 
  36. ^ "New Brooklyn Sewer Connections, New Brooklyn Water Lines". Balkanplumbing.com. 2012-10-10. Retrieved 2014-05-13. 
  37. ^ "Verizon | Verizon Continues Rollout of FiOS TV in New York City". Newscenter.verizon.com. Retrieved 2014-05-13. 
  38. ^ Bed Stuy Farm Share. "Bed Stuy Farm Share". Bed Stuy Farm Share. Retrieved 2014-05-13. 
  39. ^ "The Neighborhood News," New York magazine, March 11–18, 2013.
  40. ^ Wilder, Craig. A Covenant with Color : Race and Social Power in Brooklyn. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
  41. ^ Vasquez, Emily. "Brooklyn-Born Rapper Is Arrested After Being Shot", The New York Times, October 18, 2005. Accessed October 7, 2007. "Mr. Jackson, raised in the Bedford–Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn, became famous in late 2001 with his debut single, "I Can’t Deny It.""
  42. ^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0001235/bio
  43. ^ "Jackie Gleason", United Press International. Accessed October 25, 2013.
  44. ^ Fox, Margalit. "Carl Gordon, a Late-Blooming Actor, Dies at 78", The New York Times, July 23, 2010. Accessed July 23, 2010.
  45. ^ "Willie Keeler Dies of Heart Disease"", The New York Times, January 2, 1923. Accessed October 29, 2013
  46. ^ "Neighborhood News". New York magazine. March 14–21, 2011. 
  47. ^ Ogunnaike, Lola. "A Flourish, and Lil' Kim Goes From Star to Inmate", The New York Times, September 20, 2005. Accessed October 19, 2007. "Ms. Jones spoke about her rise from Bedford–Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, to stardom and about her deepening relationship with God."
  48. ^ Staff. "Tracy Morgan On Being 'The New Black'", National Public Radio, October 22, 2009. Accessed July 23, 2010.
  49. ^ a b Complex Magazine, The 100 Best Opening Lines in Rap History, Part 2: 50 - 1, in ComplexMusic, February 21, 2013, 2:23 p.m., as accessed September 15, 2013.
  50. ^ Bed-Stuy (2013-04-03). "Biggie's 'One-Room Shack' in Bed-Stuy Now up for Sale - Real Estate - Bed-Stuy, NY Patch". Bed-stuy.patch.com. Retrieved 2014-05-13. 
  51. ^ "Put to Death: Mrs. Place Made No Scene in the Electric Chair", The Reading Eagle, March 20, 1899. Accessed October 29, 2013.
  52. ^ Harpaz, Beth J. "A Guide to Exploring Jackie Robinson's Brooklyn", The Associated Press, April 10, 2013. Accessed October 25, 2013.
  53. ^ Osterhout, Jacob E. "Chris Rock's New York: As his documentary 'Good Hair' is set to open, a tour of his hometown", New York Daily News, October 3, 2009. Accessed October 25, 2013.
  54. ^ William Thompson's Challenges, in The Brooklyn Rail, April–May, 2003.
  55. ^ Beck, Howard. "PRO BASKETBALL; Wilkens Denies He Was Asked to Go", The New York Times, September 28, 2005. Accessed November 20, 2007. "A native of Brooklyn's Bedford–Stuyvesant neighborhood, Wilkens had added motivation to succeed in New York, which made leaving so quickly that much tougher."
  56. ^ Smith, Rita Webb, & Tony Chapelle, The Woman Who Took Back Her Streets, op. cit., p. 290.
  57. ^ Morris, C. Zawadi, Today's Pride of Bed-Stuy: Christopher Wallace aka The Notorious B.I.G., in Bed-Stuy Patch, February 29, 2012, 5:00 p.m., as accessed September 15, 2013 (reprint from February 24, 2011).
  58. ^ Eligon, John, Film About a Rapper Captures Bed-Stuy as It Once Was, in The New York Times, January 19, 2009, as accessed September 15, 2013 (also in print, January 20, 2019, p. A30 (N.Y. ed.)).

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Coordinates: 40°41′00″N 73°56′28″W / 40.68333°N 73.94111°W / 40.68333; -73.94111