Belarusian presidential election, 2010

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Belarusian presidential election, 2010
Belarus
2006 ←
19 December 2010 → 2015

  Alex Lukashenko.jpeg Sannikov1.jpg
Nominee Alexander Lukashenko Andrej Sannikaŭ
Party Independent Independent
Popular vote 5,122,866 164,000
Percentage 79.67% 2.56%

President before election

Alexander Lukashenko

Elected President

Alexander Lukashenko

A presidential election was held in Belarus on 19 December 2010.[1] The election was originally planned for the beginning of 2011. However, the final date was set during an extraordinary session of the National Assembly of Belarus on September 14, 2010.[2]

Of the ten candidates, incumbent President Alexander Lukashenko was declared the winner by the Central Election Commission with 79.67% of the votes. Andrej Sannikaŭ (Andrei Sannikov) received the second-highest percentage.[3][4] After a protest was violently suppressed by riot police the night after the election,[5] hundreds of protesters and seven presidential candidates were arrested by the KGB – including runner-up Sannikaŭ.[6]

Western countries decried the election as a farce and an egregious affront to democracy and human rights. The United States and the European Union called for the release of all imprisoned former candidates, but took no further action except a travel ban on Lukashenko. By contrast, countries such as Syria,[7] China,[7] Vietnam,[7] and Russia[8] congratulated the re-elected incumbent.

Coat of arms of Belarus.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Belarus

Historical background[edit]

During protests in the aftermath of the 2004 referendum and simultaneous 2004 parliamentary election, there were several arrests of protesters against the election and referendum results and reports of opposition candidates being beaten by police.[9] More demonstrators were arrested during further protests in the aftermath of the 2006 presidential election, the so-called "Jeans Revolution".[10] [11] During Lukashenko's presidency Belarus has never held a poll seen as fair by Western monitors.[12]

The new constitution, enacted in 1994, has been amended twice: the first amendment – in 1996 – increased the power of the presidency and established a bicameral parliament. In 2004, the two-term presidential limit was abolished. According to the OSCE, the executive branch of the Belarusian government has significant authority over the other branches; though Article 6 of the constitution of Belarus includes the principle of separation of powers. It has also stated that the Belarusian political system is composed of weak political party structures with no opposition deputies in the previous parliament.[13]

Presidential candidates[edit]

The election was called by the House of Representatives on 14 September.[13]

Lukashenko[edit]

President Alexander Lukashenko (who had been serving his third term), when addressing the press in February 2007, stated that his health permitting, he would run in 2011.[14] According to the result of a referendum in 2004, Lukashenko was declared the first President of Belarus and therefore had no term limits. On May 4, 2010, in an interview with Reuters, he stated: "I have not yet decided whether I will run [...] There are no factors now that would force me to refuse to participate".[15][16]

Official registration information[edit]

Name Occupation, party Number of people in initiative group Number of signatures accepted [17]
Ryhor Kastusioŭ Deputy Chairman of the Belarusian People's Front 1,306[18] 100,870
Alaksandar Łukašenka president 8,403[19] 1,110,149
Aleś Michalevič lawyer, leader of the Modernization Union[20] 1,795[21] 111,399
Uładzimier Niaklajeŭ poet, leader of the "Say the Truth!" movement (Руху "Гавары праўду!") 3,271[22] 180,073
Jarasłaŭ Ramančuk economist, deputy chairman of the United Civil Party of Belarus[23] 1,461[24] 123,206
Vital Rymašeŭski co-chairman of the Belarusian Christian Democracy party[25] 1,698[26] 102,817
Andrej Sannikaŭ leader of the "For a European Belarus" movement[20] (Руху "За Еўрапейскую Беларусь"), former Deputy Foreign Minister of Belarus 2,001[27] 142,023
Mikoła Statkievič chairman of the Belarusian Social Democratic Party[25] 1,545[28] 111,159
Viktar Ciareščanka economist 1,301[29] 109,012
Dźmitry Uss lawyer and businessman 1,355[30] 104,102
Uładzimier Pravalski businessman 186[31] 118
Piotra Barysaŭ pensioner 110[32] Supported Rymašeŭski[33]
Siarhiej Hajdukievič Liberal Democratic Party 10,443[citation needed] Withdrew his candidacy[34]
Jury Hłušakoŭ Belarusian Green Party 243[35] Withdrew his candidacy[36]
Siarhiej Ivanoŭ unemployed 129[37] Withdrew his candidacy[38]
Ivan Kulikoŭ scientist 107[39] Withdrew his candidacy
Siarhiej Ryžoŭ manager 123[40] Withdrew his candidacy[41]

Alaksandar Milinkievič, of the "For Freedom" movement (Руху "За Свабоду"), initially announced his bid,[25] but canceled it in September.[42]

Campaign[edit]

Official government-printed "invitation to participate" in the 2010 presidential election.

