Beit Hanoun

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Beit Hanoun
Other transcription(s)
 • Arabic بيت حانون
 • Also spelled Beit Hanun (official)
Bayt Hanun (unofficial)
Official logo of Beit Hanoun
Municipal Seal of Beit Hanoun
Beit Hanoun is located in the Palestinian territories
Beit Hanoun
Beit Hanoun
Location of Beit Hanoun within Palestine
Coordinates: 31°32′29.23″N 34°32′10.60″E / 31.5414528°N 34.5362778°E / 31.5414528; 34.5362778Coordinates: 31°32′29.23″N 34°32′10.60″E / 31.5414528°N 34.5362778°E / 31.5414528; 34.5362778
Governorate North Gaza
Government
 • Type City
 • Head of Municipality Mohamad Nazek al-Kafarna
Area
 • Jurisdiction 12,500 dunams (12.5 km2 or 4.8 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 • Jurisdiction 32,187
Name meaning "The house of Hanun"[1]
Website www.beithanoun.ps

Beit Hanoun or Beit Hanun (Arabic: بيت حانون‎) is a city on the northeast edge of the Gaza Strip. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the town had a population of 32,187 in mid-2006.[2] It is administered by the Hamas administration. It is located by the Hanoun stream, just 6 kilometers (3.7 mi) away from the Israeli town of Sderot.

History[edit]

The 1239 Beit Hanoun battle, by Matthew Paris.

According to a legend, Beit Hanoun was the capital of the Philistine King Hanoun, who fought the Assyrians in the 8th century BCE.[citation needed]

The Ayyubids defeated the Crusaders at a battle in Umm al-Nasser hill, just west of Beit Hanoun in 1239, and built the Umm al-Naser Mosque ("Mother of Victories Mosque") there in commemoration of the victory.[3] A Mamluk post office was located in Beit Hanoun as well.[4]

Ottoman era[edit]

Incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517 with all of Palestine, Beit Hanoun appeared in the 1596 tax registers as being in the Nahiya of Gaza of the Liwa of Gazza. It had a population of 36 Muslim households and paid taxes on wheat, barley, summer crops, fruit trees, occasional revenues, goats and/ or beehives.[5]

In 1838 Edward Robinson passed by, and described how "all were busy with the wheat harvest; the reapers were in the fields; donkeys and camels were moving homewards with their high loads of sheaves; while on the threshing-floors near the village I counted not less than thirty gangs of cattle.."[6]

In May 1863, the French explorer Victor Guérin visited the village. Among the gardens he observed indications of ancient constructions in the shape of cut stones, fragments of columns, and bases.[7]

In 1883 the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described it as a small adobe village, "surrounded by gardens, with a well to the west. The ground is flat, and to the east is a pond beside the road."[8]

British Mandate era[edit]

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Beit Hanoun had a population of 885, all Muslim,[9] decreasing in the 1931 census to 849, still all Muslims, in 194 houses.[10]

In 1945 Beit Hanun had a population of 1,680 Arabs and 50 Jews, with 20,025 dunams of land, according to an official land and population survey.[11] Of this, 2,768 dunams were for citrus and bananas, 697 were plantations and irrigable land, 13,186 used for cereals,[12] while 59 dunams were built-up land.[13]

Egyptian era[edit]

In the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the vicinity of Beit Hanoun, and later Beit Hanoun itself, served as an Israeli tactical wedge (Beit Hanoun wedge) to halt the movement of the Egyptian army from Ashkelon to forces to the south in the area that later became the Gaza Strip.

While under control of Egyptian authorities, Egypt complained to the Mixed Armistice Commission that on the 7 and 14 October 1950 Israeli military Forces had shelled and machine-gunned the Arab villages of Abasan al-Kabera and Beit Hanoun in Egyptian controlled territory of the Gaza strip. According to Egypt this action caused the death of seven and the wounding of twenty civilians.[14]

Israeli occupation[edit]

The body a person killed in the home of 'Abd al-Hafez Hamad. Six members of one family were killed when their house was bombed on the night of 8 July 2014.[15]

According to the Palestinian Authority, 140 Palestinians were killed by Israeli forces in Beit Hanoun from September 2000 to November 2006.[16]

