Beit Ur al-Tahta
|Beit Ur al-Tahta|
|• Arabic||بيت عور التحت|
|• Also spelled||Bayt Ur at-Tahta (unofficial)|
Beit Ur al-Tahta, between 1950 and 1977.
|Governorate||Ramallah & al-Bireh|
|Name meaning||"Lower house of Ur"|
Beit Ur al-Tahta (Arabic: بيت عور التحتى, lit. "Lower house of straw") is a Palestinian village located in the Seam Zone in the central West Bank, in the Ramallah and Al-Bireh Governorate. The village is located on the site of the biblical Bethoron, on a hilltop facing Beit Ur al-Foqa. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics Beit Ur at-Tahta had a population of 4,372 inhabitants in mid-2007.
In January 2001, a burial cave was discovered on the southern outskirts of the village. The cave consisted of two chambers and an arched doorway. Artifacts inside the cave included several pottery fragments, a cooking pot, a bowl and goblet dating to the end of the Second Temple period (1st century BCE–1st century CE).
To the west of the village is the ruins of a chapel, apparently from the Byzantine period, and ceramics from the same period have also been found. The place was mentioned in the 12th century as a fief of the Holy Sepulchre.
In 1596 the village appeared in Ottoman tax registers under the name of Bayt 'Ur as-Sufla and was part of the Nahiya ("Subdistrict") of Quds of the Liwa ("District") of Quds. It had a population of 20 Muslim households and paid taxes on wheat, barley, olives, goats and/or beehives.
A 19th-century traveler visiting the town found the remains of ancient foundations, rock-cut cisterns and a tomb that was said to have contained treasures. Father P.M. Séjourné, revisiting the site, noticed the ruins of a large church: "The mosaic pavement of an important church located northeast of the village has disappeared, at least for the moment, under a watermelon field. The scattered spoils of the Christian building have enriched the neighbouring modern mosque and many hovels nearby. Fragments of a graceful frieze, capitals with Corinthian acanthus carved in white marble, columns and dressed stones lie unused along the roads." Another researcher, Victor Guérin, saw two columns from the church inside the local mosque. Based on these finds, it was concluded that the village was once Christian, and had a large three-nave church.
An official Ottoman village list from about 1870 showed that Bet Ur et-Tatha had 35 houses and a population of 185, though it only counted the men. In 1883, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Beit 'Ur et Tahta as "A village of moderate size on a low ridge with wells to the west. In the middle of the village is the sacred place of Neby 'Or, with a palm tree in the courtyard: near it is a well in the street.
British Mandate period
In the 1922 census of Palestine, conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Beit Ur al-Tahta had a population of 470, all Muslims, while at the 1931 census, Beit 'Ur al-Tahta had 117 occupied houses and a population of 611, still all Muslim.
In 1945 the population was 710, all Arabs, while the total land area was 4,619 dunams, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 2,045 were allocated for plantations and irrigable land, 1,780 for cereals, while 41 dunams were classified as built-up areas.
Israeli occupation and Palestinian control
In the 1980s and 1990s, lands belonging to Beit Ur al-Tahta were expropriated by the Israeli government to construct Highway 443 along the pass of Bethoron. A petition challenging the move submitted to the Supreme Court of Israel in September 1983 was rejected by Justice Aharon Barak who ruled that under international law, a military government is entitled to expropriate land for a purpose that benefits the local population. Highway 443 initially served as a main approach road linking the inhabitants of the two villages, Beit Ur al-Tahta and Beit Ur al-Fauqa, to Ramallah. After the outbreak of the Second Intifada, the Israeli military prevented Palestinian use of the road, and the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier closed off access to the old road, which lengthened the journey.
In October 2009, infrastructure improvements were completed in Beit Ur al-Tahta that included improved roads and street lighting. The project was funded by American Charities for Palestine, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Sheikh Mohammed Shami Foundation. The total cost was $400,000.
Beit Ur al-Tahta is situated in the foothills of the north-central West Bank, 11.4 kilometers west of Ramallah. The village has an average elevation of 390 meters above sea level. Nearby localities Kharbatha al-Misbah to the south, Beit Ur al-Fauqa to the southeast, Beitunia to the east, Ein 'Arik and Deir Ibzi to the northeast, Kafr Ni'ma to the north, Bil'in to the northwest, Saffa to the west and Beit Sira to the southwest. The old center of Beit Ur al-Tahta is located in the southern part of the village, while the northern part is marked by wide terraces and is the site of several of the village's archaeological pieces. The total area of the village is 5,653 dunams, of which 773 dunams were built-up areas.
- Palmer, 1881, p. 287
- 2007 PCBS Census. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. p.114.
- Excavation and Surveys in Israel: Israel Antiquities Authority
- Conder and Kichener, 1883, p. 86
- Dauphin, 1998, p. 839.
- Conder and Kitchener, 1883, p. 17
- Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 117.
- Bethoron - (Bayt Ur)
- Socin, 1879, p. 148
- Barron, 1923, Table VII, Sub-district of Ramleh
- Mills, 1932, p. 47.
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 64
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 111
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 161
- Yuval Yoaz and Akiva Elder (2007-06-08). "State told to explain Palestinian travel ban on West Bank road". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 31 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
- Birgitta Elfström and Arne Malmgren (2005-01-31). "Palestinian Children Behind Bars". International Commission of Jurists, Swedish Section.
- Beit Ur Al-Tahta Development
- Beit ‘Ur at Tahta Village Profile. Applied Research Institute-Jerusalem (ARIJ). 2012.
- Finkelstein and Lederman, 1997, p. 161.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Beit Ur al-Tahta.|
- Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
- Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, H. H. (1883). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology 3. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Dauphin, Claudine (1998). La Palestine byzantine, Peuplement et Populations. BAR International Series 726 (in French). III : Catalogue. Oxford: Archeopress.
- Finkelstein, Israel; Lederman, Zvi (1997). Highlands of Many Cultures, The Southern Samaria Survey: The Sites. Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University Publications Section. ISBN 965-440-007-3.
- Guérin, Victor (1868). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). 1: Judee, pt. 1. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale.
- Guérin, Victor (1875). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). 2: Samarie, pt. 2. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale.
- Hadawi, Sami (1970), Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine, Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. ISBN 3-920405-41-2.
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Palmer, E. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Peleg, Yuval (2004): Beit ‘Ur et-Tahta Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel, No. 116.
- Socin, A. (1879). "Alphabetisches Verzeichniss von Ortschaften des Paschalik Jerusalem". Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 2: 135–163.
- Welcome To Bayt 'Ur al-Tahta
- SWP map 17, IAA
- SWP map 17, Wikimedia commons
- Beit ‘Ur at Tahta Village (Fact Sheet) , Applied Research Institute - Jerusalem (ARIJ)
- Beit ‘Ur at Tahta Village Profile , Applied Research Institute - Jerusalem (ARIJ)
- Bayt 'Ur al-Tahta, areal view , Applied Research Institute - Jerusalem (ARIJ)
- Locality Development Priorities and Needs in Beit ‘Ur at Tahta Village , Applied Research Institute - Jerusalem (ARIJ)