Belen, New Mexico
|Belen, New Mexico|
|Nickname(s): The Hub City|
|• Mayor||Rudy Jaramillo|
|• Total||4.7 sq mi (12.2 km2)|
|• Land||4.7 sq mi (12.2 km2)|
|• Water||0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)|
|Elevation||4,810 ft (1,466 m)|
|• Density||1,463.1/sq mi (564.9/km2)|
|Time zone||Mountain (MST) (UTC-7)|
|• Summer (DST)||MDT (UTC-6)|
|GNIS feature ID||0923557|
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Cityscape
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Government and politics
- 6 Culture
- 7 Education
- 8 Transportation
- 9 Notable people
- 10 References in popular culture
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Belen was founded in 1741 as Nuestra Senora de Belen by a group of Spanish colonists led by Diego Torres and Antonio Salazar, who received permission to settle the tract of land known as the Belen Grant the year before. Recognizing the strategic significance of Belen, Spanish authorities established a fort in Belen to protect the settlements along the Rio Grande in 1760. By the 1790s, Belen had established a city center known as Plaza Vieja, or Old Town, and had grown from a paraje, or precinct, to a partido, or district, with a population of 1,695. By 1793, a Catholic church and parish was founded.
By the middle of the 19th century, Belen had outgrown Old Town and was expanding into what became known as New Town. In 1853, the residents in each part of town disagreed over the construction of a new Catholic church, with residents of Old Town wanting the new church to remain there, while residents of New Town wanted it built in their part of town. Ultimately, the adobe church in Old Town was abandoned and a new church was built in New Town. In 1910, the last ruins of the former church were dynamited and the crushed adobe was used to pave New Town's main avenue Becker Avenue.
The residents of Valencia County spent nearly 30 years from 1846 to 1875 disputing where the county seat should be located. Valencia, north of Belen, was the county seat in 1846, followed by Peralta in 1847. Valencia reclaimed the county seat in 1849, only to lose it to Tome in 1852. Belen captured the county seat from Tome 20 years later, but lost it to Tome two short years later in 1874. Finally, in 1875, Los Lunas claimed the county seat and remains the county seat to this day.
In 1884, the General Land Office, through the authority of President Ulysses S. Grant, established the Town of Belen. By the turn of the century, local merchant John Becker had designed a commercial and residential plan for Belen. Becker's plan laid out Belen on a grid, extending from a commercial center with two grand avenues: Becker Avenue and Dalies Avenue.
In 1907, the Belen Cutoff for the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway was completed, connecting Amarillo with Belen. Prior to the Belen Cutoff, trains used the steep Raton Pass on the Colorado and New Mexico border. The cutoff made it possible for many more trains to travel east and west across the United States. Today, Belen remains a major refueling station for BNSF Railway, where an average of 110 trains travel through Belen in a 24-hour period on the Southern Transcon.
Belen was officially incorporated as a municipality in 1918. It was originally called the "Village of Belen," later becoming the "City of Belen."
The world's first atomic bomb, in unassembled pieces, traveled through Belen in July 1945 en route to the Trinity site at what is now White Sands Missile Range. The bomb's Belen route used old Highway 85, now Highway 314, also known as Main Street. Located in downtown Belen in 1945 was Roy's Cafe, a restaurant where military and science personnel would go to grab a meal, since it had the necessary security clearance. Local legend suggests personnel escorting the atomic bomb, and perhaps the bomb itself, stopped at Roy's Cafe as they passed through town.
Belen is located at . According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.7 square miles (12 km2), all land. The city lies in the Albuquerque Basin on the west bank of the Rio Grande.(34.665587, -106.776225)
This climate type occurs primarily on the periphery of the true deserts in low-latitude semiarid steppe regions.
|Climate data for Belen, New Mexico|
|Average high °F (°C)||50.7
|Average low °F (°C)||18.6
|Precipitation inches (mm)||0.3
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||2||2||3||2||2||2||6||7||4||3||2||2||37|
The Heart of Belen, as it has become known, is Belen's central business district and downtown, located along Becker and Dalies avenues, stretching from the BNSF rail yard to Main Street. Downtown Belen features historic structures dating back to the early 20th century when the railroad came into town.
The Belen Hotel and Central Hotel, both located on Becker Avenue, are two-story structures built to accommodate railroaders and other rail guests in the early 1900s. Both were constructed of bricks made from the former Belen brickyard. Today, the Belen Hotel has been converted into a private residence and private art gallery, while the Central Hotel is a winery and reception hall.