The run-up to the campaign was marked by a series of Russian media attacks upon the incumbent Alexander Lukashenko.[43] NTV television broadcast throughout July a multi-part documentary entitled 'The Godfather' highlighting the suspicious disappearance of a number of opposition leaders during the late 1990s, as well as highlighting a statement Lukashenko had made seemingly praising Adolf Hitler.[44] Lukashenko referred to the media attack as "dirty propaganda".[45]

Campaigning officially began on November 19, with candidates holding one-to-one meetings across the country and beginning their TV and Radio broadcasts via Belarusian state media.[46] Every candidate was entitled to make two 30-minute broadcasts on Belarusian TV and Radio until 4 December, and could take part in a live media debate.[47]

Opinion polls[edit]

The Central Election Commission said that all nine opposition figures were likely to get less than half the vote total incumbent Lukashenko would get.[48] No independent verification of the government polls were allowed.

Death of Aleh Byabenin (Oleg Bebenin)[edit]

In the first week of September 2010, candidate Andrej Sannikaŭ's[49] campaign press secretary Aleh Byabenin (Oleg Bebenin) was found hanged. Byabenin had been a key member of Sannikaŭ's campaign, and was also director and co-founder of Charter97 – an opposition group and website and one of the few outlets for information on opposition candidates during the election.[50] The official investigation ruled the death as suicide, but Sannikaŭ expressed suspicion; saying that Byabenin had been in good mental health, there was no suicide note, and there were unexplained injuries on the body.[50]

Monitors[edit]

The Central Election Commission of Belarus (CEC) said it was ready to cooperate with the OSCE's Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights in monitoring the election.[51]

The CEC issued a warning to Uładzimier Niaklajeŭ's "Say the Truth!" movement for violating the Electoral Legislation when his organisation gathered signatures of ineligible constituents for "subscription lists."[52]

On 15 December 2010, Andrej Sannikaŭ filed two legal complaint applications with the Central Election Commission, demanding they withdraw the registration of Alexander Lukashenko; and also remove Lidiya Yermoshyna – the chairperson of the CEC – from office. In both cases, Sannikaŭ cited that their positions were illegal. Yermoshyna was a member of Lukashenko's political team, compromising her neutrality; and was under international scrutiny for purportedly rigging the previous election. He also brought up that Lukashenko ignored his own guidelines on how much time presidential candidates were allowed to speak on television (two appearances for 30 minutes each). Lukashenko also had "propagandistic meetings" at places not included on the Minsk City Executive Committee list where meetings could be held – Lukashenko held a large event at the Palace of the Republic and funded it with the state budget against the rules.[53] The complaints were ineffective.[53]

Election[edit]

The Central Election Commission issued results for the election:

e • d Summary of the 19 December 2010 Belarusian presidential election results
Candidates – Parties Votes %
Alexander Lukashenko 5,130,557 79.65
Andrei Sannikaŭ 156,419 2.43
Jarosław RomańczukUnited Civic Party of Belarus 127,281 1.98
Ryhor KastusioŭPartyja BPF 126,999 1.97
Uladzimir Niakliajeŭ 114,581 1.78
Vital RymasheŭskiBelarusian Christian Democracy 70,515 1.09
Viktor Tereshchenko 76,764 1.19
Mikalai StatkievichBelarusian Social Democratic Party (Assembly) 67,583 1.05
Ales Michalevich 65,748 1.02
Dmitry Uss 25,117 0.39
Against all 416,925 6.47
Valid votes 6,382,234 99.03
Invalid votes 62,542 0.97
Total votes (turnout: 90.70%) 6,444,776 100.00
Eligible voters 7,105,660
Source: Сообщение Центральной комиссии Республики Беларусь по выборам и проведению республиканских референдумов об итогах выборов Президента Республики Беларусь (Russian) (Report by State Electoral Commission of Belarus)