The Israeli army besieged Beit Hanoun from 15 May to 30 June 2003, during which it demolished dozens of houses, razed large areas of agricultural land and largely destroyed the civilian infrastructure of the town.[17] During the Raid on Beit Hanoun in 2004, the town was besieged for 37 days. About 20 Palestinians were killed and again immense damage was caused to property and infrastructure. The infrastructure of Beit Hanoun was heavily damaged during an incursion by Israeli forces in 2005.[18]

Following the removal of Israeli settlers from Gaza in August 2005 the 2006 shelling of Beit Hanoun, killed 19 Palestinians. In December 2006, the UN appointed a fact-finding commission led by Anglican Archbishop Desmond Tutu to investigate the attack. However, Tutu and the other members were not granted permission to travel by Israel and the investigation was cancelled.[19] Tutu's final report to the United Nations human rights council[20] concluded, however, that "[I]n the absence of a well-founded explanation from the Israeli military – who is in sole possession of the relevant facts – the mission must conclude that there is a possibility that the shelling of Beit Hanoun constituted a war crime."[21]

On 27 March 2007, sewage water flooded the northern Umm al-Nasser suburb of Beit Hanoun, killing five people.[22]

Beit Hanoun was hit several times by Israeli and Hamas shells and rockets during the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict.[citation needed] The shelling of an UNWRA Elementary school killed 11-15 people, including women and children.[23] The Israeli Defense forces claimed that "the IDF encountered heavy fire in vicinity of the school, including anti-tank missile... [and] that an errant mortar did indeed land in the empty courtyard of the school." [24]

Educational and health institutions[edit]

There are twelve secondary, primary and agricultural schools in Beit Hanoun and an agricultural college which is related to al-Azhar University - Gaza. There is a medical center and hospital in the city and several clinics mostly managed by the United Nations.[25]

Demographics[edit]

In 1922, Beit Hanoun had a population of 885.[9] The population more than doubled by 1945. In that year, a land and population survey recorded 1,730 inhabitants including 50 Jews.[11] In 1961, the population rose to 3,876.[26]

In the first official census by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), Beit Hanoun had a population of 20,780. Over 90% of the residents were Palestinian refugees.[27] There were 10,479 males and 10,301 females. People of 14 years of age or younger constituted the majority at 65.6%, people between the ages of 20 and 44 was 26.8%, 45 to 64 was 5.7% and residents above the age of 65 was 1.9%.[28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 358
  2. ^ Projected Mid -Year Population for North Gaza Governorate by Locality 2004– 2006 Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics
  3. ^ Sharon, 1999, p. 98 ff
  4. ^ "Beit Hanoon". Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  5. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 147
  6. ^ Robinson and Smith, 1842, vol 2, pp. 371 -372
  7. ^ Guérin, 1869, p. 175, as noted by Conder and Kitchener, 1883, SWP III, p. 247
  8. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1883, SWP III, p. 233
  9. ^ a b Barron, 1923, Table V, Sub-district of Gaza, p. 8
  10. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 2
  11. ^ a b Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 45
  12. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 86
  13. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 136
  14. ^ UN Doc S/1459 of 20 February 1950 Report of the Mixed Armistice Commission
  15. ^ "Gaza Strip, July 2014: A constant state of emergency". B'Tselem. Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  16. ^ Palestinian Authority
  17. ^ "Uprooting Palestinian Trees And Leveling Agricultural Land". PCHR. Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  18. ^ European Commission report MED/2004/090-716 Damage Assessment: Beit Hanoun Area 17 December 2005
  19. ^ BBC Israel 'blocks Tutu Gaza mission'. BBC News.
  20. ^ HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION IN PALESTINE AND OTHER OCCUPIED ARAB TERRITORIES Report of the high-level fact-finding mission to Beit Hanoun established under Council resolution S-3/1
  21. ^ Rory McCarthy. "Israeli shelling of Beit Hanoun a possible war crime, Desmond Tutu tells UN". the Guardian. Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  22. ^ "Sewage flood causes Gaza deaths". Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  23. ^ "Israel Hits UN-Run Shelter, Gaza Officials Say". Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  24. ^ UNRWA,The Guardian Feature Article, 20 August 2014, http://www.unrwa.org/newsroom/features/guardian-newspaper-report-israeli-strikes-unrwa-schools
  25. ^ "Our City - Beithanoun Municipality". Archived from the original on 2012-02-16. 
  26. ^ "Welcome To Bayt Hanun". Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  27. ^ Palestinian Population by Locality and Refugee Status Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS).
  28. ^ Palestinian Population by Locality, Sex and Age Groups in Years Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS).

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]