A beer bottle is a bottle made to contain beer, usually made of glass and come in various sizes, shapes and colours. Dark amber or brown glass greatly reduces UV light from spoiling the beer. However, lighter colored bottles are often used for marketing reasons.
Bottling lines 
Bottling lines are production lines that fill beer into bottles on a large scale.
This typically involves drawing beer from a holding tank and filling it into bottles in a filling machine (filler), which are then capped, labeled and packed into cases or cartons. Many smaller breweries send their bulk beer to large facilities for contract bottling—though some will bottle by hand.
The first step in bottling beer is depalletising, where the empty bottles are removed from the original pallet packaging delivered from the manufacturer, so that individual bottles may be handled. The bottles may then be rinsed with filtered water or air, and may have carbon dioxide injected into them in attempt to reduce the level of oxygen within the bottle. The bottle then enters a "filler" which fills the bottle with beer and may also inject a small amount of inert gas (CO2 or nitrogen) on top of the beer to disperse oxygen, as O2 can ruin the quality of the product by oxidation.
Shape and size 
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A short glass bottle used for beer is generally called a stubby. Shorter and flatter than standard bottles, stubbies pack into a smaller space for transporting. The bottles are sometimes made with thick glass so that the bottle can be cleaned and reused before being recycled. The capacity of a stubby is generally somewhere between 330 and 375 ml (11.6 and 13.2 imp fl oz; 11.2 and 12.7 U.S. fl oz). The Canadian stubby bottle was traditionally 341 ml (11.5 U.S. fl oz; 12.0 imp fl oz) while the U.S. longneck was 355 ml (12.0 U.S. fl oz; 12.5 imp fl oz). Some of the expected advantages of stubby bottles are: easier to handle; less breakage; lighter in weight; less storage space; and lower center of gravity.
Stubbies are used extensively in Europe, and were used almost exclusively in Canada from 1962 to 1986 as part of a standardization effort intended to reduce breakage, and the cost of sorting bottles when they were returned by customers. Due to their nostalgic value, stubbies were reintroduced by a number of Canadian craft brewers in the early 2000s. In the U.S., stubbies have generally fallen out of favour, with only a few brands still using them such as the Session Lager by the Full Sail Brewing Company, and Red Stripe, a Jamaican brand import.
Through the latter part of the 20th century, most British brewers used a standard design of bottle, known as the London Brewers' Standard. This was in brown glass, with a conical medium neck in the pint and with a rounded shoulder in the half-pint and nip sizes. Pints, defined as 568 ml (20.0 imp fl oz; 19.2 U.S. fl oz), and half-pints, or 284 ml (10.0 imp fl oz; 9.6 U.S. fl oz) were the most common, but some brewers also bottled in nip (1/3-pint) and quart (2-pint) sizes. It was for example mostly barley wines that were bottled in nips, and Midlands breweries such as Shipstone of Nottingham that bottled in quarts. This standardisation simplified the automation of bottling and made it easier for customers to recycle bottles as they were interchangeable. They carried a deposit charge, which in the 1980s rose to 7 pence for a pint and 5 pence for a half-pint. Some brewers however used individual bottle designs: among these were Samuel Smith, which used an embossed clear bottle, and Scottish and Newcastle, which used a clear bottle for their Newcastle Brown Ale (both designs survive in the 500 ml (16.9 U.S. fl oz; 17.6 imp fl oz) size today). Other brewers such as Timothy Taylor had used their own embossed bottles and rare examples continud to be reused into the 1980s. At around the turn of the 21st century the industry turned away from refillable bottles and UK beer bottles are now all one-trip, and most are 330 ml (11.2 U.S. fl oz; 11.6 imp fl oz) in volume.
De Nederlandse Bierfles (pijpje) 
Most beer producers in the Netherlands sell their beers in a 300 ml (10.6 imp fl oz; 10.1 U.S. fl oz) bottle called De Nederlandse Bierfles. De Nederlandse Bierfles is more commonly known as pijpje (little pipe) and carries a 10-cent deposit.