Protests and crackdown[edit]

A large protest rally was organized the evening after the December 19 election at October Square in the center of downtown Minsk. This square had historically been the site of large protests, such as the violent suppression of the Jeans Revolution that took place after the disputed 2006 presidential election. However, riot police had cordoned off the square before the event, and people instead gathered at the nearby Liberty Square. While walking to the rally with about a hundred other people, presidential candidates Uładzimier Niaklajeŭ and Mikoła Statkievič were attacked by armed men dressed in black.[12][54] Niaklajeŭ was beaten to unconsciousness and hospitalized for head injuries. Statkievič later claimed they were attacked by Belarus special forces.[55][56]

During the rally up to 40,000 people[57] protested against Lukashenko, chanting, "Out!," "Long live Belarus!" and other such slogans.[58] A group of protesters tried to storm a principal government building, smashing windows and doors before riot police pushed them back.[59] Candidate Vital Rymašeŭski blamed "drunk provocateurs" for the violence.[60][clarification needed] According to a protester, the demonstrators were largely peaceful and that it was a separate "group of people" who attacked the government building – suggesting also a provocation of force by Belarusian authorities.[60][clarification needed]

According to a protest participant (who is also director of the Belarus Free Theatre), thousands of demonstrators were beaten by riot police, and the square was left spattered with blood. She stated she was forced into a prison van and made to lie face down, while prison guards threatened her with murder and rape if she moved.[5] Andrej Sannikaŭ and his wife Iryna Khalip were among those attacked by police during the rally; and according to eyewitness statements gathered by Charter 97, Sannikaŭ was singled out from the crowd by the OMON for a beating: "Andrei was beaten by truncheons while he was lying. He was beaten on the head [...] all over the body. Andrei was lying and trying to protect himself with his arms. No one was allowed to come near him, so that people could not defend Sannikov."[61]

Lukashenko criticised the protesters, accusing them of "banditry" and saying that "the vandals and hooligans lost their human face. They simply turned into beasts. You saw how our law-enforcers behaved. They stood firm and acted exclusively within the bounds of the law. They defended the country and people from barbarism and ruin. There will be no revolution or criminality in Belarus."[12] He also added that he could not imagine what more he could have done to make the election more democratic.[62]

Censorship, raids[edit]

Several websites of the opposition and opposition candidates were blocked or hacked.[63] Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Google Talk, many email services and LiveJournal were also blocked.[64] The headquarters of Charter97 was stormed by the State Security Committee of the Republic of Belarus (known by the Russian acronym "KGB")[65][66] and all its staff were arrested.[67] Its editor-in-chief Natalya Radina was briefly imprisoned on a charge of "organizing mass disorder".[68] Radina was released in January 2011 on the condition that she leave Minsk; she fled to Moscow before receiving asylum in Lithuania, where she continues to manage Charter 97.[68]

The offices of Polish-funded broadcasters Belsat TV and European Radio for Belarus had also been raided, while relatives of arrested prisoners were denied access to them.[69]

Arrests[edit]

Up to 700 opposition activists, including 7 presidential candidates, were arrested in the post election crackdown. Furthermore, at least 25 journalists were arrested;[6] a detained Russian press photographer went on hunger strike on December 21, 2010.[why?][62] According to a detainee, after being shipped to a detainment center after the protests, there were rows of men on every floor standing facing the walls with their hands behind their backs. Women were separated and moved to another floor. Guards made them spend the night standing with faces to the walls, and every detainee was forced to sign statements confessing to "taking part in an unsanctioned rally." 639 prisoners received immediate prison sentences of up to 15 days.[5]

The presidential candidate Uładzimier Niaklajeŭ, who had been seriously beaten during the evening of the election day, was taken from hospital by men in civilian clothing who wrapped him in a blanket on his hospital bed and carried him away as his wife screamed.[6] While journalist Iryna Khalip and her husband Andrej Sannikaŭ were on the way to a Minsk hospital to treat Sannikaŭ's injured legs, their car was intercepted by authorities while Khalip was giving a mobile phone interview to the Moscow radio station Ekho Moskvy - Echo of Moscow. Khalip screamed on air that they were being forcibly removed from their car, arrested, and further beaten.[65][70] Both Khalip and Sannikaŭ were detained in a KGB facility in Minsk.[65][71] Lukashenko later revealed that Khalip's phone was bugged.[70] Grigory Kostusyev and Dźmitry Uss were re-summoned for further questions by the KGB[65][66][67] after being initially released. Kostusyev responded to the state crackdown saying "the regime has shown its true essence. We've been thrown 10 years into the past."[6]