Old City Hall, also located on Becker Avenue, is a 1938 Works Progress Administration project, which housed the former Belen City Hall and fire department. The two-story building was constructed of terron, a material similar to adobe.
The Belen Harvey House is located within feet of the BNSF rail yard. It is a two-story building opened in 1907, one year before completion of the Belen Cutoff, to provide room and board to railroaders and others passing through. The original Belen rail depot is adjacent to the Harvey House grounds, owned by BNSF and used as office space for the railroad.
The Onate Theater, located on Dalies Avenue, was built in the early 20th century, showing many of the biggest marquee films. Today, the theater is a restaurant,known as Harla Mays, still with original theater seating and a movie screen.
As of the census of 2000, there were 6,901 people, 2,596 households, and 1,778 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,463.1 people per square mile (564.5/km²). There were 2,952 housing units at an average density of 625.9 per square mile (241.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 67.50% White, 1.07% African American, 1.65% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.16% Pacific Islander, 25.39% from other races, and 4.06% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 68.61% of the population.
There were 2,596 households out of which 34.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.3% were married couples living together, 17.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.5% were non-families. 26.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.14.
In the city the population was spread out with 28.8% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, and 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 91.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $26,754, and the median income for a family was $30,765. Males had a median income of $26,551 versus $21,300 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,999. About 23.2% of families and 24.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.9% of those under age 18 and 18.2% of those age 65 or over.
Government and politics
Belen is governed by a mayor-council form of government. The governing body consists of an elected mayor and four elected councilors. The city also has an elected municipal judge. Belen has four appointed positions: city manager, police chief, fire chief and airport manager.
Annual festivals and other events
Belen is home to a number of annual cultural events, including the St. Patrick's Day Balloon Rallye on the Saturday before St. Patrick's Day, Rio Abajo Days on the last Saturday in September, and the Miracle on Main Street Festival and Electric Light Parade on the Saturday after Thanksgiving.
The Hispano Matanza, held annually in Belen on the last Saturday in January, is considered the world's largest matanza, a Spanish-style barbecue that can trace its origin back to the conquistadors. This New Mexico matanza tradition, hosted by the Hispano Chamber of Valencia County, involves slaughtering and cooking 45 pigs, then serving the free food, such as chicharrones, to more than 10,000 patrons. All of the proceeds are given as scholarships to local college students.
The Our Lady of Belen Fiestas, held annually in Belen during one weekend in mid-August, is an event that has been around for more than 220 years. The fiestas, or parties, draws thousands of people from across the state and country to Belen for religious observance, and to celebrate with a carnival, dancing and other fun. The fiestas is held around the time Valencia County's green chile is ready for harvest, making its way as a garnishing in the famed hamburger Belenites call the "Fiesta Burger."
Belen has the only Harvey House Museum in New Mexico. The Belen Harvey House is the official railroad museum of the State of New Mexico and is a branch of the Belen Public Library.
Parks and outdoor attractions
Belen has seven parks and El Corazon de Belen Garden Park, a community garden.
Eagle Park is located near I-25 and Belen High School. It is Belen's multipurpose park, including several soccer fields, baseball fields, tennis courts, and an outdoor basketball court. Eagle Park also has a community center with a weight room, indoor basketball court, and a number of meeting rooms.
The historic Anna Becker Park, located in downtown Belen and named after the wife of Belen's most influential businessman, John Becker, was once a pond where residents ice skated in the winter. The grassy park includes a sand volleyball pit, basketball court, and historic gazebo.
Doodlebug Park features a restored Doodlebug rail car. The Doodlebug is known in Belen for shuttling Belen residents to Albuquerque during the first part of the 20th century. The Doodlebug at Doodlebug Park was restored by the production crew from the movie The Last Stand, which was filmed near the park, at the request of Lions Gate and Arnold Schwarzenegger, who starred in the film.
Belen is also home to Sen. Willie M. Chavez State Park, which is nestled next to the Rio Grande along Highway 309. Willie Chavez Park has walking trails, picnic grounds, and during special events, is open for camping. It is the site of Belen's annual ham radio operator event, as well as a fishing derby that takes place at the acequia, or irrigation canal, that runs through the park.
Belen is home to the Valencia County News-Bulletin, a weekly news publication covering all of Valencia County.
Eagle 98 FM is also located in Belen. The radio station plays oldies and other music throughout Valencia County.
