Beethoven's musical style
Ludwig van Beethoven is generally viewed as one of the most influential figures in the history of classical music. Since his lifetime, when he was "universally accepted as the greatest living composer," Beethoven's music has remained among the most performed, discussed and reviewed. Scholarly journals are devoted to analysis of his life and work, he has been the subject of numerous biographies and monographs and his music was the driving force behind the development of Schenkerian analysis. He is widely considered as among the most important composers, and along with Bach and Mozart, his music is the most frequently recorded.
Beethoven's stylistic innovations bridge the Classical and Romantic periods. The works of his early period brought the Classical form to its highest expressive level, expanding in formal, structural, and harmonic terms the musical idiom developed by predecessors such as Mozart and Haydn. The works of his middle and late periods were even more forward-looking, appropriately being categorized in and contributing to the musical language and thinking of the Romantic era, directly inspiring other Romantic composers such as Franz Schubert, Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Richard Wagner, and Johannes Brahms.
Beethoven's musical output has traditionally been divided into three periods, a classification that dates to the first years after the composer's death in 1827 and was formalised with the publication of Wilhelm von Lenz's influential work Beethoven et ses trois styles (Beethoven and his Three Styles). Lenz proposed that Beethoven's creative output be marked by three periods of distinct stylistic personality and he identified specific compositions as milestones for each period. In Lenz's work, the first period opens with Beethoven's Trio set, Opus 1 and culminates with the performances in 1800 of his first symphony and Septet. The second period spans the period from the publication of his Moonlight Sonata to the Piano Sonata in E minor, Op. 90 in 1814. The last period covers Beethoven's mature works to his death in 1827.
Although later scholars have called into question such a simplistic categorisation, the periodisation is still widely used. Extensive subsequent analytical consideration of Lenz's thesis has resulted in a slight revision of his original dates and broad consensus regarding Beethoven's three periods is as follows:
- a formative period that extends to 1802
- a middle period from 1803 to 1814
- a mature period from 1814 to 1827
Generally, each period demonstrates characteristic stylistic evolutions in Beethoven's musical language and preoccupations as well as important developments in the composer's personal life.
The compositions that Beethoven wrote in his formative period can be generally characterised by the composer's efforts to master the predominant classical language of the period. His works from this period can be subdivided into two, based on the composer's residence. First, various juvenalia, written when the adolescent Beethoven was in residence in Bonn and heavily indebted to the works of contemporaries, especially Mozart and his teacher, Christian Gottlob Neefe. These early efforts can be seen in a set of three Piano Sonatas and Piano quartets (WoO 36) that Beethoven wrote before 1792. The Quartets, for instance, are each specifically modelled after three Violin sonatas Mozart published in 1781 - K 296, 379 and 380 - and Beethoven would later draw upon this familiarity in the composition of several of his own Violin Sonatas.
Second, a number of more substantial and original works written after Beethoven moved to Vienna and commenced studies with the famed Austrian composer and leading musical figure of the period, Joseph Haydn.
With the exception of an abortive attempt to move to Vienna in 1787, Beethoven lived in Bonn until 1792, where he worked in the court chapel of the Elector of Cologne. Some forty compositions from this period are extant, including ten early works written by the young adolescent Beethoven when he was being promoted as a child prodigy performer and published as a result of the efforts of his teacher. It has been suggested that Beethoven largely abandoned composition between 1785 and 1790, possibly as a result of negative critical reaction to Beethoven's first published works. A 1784 review in Johann Nikolaus Forkel's influential Musikalischer Almanack compared Beethoven's efforts to those of rank beginners. Whatever the case, most of Beethoven's earliest works were written after he turned twenty, between 1790 and 1792. Some of this music was later published by Beethoven, or incorporated into later works. As such, they provide an important foundation for judging the later evolution of his style.
In general, Beethoven's earliest compositions show his struggles to master the prevailing classical style, both in structural and idiomatic terms. Several works, including two he later published, show the incipient signs of his later individual style: twelve Lieder, several of which he published in 1805 as Opus 52, his Wind Octet, later published as Opus 103, and several sets of Variations, including one (WoO 40) for violin and piano on Mozart’s aria Se vuol ballare (later reworked in Vienna). Although these works largely conform to the formal conventions of the classical style, including a strict observance of form and, in the variations, the decorative filigree associated with the genre, they also show early signs of Beethoven's later tendency to more substantive treatment of thematic material.