The State Security Committee of the Republic of Belarus (KGB)[65][66][67] charged the activists, while domestic human rights groups stated they could face up to 15 years in jail.[72] Twenty of the leading opposition figures were facing charges of "organising or participating in a public order disturbance" which is punishable by up to 15 years in jail.[6]

Aftermath[edit]

Candidates and their post-election fates

I pray to God they all run away! Let them all run away. Nobody needs them there. Nobody needs them here either.

– Lukashenko, on Michalevič's flight to the Czech Republic [70]

Lukashenko's chief election rivals were either intimidated (Jarasłaŭ Ramančuk) or sentenced to prison terms just long enough to ensure they will be unable to participate in the 2015 elections (Andrej Sannikaŭ, Mikoła Statkievič and Dzmitry Us). Opponent Uładzimier Niaklajeŭ is under house arrest for an unknown period of time. Candidate Ales Michalevič was released from detention on February 15, 2011; in a press conference on March 1, he accused the KGB of torturing him and other former candidates while he was in custody.[66]

On February 17, a Belarus court sentenced an opposition activist to four years in jail for taking part in the post-election protests.[77] On March 2, 2011, Alyaksandr Atroshchankau—a spokesman for candidate Sannikaŭ, and who had been working as a journalist for Delfi during the December protests—was sentenced to 4 years in prison for violating "Article 293" of the penal code ("organizing and taking part in a mass riot"). Atroshchankau and many others are listed as prisoners of conscience by Amnesty International.[78]

Andrej Sannikaŭ was convicted of the charge of "organizing a mass protest" on May 14, 2011 and sentenced to five years in a high-security prison.[75]

Reactions[edit]

The West generally denounced the election as fraudulent; the European Union renewed a travel ban effective January 31, 2011 – prohibiting Lukashenko and 156 of his associates from traveling to EU member countries – as a result of violent crackdowns of opposition supporters by Lukashenko's government forces following the election.[79][80][81][82]

Lukashenko's inauguration ceremony of 22 January 2011 was boycotted by European Union ambassadors,[83] while fellow CIS countries did not send officials higher than ambassadors.[84] During this ceremony Lukashenko defended the legitimacy of his re-election and vowed that Belarus would never have its own version of the 2004 Ukrainian Orange Revolution and Georgia's 2003 Rose Revolution.[83]

