Beer in Asia
Beer in Asia began with Asia's first modern brewery in 1855 which was built entirely using European brewing technology. It was set up to supply the British in India by Edward Dyer at Kasauli in the Himalayan Mountains under the name Dyer Breweries. The company still exists and is known as Mohan Meakin Limited, which today comprises a large group of companies involved in many industries.
In the late 1820s, Edward Dyer moved from England to set up the first brewery in India (later incorporated as Dyer Breweries in 1855) at Kasauli in the Himalayan Mountains. The Kasauli brewery launched India's and indeed Asia's first beer, Lion, which was in great demand by the thirsty British administrators and troops stationed in the sweltering heat of India. Lion was much appreciated as a beer, and one famous poster featured a satisfied British Tommy declaring, "as good as back home!".
The brewery was soon shifted to nearby Solan (close to the British summer capital Shimla), as there was an abundant supply of fresh springwater there. The Kasauli brewery site was converted to a distillery, which Mohan Meakin Ltd. still operate. Dyer set up more breweries at Shimla, Murree Murree Brewery, Rawalpindi, Mandalay, Quetta and acquired interests in the Ootacamund Brewery (South India).
Another entrepreneur, H G Meakin, moved to India and bought the old Shimla and Solan Breweries from Edward Dyer and added more at Ranikhet, Dalhousie, Chakrata, Darjeeling, Kirkee and Nuwara Eliya (Ceylon). After the First World War, the Meakin and Dyer breweries merged and in 1937, when Burma was separated from India, the company was restructured with its Indian assets as Dyer Meakin Breweries, a public company on the London Stock Exchange.
Following independence, N.N. Mohan raised funds and travelled to London where he acquired a majority stake in Dyer Meakin Breweries. He took over management of the company in 1949 and built new breweries at Lucknow, Ghaziabad and Khopoli (near Bombay). The company name was changed to Mohan Meakin Breweries in 1967 (the word "Breweries" was dropped in the eighties as the company diversified into other industries).
On the death of N.N. Mohan in 1969, his eldest son Colonel V.R. Mohan took over as Managing Director. He introduced a number of new products that are brand leaders today but died in 1973, soon after taking the helm. In the 1970s the manufacturing activities of the company were diversified into other fields including breakfast cereals, fruit juices and mineral water under the leadership of Brigadier Kapil Mohan (Col. V.R. Mohan's brother). Subsequently the word brewery was dropped from the company name in 1982 to remove the impression that the company was engaged only in beer making. New breweries were built during the seventies and eighties at Chandigarh, Madras, Nepal and Kakinada near Hyderabad.
Today, Mohan Meakin's principal brands are Old Monk rum and Golden Eagle beer. Its other products include Diplomat Deluxe, Colonel's Special, Black Knight, Meakin 10,000, Summer Hall and Solan No 1 whiskies, London Dry and Big Ben gins, and Kaplanski vodka. Asia’s original beer, Lion, is still sold in northern India.
Lion Beer is the main brand first sold in the 1840s. It was originally branded an IPA (India Pale Ale but was changed in the sixties to a lager. Lion remained the number one beer in India for over a century from the 1840s until the 1960s. After this another Mohan Meakin brand, Golden Eagle, took the number one spot until the 1980s, when Kingfisher became number one. By 2001, Lion sales had declined substantially and Lion was only available to the Indian Army through the CSD (Canteen Services Department). Mohan Meakin then entrusted the marketing of their original beer to International Breweries Pvt. Ltd. The brand has since been relaunched in the north Indian market. With a new label design and marketing campaign, Lion has established itself once more in the civilian market and is now expanding into markets across India.
Lion earns a place in history as Asia's first beer brand. Lion's popularity with the British during the heyday of the Empire led to the start-up of other Lion beers around the world, in New Zealand, South Africa and elsewhere. Lion remains the number one brand in neighbouring Sri Lanka where Mohan Meakin had introduced it in the 1880s through their Ceylon brewery.
Australian is another popular 5% abv lager distributed by International Breweries (P) Ltd. The 8% abv version is called Max.
Alcohol is banned in Brunei except for sales to foreigners and non-Muslims. There are no breweries in the country.
Angkor Beer, named after the iconic Khmer Angkor temples near Siem Reap, is the most widely consumed beer in Cambodia. It is brewed by Cambrew Brewery in Sihanoukville, which also brews Klang Beer, Bayon Beer, Angkor Extra Stout and Black Panther Premium Stout.
Anchor Beer is brewed by Cambodia Brewery in Kandal.
Bintang is a locally brewed version of Heineken beer. It is noticeable that Bintang uses similar packaging (650 mL green bottle) and identical symbol (red star) to Heineken. The name Bintang means "star" in Indonesian.
While traditional Kyrgyz drinks like bozo and kymyz retain popularity, and Soviet-style beer lives on in the form of Nasheб new local brands are gaining popularity which are Arpa, Zhivoe and Topos, which was launched 2014. The brewpub Steinbrau in Bishkek bring German-style lagers to the land, while microbreweries exist in Osh and Jalal-Abad. Many of the big local names are Russian (Baltika, Sibirskoe Koronna, Bagbier, Klinskoe) or Kazak (Tian-Shan, Karagandinskoe).
Beer Lao is the most popular.
The most popular local beer is Lion, a lager which is produced by Lion Brewery. Another popular beer was Three Coins produced by McCallum Breweries. In 2012 McCallum Breweries was purchased by Miller's Brewery and in mid 2014 Lion Brewery successfully took-over Miller's Brewery and closed the plant. The only other brewer still operating in Sri Lanka is Asia Pacific Brewery Lanka Limited, which acquired local brewer, United Brewery, in 2005. Asia Pacific Breweries is a Singaporean-based joint venture between Heineken International and Fraser and Neave and produces a range of King beers.
The three largest companies control 95% of the market:
- Sabeco: 51.4% in 2010, Saigon Beer, 333, pronounced ba-ba-ba
- Vietnam Brewery Limited: a joint-venture of Asia Pacific Breweries and Saigon Trading Group, 29.7%, Heineken, Tiger Beer, Larue Beer
- Habeco: 13.9%, Hanoi Beer, Truc Bach Beer
- Pepper, Barrie (2012). "Southeast Asia". In Garrett Oliver. The Oxford Companion to Beer 1 (1st ed.). New York, New York: Oxford University Press Inc. pp. 1213–1215.
- "APB Officials fly to Colombo after buying into Local Brewery". The Sunday Times. 2005. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- "Sabeco và Habeco đạt tổng doanh thu trên 30.000 tỷ đồng trong năm". gafin.vn. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.