Longneck, Industry Standard Bottle (ISB) or North American longneck 
A North American longneck is a type of beer bottle with a long neck. It is known as the standard longneck bottle or industry standard bottle (ISB). The ISB longnecks have a uniform capacity, height, weight and diameter and can be reused on average 16 times. The long neck offers a long cushion of air to absorb the pressure of carbonation to reduce the risk of exploding. The longneck also provides a handle for drinking directly from the bottle without transferring body heat to the beer from one's hand. The US ISB longneck is 355 ml (12.5 imp fl oz; 12.0 U.S. fl oz). In Canada, in 1992, the large breweries agreed to all use a 341 ml (12.0 imp fl oz; 11.5 U.S. fl oz) longneck bottle of standard design (named AT2), thus replacing the traditional stubby bottle and an assortment of brewery-specific long-necks which had come into use in the mid-1980s. In Australia, the term "longneck stubby" is applied to bottles of this style with 330 and 375 ml (11.6 and 13.2 imp fl oz; 11.2 and 12.7 U.S. fl oz) capacity.
Large bottles 
In the United States, large bottles are 22 U.S. fl oz (650.6 ml; 22.9 imp fl oz) (colloquially called a "rocket", "bomber", or "deucer"); the European & Australian standard large bottle is 750-millilitre (25.4 U.S. fl oz; 26.4 imp fl oz) (in South Africa and Canada referred to as a "quart", in Australia known colloquially as a "longneck" or "tallie")
A forty is American slang for a 40-U.S.-fluid-ounce (1,182.9 ml; 41.6 imp fl oz) bottle commonly used for cheaper varieties of beer and of malt liquor, though some 32-U.S.-fluid-ounce (946.4 ml; 33.3 imp fl oz) bottles are erroneously called forties.
A growler is a glass or ceramic jug with a capacity of 64 U.S. fl oz (1,892.7 ml; 66.6 imp fl oz) used to transport draft beer in Australia, the United States and Canada. They are commonly sold at breweries and brewpubs as a means to sell take-out craft beer. The exploding growth of craft breweries and the growing popularity of home brewing has also led to an emerging market for the sale of collectible growlers.
Growlers are generally made of glass and have either a screw-on cap or a hinged porcelain gasket cap, which can provide freshness for a week or more. A properly sealed growler will hold carbonation indefinitely and will store beer like any other sanitized bottle. Some growler caps are equipped with valves to allow replacement of CO2 lost while racking. The modern glass growler was first introduced by Charlie and Ernie Otto of Otto Brother's Brewing Company in 1989.
While 64 U.S. fl oz is the most popular growler size, growlers are commonly found in 32 U.S. fl oz, 128 U.S. fl oz, 1-litre (33.8 U.S. fl oz; 35.2 imp fl oz), and 2-liter sizes as well. The two most popular colors for growlers are amber (a brownish hue) or clear (often referred to as "flint"). Clear growlers are often 25% - 35% cheaper per unit than their amber counterparts. Glass handles are the most common type of handle for growlers, although metal handles (with more ornate designs) can also be found. Some growlers do not have handles – this is especially common with growlers smaller than 64 U.S. fl oz that have Grolsch-style flip-tops.
The term likely dates back to the late 19th century when fresh beer was carried from the local pub to one's home by means of a small galvanized pail. It is claimed the sound that the CO2 made when it escaped from the lid as the beer sloshed around sounded like a growl.
Growlers can usually be refilled for between $5 and $15 in America, but carry a significant (sometimes non-compulsory) deposit.
Small bottles 
There are also smaller bottles, called "ponies" (not to be confused with a pony keg), "nips" and other names; in the U.S., the size of these bottles is usually 7 U.S. fl oz (207.0 ml; 7.3 imp fl oz). Beers that come in small bottles include Corona (labeled as Coronita), Rogue Ales, and Bud Light "Limeys".
"Darwin Stubby" 
A Darwin Stubby refers to several large beer bottle sizes in Australia. It was first introduced in April 1958 with an 80-imperial-fluid-ounce (2,270 ml; 76.9 U.S. fl oz) capacity. The 2-litre (70.4 imp fl oz; 67.6 U.S. fl oz) Darwin Stubby is available by NT Draught in the Northern Territory. The 2.25-litre (76.1 U.S. fl oz; 79.2 imp fl oz) Darwin Stubby has an iconic, if kitsch status in Australian folklore.
