Belgium–Mexico relations are foreign relations between Belgium and Mexico. Belgium has an embassy in Mexico City and six honorary consulates around Mexico (located in Cancún, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Chihuahua and Veracruz). Mexico has an embassy in Brussels. In 1836, Belgium—itself newly independent—recognized the independence of Mexico. In 1919, the Belgian Chamber of Commerce of Mexico was established. Belgium opened its embassy in Mexico on June 5, 1954.
In the 16th century, Belgian tradespeople traveled to what would become Mexico, where some of them encountered the Inquisition. In 1537, Belgians began Mexico's first brewery. Starting in the 1830s, Belgian engineers worked in Mexico to build the first Mexican railroad with Belgian materials; there were even plans for a Nueva Bélgica, a colony to be built in Chihuahua.
Charlotte of Belgium reigned as Empress of Mexico starting in 1864 as the wife of Maximilian I of Mexico. When her husband, Maximilian I of Mexico, faced execution, Belgium instructed its representative, Hoorickx, to assist the Austrian ambassador's ultimately failed efforts to persuade the Mexicans to grant clemency. In 1890 Belgium invested US$1.2 million to open a silver and copper mine in Michoacán. In 1900 Baron Moncher, the Belgian Minister in Mexico, wrote a study of the conditions and resources of southern Mexican states while "contributing in great measure to the development of the commercial relations between Belgium and Mexico." In 1903 the National Railroad of Mexico, in which the Mexican Government had a large financial interest, opened a standard gauge line. The turning of the previous narrow gauge railroad into a standard gauge railroad was accomplished with 25,000 tons of rails from Belgium. By 1913 the National Railroad of Mexico was lobbying the government of Victoriano Huerta not to grant any further rights to the Belgian syndicate competing against them. Again in 1926 Belgium was shipping 1,000 tons of steel rails for the railroad. In 1940 Belgian residents of Mexico supported Hubert Pierlot as Prime Minister of Belgium during the Nazi occupation.
In 2000 Vicente Fox, as president-elect, went to Belgium to discuss trade. In 2009, Prince Philippe, Duke of Brabant and a delegation of Belgian businessmen went to Mexico for a meeting with President Felipe Calderón to discuss areas of cooperation. The business delegation's efforts were focused on aerospace, engineering, infrastructure and manufacturing opportunities.
Diplomatic relations were started in 1825 when Mexico established consular relations with the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Belgium became independent in 1830, and in 1838, representatives were sent to Mexico. The first consulate-level representatives were sent to Mexico in 1842. In 1980, Mexican protesters peacefully occupied both the Belgian and Danish embassies to demand freedom for political prisoners and better living conditions for Mexicans.
- In 1861 a Friendship Treaty was initiated; it was ratified in 1862.
- In 1895 a Trade and Shipping Treaty was signed.
- A double tax treaty was signed between Mexico and Belgium on November 24, 1992. It was published in the Diario Oficial de la Federación of January 6, 1997 in Mexico. The treaty entered into force on January 1, 1997. For withholding tax purposes, the treaty became effective on January 1, 1998. Concerning other taxes on income, the treaty will be effective for taxable periods ending on or after December 31, 1998.
Just after the end of World War I, Mexico placed large orders for arms and ammunition from both Belgium and Spain. In 2007, Mexico ranked 38th among Belgium’s trade partners. Belgian exports to Mexico were EUR 748 million, up from EUR 707 million in 2006; they grew by 5.8%. Belgian exports to Mexico accounted for 0.2% of Belgium’s total sales. Belgian imports grew from EUR 812 million in 2006 to EUR 1,050 million in 2007; they grew by 29.3%. 0.3% of Belgian imports came from Mexico. The American/Belgian company Anheuser-Busch InBev owns a 50 percent share in Grupo Modelo, Mexico's leading brewer and owner of the global Corona brand.
Belgians in Mexico
- Pedro de Gante, who was active from 1523 to 1572, devised a catechism in rebus form. He organized a craft industry and art education and built hospitals for the native Mexicans.
- Simon Pereyns of Antwerp is considered the founder of Mexican painting, and some of his painted screens are in the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral.
- Carlos Francisco de Croix, marqués de Croix of Lille was appointed as viceroy (1766–1771). He suppressed native Mexican rebellions in the north of Mexico and expelled the Jesuits on June 25, 1767.
