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According to different researches, there are between 2.5 and 3.5 millions of people of Belarusian descent living outside the territory of the Republic of Belarus. This number includes descendants of economic emigrants from Belarus of late 19th century and early 20th century, of emigrants of times of the Second World War and emigrants of the wave that started in the 1990s. Another group of Belarusian diaspora are people who migrated within the USSR before 1991 and who after its dissolution became inhabitants of other post-Soviet countries. A separate group usually associated with the Belarusian diaspora are ethnic minorities in the borderlands of Belarus with Poland, Lithuania and Russia.
A separate group of emigrants from Belarus were Belarusian Jews who have established significant communities in the USA and Israel. The historic name for Belarusian Jews were Litvaks, a corrupted term of Litvin or "Lithuanian" in Belarusian.
There is a tendency to a decline in the number of people identifying themselves as Belarusians according to official censuses.
The biggest and best organized Belarusian diasporas live in Russia (including Siberia), Ukraine, Poland, the USA, Canada, the UK, the Baltic states (i.e., Estonia and Latvia), Central Asia (primarily the Soviet-era Farming settlement program in Kazakhstan) and the TransCaucasus nations (i.e., Armenia and Georgia).
There are small Belarusian communities in Scandinavia, Germany, Netherlands, France, Spain, Portugal and Ireland as a result of European Union and Council of Europe contract labor agreements to recruit Belarusian and Ukrainian workers in the late 2000s.
The World Association of Belarusians based in Minsk is the international organization uniting people of Belarusian descend from around the world. The government of the short-lived Belarusian Democratic Republic is in exile since 1919 and acts as a consolidating centre for many Belarusians abroad, especially in North America and Western Europe (i.e., Belgium and Switzerland).
Several thousand Belarusian refugees and soldiers of the Anders Army landed in France after World War II. They established a Belarusian cultural and religious centre in Paris.
Many people from the former Soviet union migrate to France to date.
The Belarusian minority in Russia consists mainly of emigrants from Belarus during Soviet times and the times of the Russian Empire as well as of remainders of the indigenous Belarusian population of the regions of Smolensk and Bryansk, now largely assimilated. According to official 2002 census, over 800 thousand Russians identified themselves as people of Belarusian descent. The number drastically declined from over 1 million just a decade before (the 1991 Soviet Census) due to processes of assimilation, and factors affecting the population decline in Russia such as low birthrate and high death rate caused by the economic hardships of the 1990s. Most Russian Belarusians live in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Siberia.
Poland is home to a shrinking Belarusian minority that was part of the larger Białystok Voivodeship; annexed by Joseph Stalin in 1939 and incorporated into the Belarusian SSR, and only returned to Poland after World War II. Aside from that, a stream of Belarusian immigrants has been coming into Poland from the 1990s, including political immigrants and Belarusian Poles. Now there are also Belarusian communities in larger cities like Warsaw and Krakow.
According to censuses of early 20th century, Belarusians consisted a majority in the region of Vilnius. As the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the city has historically been the centre of Belarusian cultural life. In 1939 the region of Vilnius was transferred to Belarus, but later was given away to the Republic of Lithuania. Nowadays there is only a small Belarusian minority in Lithuania, consisting primarily of Soviet times migrants and post-Soviet emigres, including political refugees. The Belarusian and Polish-Lithuanian communities sought more representation in the Lithuanian government, as well the mass movement of Belarusian contract laborers via Poland into Western Europe in the 2000s.
Belarusian immigrants have been coming to the US since the 19th century. A large group of Belarusian immigrants from Belarus were Belarusian Jews, who came to the country in late 19th century and early 20th century. An other wave of refugees came after World War II. It is difficult to estimate the real number of Americans of Belarusian descent because immigrants from Belarus were often classified as Poles or Russians (sometimes Lithuanians, i.e., Litviny), or sometimes as Ukrainians.
Several thousand Belarusian refugees and soldiers of the Anders Army landed in Great Britain after World War II. They established a Belarusian cultural and religious centre in London. In 1971 the Francis Skaryna Belarusian Library and Museum was founded. Nowadays it is the largest Belarusian library outside Belarus.
The First organized Belarusian diaspora in Argentina appeared in the 1st half of the 20th century. It used to be one of the most numerous Belarusian diasporas abroad, counting between 10 and 20 thousand people. Almost all Belarusian immigrants of that time came to Argentina from Poland-occupied West Belarus. Unlike in other western countries, Belarusian organizations in Argentina were pro-Soviet and fell under influence of the Soviet embassy. There was a wave or repatriation to the Belarusian SSR in 1956.
Most Belarusians diaspora in Ukraine appeared as a result of migration of Belarusians to the Ukrainian SSR in Soviet times. Lviv has been an important center of Belarusian social and cultural life in the Russian Empire and interwar Poland. There are now Belarusian organizations in major cities like Lviv, Sevastopol and others. A notable Ukrainian of Belarusian descent is Viktor Yanukovych, the fourth president of Ukraine.
- Натальля Гардзіенка. Сучаснае беларускае замежжа: праблемы і перспектывы (даклад на V Зьездзе беларусаў сьвету) (Belarusians abroad today: problems and perspectives, report by Natallia Hardzijenka at the 5th World Congress of Belarusians in 2009)
- World Association of Belarusians
- A web-portal for Belarusians in Ukraine
- Belarusian-Canadian Alliance
- The international seminar Belarusian Diaspora: Past and Present took place in Minsk