In 1790, Beethoven was commissioned to write a funeral cantata (WoO 87) on the death of the Austro-Hungarian Emperor, Joseph II, the first of his extant compositions written in C minor. A number of concert arias also date to this period including "Prüfung des Küssens" (WoO 89) and "Mit Mädeln sich vertragen" (WoO 90).
Beethoven also produced numerous fragments of larger-scale works, including a symphonic movement (also written in C minor), a violin concerto, an oboe concerto, an early draft of his B-flat Piano concerto (both now vanished), and a concertante for piano, flute and bassoon. Scholars generally regard these early efforts as bland and uninspired and have concluded that his first efforts at writing in the classical sonata style (with the exception of his Wind Octet) were poorly conceived. Gustav Nottebohm, for example, wrote of Beethoven's Dressler Variations (WoO 63), "they show not a trace of contrapuntal independent part-writing. They are figural variations of the simplest kind". Téodor de Wyzewa considered his early "Kurfürsten Sonatas" written in 1783 (WoO 47) as merely "correct imitations of Haydn.". Considered as a whole, Beethoven's compositional efforts in Bonn demonstrate the importance of his move to Vienna in terms of the development of his musical style and the sophistication of his grasp of classical form and idiom.
Beethoven moved to Vienna in 1792, having in all likelihood arranged beforehand to study with Joseph Haydn, who had been freed from his Kapellmeister duties upon the death of his benefactor Prince Nikolaus Esterhazy. Beethoven's arrival coincided with Haydn's own return to the city after his first visit to London at the behest of the impresario Johann Peter Salomon, a trip which secured Haydn's reputation, already considerable, as the foremost composer of his day. In addition to his association with Haydn, Beethoven also studied under Antonio Salieri, who was among the most popular operatic composers then active, and Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, the leading expert on musical theory.
There is evidence that Beethoven composed very little for the first year or so after his arrival at Vienna, devoting his time instead to securing his position in the leading salons of the city as a performer and improviser. What little compositional activities did occupy Beethoven seem to have been put to revising earlier works (such as his Wind Octet, Op. 103) to conform to Viennese musical tastes. Between 1793 and 1795, Beethoven seems to have pursued his compositional studies diligently, working through ideas and texts such as Johann Joseph Fux's important treatise on counterpoint, Gradus ad Parnassum, and working on those compositions that he would later publish under his first opus numbers.
The first of these, the three piano trios grouped together under op. 1 (July 1795) and three piano sonatas under op. 2 (March 1796), demonstrate many of the characteristics of Beethoven's early Viennese period.
He also continued another trend—towards larger orchestras—that went on until the first decade of the 20th century, and moved the center of the sound downwards in the orchestra, to the violas and the lower register of the violins and cellos, giving his music a heavier and darker feel than Haydn or Mozart. Gustav Mahler modified the orchestration of some of Beethoven's music—most notably the 3rd and 9th symphonies—with the idea of more accurately expressing Beethoven's intent in an orchestra that had grown so much larger than the one Beethoven used: for example, doubling woodwind parts to compensate for the fact that a modern orchestra has so many more strings than Beethoven's orchestra did. Needless to say, these efforts remain controversial.
Above all, his works distinguish themselves from those of any prior composer through his creation of large, extended architectonic structures characterized by the extensive development of musical material, themes, and motifs, usually by means of "modulation", that is, a change in the feeling of the home key, through a variety of keys or harmonic regions. Although Haydn's later works often showed a greater fluidity between distant keys, Beethoven's innovation was the ability to rapidly establish a solidity in juxtaposing different keys and unexpected notes to join them. This expanded harmonic realm creates a sense of a vast musical and experiential space through which the music moves, and the development of musical material creates a sense of unfolding drama in this space.
Beethoven helped to further unify the different movements in multi-movement works with the invention of the 'germ motive'. The germ motive, or 'germinal motif,' as it is sometimes called, is a motive that is used to create motives and themes throughout a whole work, without making it obvious that such a thing is being done. Thus, all the themes in a piece can be tied back to a single motive in the work. An early and famous example of this is his sonata 'Pathetique', where all of the subjects used in the first movement originate from a germinal idea derived from its opening bar. Similarly, the opening bars of his Eighth Symphony are used to derive motives to be used throughout the whole symphony. This device lends unity to a work or even a group of works (as some motives Beethoven used not only in one work, but in many works) without repeating material exactly or turning to canonic devices.
In his Fifth Symphony Beethoven used the four-note motif (drawn from a late Haydn symphony) throughout the whole movement in different juxtapositions, marking the first important occurrence of cyclic form and giving a sense of a totally internal conflict to the piece.