- Ronald Zollman, from 1994 to 2002, was music director of the National Autonomous University of Mexico Philharmonic Orchestra.
- Gustave Maryssael, an electrical engineer started SOFINA. In 1936 he was president of the Companía Mexicana the Luz y Fuerza Motriz and later director-general in 1962.
- "Geschiedenis van Belgie en de Belgen in Mexico" (in Flemish). Belgium. Retrieved 2009-06-10. "."
- "Herdenking van de 50e verjaardag van de Belgisch-Mexicaanse diplomatieke relaties op niveau van Ambassadeur" (in Flemish). Belgium. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
- Loriaux, Florence (1993). De Belgen en Mexico (in Flemish). Leuven University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-90-6186-576-6.
- Phantom crown: the story of Maximilian & Carlota of Mexico. Ediciones Tolteca. 1967.
- "Toad Skin? Fernando del Paso's News From the Empire". The Nation. May 20, 2009. Archived from the original on May 29, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-09. "Maximilian and his wife, Princess Charlotte of Belgium, were enthroned in 1864. ..."
- Hubert Howe Bancroft, William Nemos, Thomas Savage, and Joseph Joshua Peatfield, History of Mexico v. 14 (The History company, 1888), 315.
- "Belgium in Mexico". New York Times. March 1, 1890. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- Pan American Union, International Bureau of the American Republics, Bulletin of the Pan American Union v. 8, nos. 1–6 (1900), 839.
- "Belgian Steel Rails for use in Mexico". Los Angeles Times. 1902-01-11. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- "Change Now Complete Without Traffic Interference. Steel Trust Bought 25,000 Tons of Rails in Belgium to Fill Mexican National Contract.". New York Times. November 5, 1903. Retrieved 2009-06-10. "."
- "General is Hailed as New Man in Mexico". Evening Independent. November 27, 1913. Retrieved 2009-06-10. "Huerta and his dictatorship is tottering today ... the government proposition to grant railroad rights to a Belgian syndicate, ..."
- "Belgium Ships Mexico Rails". Los Angeles Times. August 1, 1926. Retrieved 2009-06-10. "For Road to Link With Capital Paunco River Bridge is Now Under Way Artery to Reach From Coast to Coast"
- "Belgians Favor Continuing War". Evening Independent. 1940. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
- "Fox Talks Trade in Europe". Philadelphia Inquirer. October 3, 2000. Retrieved 2009-06-09. "Fox, a former Coca-Cola Co. executive, also will visit Spain, England, Germany and Belgium. He was elected in July, overturning the ruling Institutional ..."
- "Belgian royal couple visits Mexican president". Associated Press. March 23, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-10.[dead link]
- "Prince Philippe of Belgium called to confront the global crisis with fairness and respect," Terra March 24, 2009.
- "2 Mexico City Embassies Are Cleared of Protesters". Associated Press in the New York Times. February 24, 1980. Retrieved 2009-06-11. "Unarmed policewomen cleared 24 rural protesters from the Belgian and Danish Embassies tonight, a government ..."
- "Mexico: Treaty Developments – Belgium, Mexico Entry Into Force". Deloitte & Touche. April 1, 1997. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
- "Protests Made To Belgium". New York Times. November 19, 1919. Retrieved 2009-06-11.
- "Belgium's Trading Relations with Mexico". Abh-ace.org. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
- "Anheuser-Busch agrees to sell to InBev for $49.9B". The Business Journal of Milwaukee. July 14, 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-10. "Grupo Modelo said it has been talking with InBev about how the two companies can work together should Grupo Modelo consent to InBev becoming a minority owner of Grupo Modelo through its acquisition of Anheuser-Busch."
- "Pedro de Gante" (in Spanish). Franciscans. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- "Simon Pereyns" (in Spanish). Biografías y Vidas. Retrieved 2009-01-09.
- Carlos Francisco de Croix (in Spanish). Enciclopedia de México. 1987.
- "Ronald Zollman". Retrieved 2009-06-10. "Ronald Zollman was Musical Director of the National Orchestra of Belgium, a position he then held since 1993 with the Philharmonic Orchestra of UNAM in Mexico City."
- Belgian embassy in Mexico City
- Mexican embassy in Brussels (Spanish)
- Belgium's Trading Relations with Mexico