"Caguama" bottles 
In Mexico, "caguama" is a popular name for a 940 ml (33.1 imp fl oz; 31.8 U.S. fl oz) beer bottle. The Mexican beer brands which are sold in these bottles include Tecate, Carta Blanca, Sol, Indio, Victoria, Corona Familiar and Pacífico. The name of the bottle refers to the Loggerhead sea turtle that is called in Spanish "caguama". There is a bigger size of beer bottles that are called "super caguama" or "caguamon".
Cone-shaped bottle of an Estonian beer
Bottled beer is sold with several types of bottle cap, but most often with crown caps (also known as crown seals). Some beers (for example Grolsch) are sold in "beugel" style bottles, known as "swing top" in some English speaking countries. These bottles were superseded by the crown cap at the end of the 19th century, but survive in premium markets as nostalgic items.
Use as weapons 
Beer bottles are sometimes used as makeshift clubs, for instance in bar fights. Pathologists determined in 2009 that beer bottles are strong enough to crack human skulls, which requires an impact energy of between 14 and 70 joules, depending on the location. Empty beer bottles shatter at 40 joules, while full bottles shatter at only 30 joules because of the pressure of the carbonated beer inside the bottle. A test performed by the TV show Mythbusters suggested that full bottles are significantly more dangerous than empty bottles. They concluded that full bottles inflict more damage in terms of concussion and skull fracture. However, they found that both full and empty bottles do the same amount of scalp damage.
Lightstruck beer 
Lightstruck, or "skunked" or "skunky", beer has been exposed to ultraviolet and visible light. The light causes riboflavin to react with and break down isohumulones, a molecule that contributes to the bitterness of the beer and is derived from the hops. The resulting molecule, 3-methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol, is very similar chemically and in odour to the musk-borne mercaptans that are a skunk's natural defences.
In some cases, such as Miller High Life, a hop extract that does not have isohumulones is used to bitter the beer so it cannot be "lightstruck". A dark brown glass bottle gives some protection to the beer, but green and clear glass bottles offer virtually no protection at all.
There are also other solutions available to improve beer bottled in clear and green glass from becoming skunked or light-struck, such as Samuel Adams (beer) tall 6-pack. There are specialty coatings that can be baked into the glass and offer additional protection from UV light.
See also 
- Eie, Thomas (2009), "Light Protection from Packaging", in Yam, K. L., Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology, Wiley, pp. 655–659
- Brody, A. L., & Marsh, K, S., Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology, John Wiley & Sons, 1997, ISBN 0-471-06397-5
- "History of Growlers". Grand Teton Brewing Company. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
- "Complete Guide To Buying Growlers". Kinnek.com. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
- "The Growler: Beer-to-Go!". Beeradvocate.com. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- Beer Advice
- "Rogue to Downsize XS Series Bottles". Seattle Beer News. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- "'Toasting the Darwin Stubby". www.dailytelegraph.com.au. Retrieved 2009-08-30. Text " The Daily Telegraph' " ignored (help)
- "The Darwin Stubby turns 50", IAN MORGAN, 05 Jun, 2008, North Queensland Register
- "Toasting the Darwin Stubby", Greg McLean, May 15, 2008, The Daily Telegraph
- "Loggerhead Turtle".
- "Empty Beer Bottles Make Better Weapons". New York Times Magazine. December 10, 2009. Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
- Riboflavin-sensitized photooxidation of isohumulones and derivatives
- Beer: quality, safety and ... - Google Books. books.google.com. ISBN 978-0-85404-588-4. Retrieved 2009-10-17.
Further reading 
- Colin S. Burns, Arne Heyeric, Malcolm D. E. Forbes, (2001) "Mechanism for Formation of the Lightstruck Flavor in Beer Revealed by Time-Resolved Electron Paramagnetic Resonance"
- Richard Pozdrik, Felicity A. Roddick, Peter J. Rogers, and Thang Nguyen, (2006) "Spectrophotometric Method for Exploring 3-Methyl-2-butene-1-thiol (MBT) Formation in Lager"
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