Belen is within the Belen Consolidated Schools district, which includes one high school, one middle school and seven elementary schools. Belen Consolidated Schools also has an alternative high school and a family school for homeschooled students.
Our Lady of Belen Catholic Church runs the private St. Mary's Catholic School, and Calvary Chapel Rio Grande Valley runs the private Calvary Chapel Academy Christian School.
Belen is serviced by the University of New Mexico Valencia Campus, located in Tome.
Belen's western boundary is Interstate 25. Belen is intersected by New Mexico Highway 314 and Highway 309.
Belen has Valencia County's only public airport. Belen Alexander Municipal Airport is a regional general aviation airport. It primarily serves general aviation activity, including business activity from jet and multi-engine aircraft. Belen Alexander Municipal Airport is used by flight instructors, skydivers, crop dusters and recreational pilots, among others. A number of aviation-related businesses are located at the airport.
Belen is intersected by the rails of the BNSF Railway, which has both east-west and north-south routes through the city. The New Mexico Rail Runner Express also has a commuter rail station at the north end of the BNSF rail yard, shuttling residents and tourists to and from Belen on a daily basis and connecting with Albuquerque and Santa Fe.
New Mexico Bike Route 1 follows Reinken Avenue through Belen. The route connects Belen with Bernardo, which is south of Belen.
- Art "Golden Boy" Aragon, a professional Mexican-American boxer, was born in Belen
- Joe Baca, a U.S. representative in California, was born and raised in Belen
- Dennis Chavez, the late U.S. senator, lived and worked as a newspaper editor in Belen
- Tibo J. Chavez, the lieutenant governor of New Mexico from 1951 to 1955, lived at the Chavez Estate in Belen
- Judy Chicago, a renowned American feminist artist, lives in Belen
- Bobby Keys, a saxophone player for The Rolling Stones and other famous musicians, was raised in Belen
- Casey Luna, the lieutenant governor of New Mexico from 1991 to 1995, is a businessman from Belen
- Mike Nesbitt, a former punter for the New Orleans Saints and Minnesota Vikings, is from Belen
- Emilio Vallez, a tight end for the Chicago Bears drafted in 1968, is from Belen
References in popular culture
At least 17 movies have been filmed in Belen:
- Transcendence (2014)
- Sun Belt Express (2014)
- Enemy Way (TBD)
- As Cool As I Am (2013)
- The Last Stand (2013)
- 5 Shells (2012)
- Living Hell (2008)
- Swing Vote (2008)
- Have Dreams, Will Travel (2007)
- The Lost Room (2006)
- Bollocky Simper (2003)
- The Cowboy Way (1994)
- Convoy (1978)
- The Man Who Fell to Earth (1976)
- Mustang! (1973)
- Bunny O'Hare (1971)
- Gas-s-s-s (1971)
In the 1971 movie Bunny O'Hare, Belen is referred to as Los Lunas, which is a neighboring town to the north, including a bank robbery scene in Belen showing the name "Bank of New Mexico: Los Lunas Branch."
For the 1994 movie The Cowboy Way, the Valencia County Sheriff's Posse Rodeo Arena in Belen was where Woody Harrelson and Kiefer Sutherland learned to rope before filming the movie. In the movie, Woody Harrelson's character, Pepper, is announced as a roper from Belen.
In the 2008 movie Swing Vote, Belen's name is changed to "Texico."
In the 2013 movie The Last Stand, Belen's name is changed to "Summerton Junction" and is set in Arizona, not New Mexico.
In the 2013 movie As Cool As I Am, Belen is the name of the small town where the movie is set, featuring Belen's water tower with the name "Belen" on it.
At least two fiction novels have been written about Belen or involve Belen in their plot:
- The Belen Hitch by Pari Noskin Taichert (2006)
- So Far from God by Ana Castillo (1993)
- Andrew Hayes (1943). 150th Anniversary of the Founding of the Parish of Our Lady of Belen (1st ed.). Belen, New Mexico: Our Lady of Belen.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Weatherbase.com". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-05-02.
- Margaret Espinoza McDonald and Richard Melzer (2002). Valencia County, New Mexico: History Through the Photographer's Lens (1st ed.). Virginia Beach, Virginia: The Donning Company Publishers.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Belen, New Mexico.|
- City of Belen
- Belen Consolidated Schools
- Valencia County News-Bulletin
- University of New Mexico Valencia Campus