Domestic
  •  Belarus – Lukashenko called the percentage of voters who voted for him "quite good".[85] According to Lukashenko his opponents got few votes because "the ex-candidates had not committed any deeds to convince the Belarusian nation to vote for them. People learned their names two months before".[86] He also stressed: “They may have a great future ahead of them but they have to work for it. If they do it, they will find their place in Belarus and will always enjoy support of the incumbent president”.[86]
International organisations
  •  UN – The Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon noted the serious concerns voiced by observer groups regarding the electoral process and post-electoral developments and called on the government to observe fully human rights and due process. He also called on Belarusian President Aleksandr Lukashenko to release political prisoners arrested following the elections.[87]
  •  CIS – The Commonwealth of Independent States recognised the election as legitimate.[88]
  •  EU – The EU High Representative Catherine Ashton said in an official statement that "unfortunately, the trend set by the relative progress during the campaigning period was not followed by a transparent and fair polling process. It is especially regrettable that election night was marred by violence, which I strongly condemn. In particular, the beating and detention of several opposition leaders, including presidential candidates, is unacceptable."[89] The President of the European Parliament Jerzy Buzek added that "beating independent election candidates is unacceptable. The action was outrageous"; he also launched an European Parliamentary investigation into the election.[90]
    • A joint statement from the Foreign Ministers of the Czech Republic (Karel Schwarzenberg), Germany (Guido Westerwelle), Poland (Radosław Sikorski) and Sweden (Carl Bildt) on December 23 declared that "there can be no business-as-usual between the European Union and Belarus’ president, Aleksandr Lukashenko, after what has happened since the presidential election in Belarus[.] [...] continued positive engagement with Mr. Lukashenko at the moment seems to be a waste of time and money. He has made his choice — and it is a choice against everything the European Union stands for." They added that "while the voting proceeded in an orderly fashion, the counting of the votes turned into a charade. The report of the independent observers assessed the counting as 'bad' or 'very bad' in nearly half the polling stations they could observe, and it is not unreasonable to assume that it was even worse in the others. It became obvious that there were orders not to count votes, but to deliver a predetermined result. The combination of vote-rigging and outright repression makes what Milosevic tried to do in Serbia in 2000 pale in comparison. What we have seen brings back memories of the introduction of martial law in Poland in 1981."[91]
  • OSCE – The Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe called the election "flawed" and that Belarus has a "considerable way to go in meeting its OSCE commitments."[12][13] In response, Lukashenko said the OSCE had no right to speak about events in Belarus which happened after the election.[12] He also called the OSCE criticism "amoral" because Belarus is an OSCE member and thus "experts and officials are subordinate to virtually 56 heads of state, including the Belarusian president."[92]
Expressions of congratulations
Expressions of concerns
  •  PolandForeign Minister Radosław Sikorski stated that a "reliable source" had informed him that the official results of the election had been falsified.[12][101]
  •  Sweden – On the night of the election, the Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs Carl Bildt reacted sharply about the news of a crackdown on the opposition rally in Minsk and said that the beating of Niakliayeu "is very disturbing and totally unacceptable."[102]
  •  United States – The United States did not recognise the result as legitimate and called for the immediate release of all opposition presidential candidates arrested by authorities.[103]
    • In a joint statement on 24 December 2010, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and the EU's Catherine Ashton called for the immediate release of all 600 detained demonstrants as well as all presidential candidates. Both the EU and the US backed the OSCE's report asking Belarusian authorities to complete the reform of the electoral process it demanded. They said that without "considerable progress" in respect to democracy and human rights relations between Belarus and the EU and the US would not improve: "The Government of Belarus should take the steps necessary to create political space for political activists, civil society representatives, and independent journalists. The elections and their aftermath represent an unfortunate step backwards in the development of democratic governance and respect for human rights in Belarus. The people of Belarus deserve better."[104]
    • On March 17, 2011 the United States Senate unanimously passed a resolution condemning the election as illegitimate and fraudulent; and calling on the Belarus regime to immediately release all political prisoners captured during the peaceful election protests.[105]

Analysis[edit]

Though opposition figures alleged intimidation[106] and "dirty tricks" were being played, Al Jazeera reported that the election was seen as comparatively open as a result of desire to improve relations with both Europe at-large and the United States.[48]

Political scientists and commentators said that Lukashenko's handling of opposition protests is seen as the result of the choice of his government to trade a foreign policy loss for a perceived domestic gain in regards to worse relations with the European Union in return for a stable internal political situation. However, this was seen as fragile, as dissidents remain active (up to 25% of the population), though dissident leaders are marginalised and left out of any meaningful cooperative mechanism thus strengthening their isolation and opposition to current ruling élite.[107] Lukashenko's main achievement, effective state-building of Belarus, is seen as in possible danger because of the lack of consensus over a shared Belarusian national identity, one that is still divided between an older Soviet-base one, and supported by the government, versus a symbolic medieval-based one[clarification needed], advocated by the opposition.[107]

New government[edit]