In his book The Joy of Music, Leonard Bernstein, who, in his television documentary Bernstein on Beethoven admitted that he considered Beethoven the greatest composer who ever lived, nevertheless criticized his orchestration as sometimes being "downright bad", with "unimportant" orchestral parts being given too much prominence. Bernstein attributed this to Beethoven's ever-increasing deafness, which presumably rendered him incapable of judging how much louder than another a given instrument might be playing at certain moments. He repeated some of this criticism in the 1982 miniseries Bernstein/ Beethoven, a PBS miniseries containing performances of all nine symphonies, several overtures, one of the string quartets, and the Missa Solemnis. But at the same time Bernstein added that what makes Beethoven great is his perfect sense of form - his ability to realize what the next note always had to be.
Beethoven and Romanticism
Beethoven's place as a transitional figure between the neo-classical period in the arts, called the "classical" period in music, and the Romantic period was a conscious intention of the many 19th century writers and composers, who pointed to his work as the radical departure from the past. As a result, a great deal of literature, including writing by ETA Hoffman, Robert Schumann, Richard Wagner and Gustav Mahler, placed his work at the pinnacle of what they were trying to achieve in music.
Because of his central importance, methods of conducting and playing, as well as music theory, were centered around his most important works, particularly his symphonies, concerti, string quartets, piano trios and sonatas for piano or piano and other instrument. Beginning from his pupil Carl Czerny and moving forward, basic terms such as tonality, sonata form and Allegro were defined or redefined in reference to his musical practice.
As importantly Beethoven's life was seen as the model for the "heroic artist", who cast his personal experiences, perceptions and biography into works, which would then be experienced by the audience members who would be transported to the emotional state of the artist, and thus participate in a "sublime" experience. That Beethoven had great difficulties in his life was joined to the sense of struggle and difficulty in his music, and used as the basis for an entire mythology of the role of the artist in society, and the difficulties of artistic creation. A biography by Anton Schindler was in accordance with this sense of Beethoven as Romantic, constantly putting direct emotional symbols into his work, such as saying "Thus Fate Knocks at the Door!" for the opening of the C Minor Symphony, number 5. Beethoven as icon can be seen in the efforts to erect a monument to him, led by Franz Liszt, and in the arguments over whether Johannes Brahms or Richard Wagner better represented the tradition of music that Beethoven was thought to have created.
With the 20th century a reaction against this "cult of the Romantic artist" began to be seen. In a sense it was a continuation of the Romantic cult in a different form: a new generation of artists wanted to claim Beethoven as their own, and place him in the context as the pinnacle figure of musical enlightenment and rationality. The emphasis on harmonic practice led to arguments that Beethoven was not "really" a romantic because of his general rejection of chromaticism in melodies, and his structural practices in preparing modulations. By the 1950s it was common to deny that Beethoven was a Romantic at all.
In the late 20th century, the pendulum began to swing back in the other direction, in some measure because of a revival of interest in Romanticism, and in part because of a change in the status of musical technique. With the falling out of favor of the idea that music was about "progress", the need to see Beethoven in technical terms diminished. The differences between his work and Mozart's became accentuated, in part because of the rise of neo-classical styles of playing or historically informed performance. Beethoven came to many to be seen in relation to contemporaries such as Goethe and Jacques-Louis David - having both neo-classical and Romantic elements to their work.
- Rosen, p. 329
- "Most Popular Composers". ArkivMusic. Archived from the original on 25 May 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
- Groves, §11 The ‘three periods’
- Drabkin, p. 88
- Solomon, p. 169
- Gustav Nottebohm, 'Beethovens Studien' (Leipzig & Winterthur), 1873, p. 10
- Téodor de Wyzewa, 'Beethoven et Wagner' (Paris, 1914), p. 44
- Bernstein, Leonard (1 December 2004). The Joy of Music. ISBN 9781574671049.
- Rosen, Charles (1971). The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven. London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-393-31712-9.
- Solomon, Maynard (1972). "Beethoven's Productivity at Bonn". Music and Letters (Oxford: Oxford University Press) LIII (2): 165–172. doi:10.1093/ml/LIII.2.165.
- Drabkin, William (2004). "The introduction to Beethoven's Kreutzer sonata: a historical perspective". In Lockwood, Lewis; Kroll, Mark. The Beethoven Violin Sonatas: History, Criticism, Performance. Champaign: University of Illinois Press. pp. 83–109. ISBN 0-252-02932-1.
- Kerman, Joseph; Alan Tyson. "Beethoven, Ludwig van". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Retrieved 07/09/2009.