On December 28, Lukashenko appointed Mikhail Myasnikovich as Prime Minister to replace Sergei Sidorsky.[71]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Belarus sets date of presidential election for 19 December 2010
  2. ^ Belarus Sets December Date For Presidential Vote, Radio Free Europe
  3. ^ ПРЕДВАРИТЕЛЬНЫЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ о результатах голосования по выборам Президента Республики Беларусь
  4. ^ Lukashenko's Inauguration to be Held by February 19, CEC
  5. ^ a b c Oliphant, Roland (25 December 2010). "Police guard threatened to rape Belarus Free Theatre director after election protest". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 11 March 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  6. ^ a b c d e "Belarus: 7 presidential candidates face 15 years". Kyiv Post. 2010-12-22. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 2010-12-23. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g "China President congratulates Alexander Lukashenko on re-election". Belarusian Telegraph Agency. 2010-12-24. Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  8. ^ a b Dyomkin, Denis (2010-10-20). "Russia's Medvedev: Belarus vote "internal matter"". Reuters. Retrieved 2010-12-21. 
  9. ^ "Dozens arrested at Belarus rally". BBC News. 2004-10-19. Retrieved 2010-12-20. 
  10. ^ Zarakhovich, Yuri (March 25, 2006). "Belarus: 'They Knocked My Husband Down and Dragged Him Away'". Time magazine. Retrieved 2006-10-01. 
  11. ^ "Belarus opposition leader jailed". BBC. 14 July 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-01. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f "'Hundreds of protesters arrested' in Belarus". BBC News. 2010-12-20. Retrieved 2010-12-20. 
  13. ^ a b c OSCE (20 December 2010). "Statement of Preliminary Findings and Conclusions" (PDF). 
  14. ^ MosNews. Rightist Group Promote Belarus Dictator Lukashenko as Russian Presidential Candidate. Published February 28, 2007. Retrieved July 11, 2007.
  15. ^ "Lukashenka considers holding next presidential election in early 2011"
  16. ^ "President Lukashenko sees no reasons to refuse to participate in presidential election", May 5, 2010, BELTA
  17. ^ "Кандыдатамі ў прэзідэнты Беларусі зарэгістраваныя 10 чалавек". Ucpbel.org. 2010-11-18. Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  18. ^ Список членов инициативной группы граждан по выдвижению Костусѐва Григория Андреевича кандидатом в Президенты Республики Беларусь
  19. ^ Информация о кандидатах в Президенты Республики Беларусь - Лукашенко Александр Григорьевич
  20. ^ a b "Sannikau Throws His Hat in the Ring", Eurasia Daily Monitor, The Jamestown Foundation — March 23, 2010 — Volume 7, Issue 56
  21. ^ Список членов инициативной группы граждан по выдвижению Михалевича Алексея Анатольевича кандидатом в Президенты Республики Беларусь
  22. ^ Список членов инициативной группы граждан по выдвижению Некляева Владимира Прокофьевича кандидатом в Президенты Республики Беларусь
  23. ^ Палітрада Аб'яднанай грамадзянскай партыі назвала свайго кандыдата ў прэзідэнты (Belarusian)
  24. ^ Список членов инициативной группы граждан по выдвижению Романчука Ярослава Чеславовича кандидатом в Президенты Республики Беларусь
  25. ^ a b c "Milinkevich announces presidential bid"
  26. ^ Список членов инициативной группы граждан по выдвижению Рымашевского Виталия Анатольевича кандидатом в Президенты Республики Беларусь
  27. ^ Список членов инициативной группы граждан по выдвижению Санникова Андрея Олеговича кандидатом в Президенты Республики Беларусь
  28. ^ Список членов инициативной группы граждан по выдвижению Статкевича Николая Викторовича кандидатом в Президенты Республики Беларусь
  29. ^ Список членов инициативной группы граждан по выдвижению Терещенко Виктора Ивановича кандидатом в Президенты Республики Беларусь
  30. ^ Список членов инициативной группы граждан по выдвижению Усса Дмитрия Ивановича кандидатом в Президенты Республики Беларусь
  31. ^ Список членов инициативной группы граждан по выдвижению Провальского Владимира Александровича кандидатом в Президенты Республики Беларусь
  32. ^ Список членов инициативной группы граждан по выдвижению Борисова Петра Семеновича кандидатом в Президенты Республики Беларусь
  33. ^ Іна Студзінская (2010-10-07). "Прэтэндэнтаў засталося шаснаццаць - Радыё Свабода © 2010". Svaboda.org. Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  34. ^ "Новости". Svobodanews.ru. Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  35. ^ Список членов инициативной группы граждан по выдвижению Глушакова Юрия Эдуардовича кандидатом в Президенты Республики Беларусь
  36. ^ "TUT.BY | НОВОСТИ - Юрий Глушаков снимает свою кандидатуру - Политика - 29.10.2010, 11:00". News.tut.by. Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  37. ^ Список членов инициативной группы граждан по выдвижению Иванова Сергея Георгиевича кандидатом в Президенты Республики Беларусь
  38. ^ "TUT.BY | НОВОСТИ - Число участников президентской кампании сократилось до одиннадцати человек - Новость дня - 30.10.2010, 12:29". News.tut.by. 2010-10-30. Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  39. ^ Список членов инициативной группы граждан по выдвижению Куликова Ивана Семеновича кандидатом в Президенты Республики Беларусь
  40. ^ Список членов инициативной группы граждан по выдвижению Рыжова Сергея Владимировича кандидатом в Президенты Республики Беларусь
  41. ^ "Белорусский Партизан: Сергей Рыжов сошел с дистанции". Belaruspartisan.org. 2010-10-21. Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  42. ^ "Медыі пра Рух". By.milinkevich.org. 2010-09-20. Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  43. ^ RFE/RL. Has Moscow Had Enough Of Belarus's Lukashenka?. Published July 19, 2010.
  44. ^ RFE/RL. Is Lukashenka In The Kremlin's Crosshairs?. Published July 8, 2010.
  45. ^ RFE/RL. Lukashenka Calls Russian Media Attacks 'Dirty Propoganda' . Published July 19, 2010.
  46. ^ Telegraf By. Presidential Candidates to Begin Campaigning. Published November 19, 2010.
  47. ^ Charter 97. Andrei Sannikov to speak on TV at 7:00 pm November 24
  48. ^ a b "'Dirty tricks' taint Belarus vote - Europe". Al Jazeera English. 2010-12-18. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  49. ^ "Life Under Lukashenka". Belarus.tol.org. 1 December 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  50. ^ a b Harding, Luke (8 September 2010). "Belarus under pressure to investigate death of media activist Oleg Bebenin". Guardian (UK). Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  51. ^ "Belarus Central Electoral Commission Ready to Cooperate with OSCE ODIHR". Mfa.gov.by. 2003-05-20. Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  52. ^ "The Central Electoral Commission has warned the initiative group of Nyaklyaeu | Belarus". Belarus.world-countries.net. 2010-10-14. Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  53. ^ a b Batiukov, Michael (16 December 2010). "Presidential Elections in Belarus are Rigged and Falsified Even Before the Elections on December 19th". American Chronicle. Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  54. ^ "Police break up opposition rally after Belarus poll". BBC News. 2010-12-19. Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-19. 
  55. ^ "Two Belarus presidential candidates say attacked by special forces". RIA Novosti. 2010-12-19. Retrieved 2010-12-19. 
  56. ^ "Спецназ избил двух кандидатов в президенты Белоруссии; Некляев без сознания". Gazeta.ru. 2010-12-19. Retrieved 2010-12-19. 
  57. ^ "Belarus election ends with violent protests". CBC News. 2010-12-19. Retrieved 2010-12-19. 
  58. ^ a b "Belarus president re-elected". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  59. ^ "Protesters try to storm government HQ in Belarus". BBC News. 2010-12-20. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  60. ^ a b "Vital Rymašeŭski blames "drunk provocateurs" for the violence". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2010-12-20. 
  61. ^ "How Beating of Andrei Sannikov Took Place. Eyewitnesses’ Account (Video, Photo)". Charter97. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 
  62. ^ a b "Belarus jails 600 activists over election unrest". BBC News. 2010-12-21. Archived from the original on 23 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-23. 
  63. ^ "Хакерская атака главного оппозиционного сайта Белоруссии осуществлялась из Петербурга". Gazeta.ru. 2010-12-19. Retrieved 2010-12-19. 
  64. ^ "Facebook, Twitter, YouTube blocked in Minsk". Interfax-Ukraine. 2010-12-20. Retrieved 2010-12-20. 
  65. ^ a b c d e Schwirtz, Michael (9 January 2011). "Belarus Signals It Could Seize Opponent's Son". New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 
  66. ^ a b c d Charles, Mathew (March 1, 2011). "Belarus 'tortured protesters in jail'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  67. ^ a b c Schwirtz, Michael (2010-12-21). "Clashes in Belarus Show Resilience of Both Sides". New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-23. 
  68. ^ a b "Natalya Radina, Belarus". Committee to Protect Journalists. 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  69. ^ Belarusian KGB Crackdown Continues, TheNews.pl, 27 December 2010
  70. ^ a b c d Racheva, Elena (22 March 2011). "Lukashenko reveals a "secret": Ira Khalip's phone was bugged". Novaya Gazeta. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 
  71. ^ a b http://english.aljazeera.net/news/europe/2010/12/20101228161644317852.html
  72. ^ http://english.aljazeera.net/news/europe/2010/12/20101222171735966368.html
  73. ^ a b c d e f Lukashenka’s show of “democratic” presidential election failed spectacularly; Eastern Europe Studies Centre, European Humanities University.
  74. ^ Elections in Belarus 2010: Repressions Intended To Wipe Out the Democrat Opposition, Hjalmarson Foundation, Juraś Stankevič, March 2011
  75. ^ a b Belarus opposition leader Andrei Sannikov jailed, BBC News Online (May 14, 2011)
  76. ^ http://charter97.org/en/news/2011/5/26/38959/
  77. ^ Belarus jails activist for 4 years for election unrest, Reuters (February 17, 2011)
  78. ^ 4 years in prison for Andrei Sannikov’s press-secretary, Charter 97, 2011.3.2 (retrieved from charter97.org on March 16, 2011)
  79. ^ New York Times U.S. and E.U. Join to Show Support for Belarus Opposition. Published January 2, 2011.
  80. ^ Maclean's The European Union has News for Belarus’s Alexander Lukashenko: You’re Grounded. Published February 17, 2011.
  81. ^ Official Journal of the European Union [1]. January 31, 2011.
  82. ^ http://english.aljazeera.net/news/europe/2011/04/2011411152554670120.html
  83. ^ a b Lukashenko Growls at Inauguration, The Moscow Times (24 January 2011)
  84. ^ Lukashenko is not afraid neither Europe, nor Russia, "VIKNO.EU" (23 January 2011)
  85. ^ "Lukashenko: 79.67% is quite a good result". Belarusian Telegraph Agency. 2010-12-20. Retrieved 2010-12-23. 
  86. ^ a b "Lukashenko ready to hear out some ex-candidate proposals". Belarusian Telegraph Agency. 2010-12-20. Retrieved 2010-12-23. 
  87. ^ "United Nations to Belarus: Release political prisoners". Kyiv Post. 2011-01-11. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-11. 
  88. ^ "Belarus' presidential polls legitimate: CIS observers". Xinhua. 2010-12-20. Retrieved 2010-12-21. 
  89. ^ Statement by EU High Representative Catherine Ashton on the presidential elections in Belarus
  90. ^ "Who attacked Belarusian government building?". Polskie Radio. 2010-12-20. Retrieved 2010-12-23. 
  91. ^ Bildt, Carl; Schwarzenberg, Karel; Sikorski, Radek; Westerwelle, Guido (2010-12-23). "Lukashenko the Loser". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  92. ^ "Civil unrest in Minsk on 19 December ‘nothing to do with elections’". Belarusian Telegraph Agency. 2010-12-20. Retrieved 2010-12-23. 
  93. ^ "Saakashvili Congratulates Lukashenko". The FINANCIAL. 2010-12-22. Retrieved 2010-12-23. 
  94. ^ a b c "Poland demands Lukashenko stops repression". Polskie Radio. 2010-12-21. Retrieved 2010-12-23. 
  95. ^ "Int'l observers differ on Belarus' presidential election". Xinhua. 2010-12-21. Retrieved 2010-12-21. 
  96. ^ "Medvedev congratulates Lukashenko on re-election". Foreign Policy and Security Research Center. 2010-12-27. Retrieved 2011-01-03. 
  97. ^ "Patriarch Kirill congratulates Alexander Lukashenko on re-election". Belarusian Telegraph Agency. 2010-12-23. Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  98. ^ "Yanukovych congratulated Lukashenko on re-election". Foreign Policy and Security Research Center. 2011-01-03. Retrieved 2011-01-03. 
  99. ^ a b "Ukraine 'Concerned' About Postelection Violence in Belarus". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2010-12-21. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 2010-12-23. 
  100. ^ "Presidents of Azerbaijan, Syria, Vietnam congratulate Lukashenko on re-election". Belarusian Telegraph Agency. 2010-12-22. Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  101. ^ "Poland’s FM says Belarusian election was fixed". Polskie Radio. 2010-12-22. Retrieved 2010-12-23. 
  102. ^ "Bildt fördömer aktion i Vitryssland". Göteborgs-Posten. 2010-12-19. Retrieved 2010-12-23. 
  103. ^ Holland, Steve (2010-12-20). "US calls for release of Belarus presidential candidates". Reuters. 
  104. ^ EU, US Take Aim at Belarus on Repressions, EurActiv.com, 24 December 2010; Council of the EU, 24 December 2010
  105. ^ US Senate Resolution on Belarus elections, March 17, 2011 
  106. ^ "Activist fears over Belarus vote - Europe". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 23 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  107. ^ a b EU Observer, 23 December 2010

External links[edit]