Sanjak of Smederevo
The Sanjak of Smederevo (Serbian: Смедеревски санџак, Smederevski sandžak; Turkish: Semendire Sancağı), also known as the Pashaluk of Belgrade (Turkish: Belgrad Paşalığı), was an Ottoman administrative unit (sanjak), that existed between the 15th and the outset of the 19th centuries. It was located in the territory of present day Central Serbia, Serbia. It belonged to Rumelia Eyalet between 1459 and 1541, and again between 1716 and 1717 and again 1739 and 1817 (nominally to 1830), to Budin Eyalet between 1541 and 1686, and to Temeșvar Eyalet between 1686 and 1688 and again between 1690 and 1716.
The Sanjak of Smederevo was formed after the fall of the Serbian Despotate in 1459, and its administrative seat was Smederevo. The Ottoman sources emphasize that large numbers of Vlachs migrated to the Sanjak of Smederevo and parts of the Sanjak of Kruševac and Sanjak of Vidin. According to those sources in 1476 there were 7,600 Vlach households and 15,000 peasant households.
After the Ottoman Empire conquered Belgrade in 1521, the administrative seat of the Sanjak was moved to this city. Some historians believed that epic figure of Alija Đerđelez was inspired by Ali Beg Mihaloglu, the first sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Smederevo. In period when Battle of Mohács took place the sanjakbey of Smederevo was Kučuk Bali-beg.
The Sanjak was occupied by the Habsburg Monarchy from 1718–1739 but, with the Treaty of Belgrade, the area was ceded to the Ottoman Empire. Belgrade, the center of the region while under Austrian rule, was neglected under the Ottomans and Smederevo (Semendire) was the administrative center. Nevertheless, Belgrade eventually became the seat of a pasha with the title of vizier and the Sanjak began to be referred to as the Pashaluk of Belgrade, although it was still called the Sanjak of Smederevo in official documents.
From 1789–1791, Belgrade was again under Austrian rule during the Kočina Krajina Serb rebellion. On 15 December 1801 Hadži Mustafa Pasha, the Vizier of Belgrade Pashaluk killed by Kuchuk Alija, one of four dahiyas.
The First Serbian Uprising led by Karađorđe Petrović to expel the Ottomans from the Sanjak for a significant time eventually led to the creation of modern Serbia. The uprising was suppressed in 1813 by the vast Ottoman army led by Hursid Pasha. Another rebellion known as the Hadži Prodan's Revolt led by Hadži Prodan Gligorijević in the year 1814, united large groups of Muslims and Christians against the reign of Hursid Pasha and they eventually fled to Austria.
Despite suppression of First Serbian Uprising and revival of the sanjak, uprising of Miloš Obrenović succeeded with creation of semi-independent Principality of Serbia in 1817 (confirmed with Ferman from Mahmud II in 1830), gained independence in 1878 by Treaty of San Stefano and evolved to Kingdom of Serbia in 1882. Creation of it also means end of Smederovo sanjak.
- Balkan Studies. The Institute. 1986. p. 10. Retrieved 10 March 2013. "Turkish sources declare that a wave of Vlah herdsmen flowed into Smederevo sandzak and a large part of Krusevac and Vidin sandzak"
- Škrijelj, Redžep (2005). Alamanah 31-32 (in Serbian). Podgorica. p. 156. Retrieved 22 June 2011. "Istoričari Stojan Novaković i Milenko Vukićević su postavili hipotezu da je Đerzelez Alija u stvari Ali-beg, prvi sandžak-beg Smedereva (Semendere) i Srbije po padu Despotovine (1459)."
- Peçevî, İbrahim (2000). Historija: 1520-1576 (in Serbian). El-Kalem. Retrieved 1 August 2011. "Brat je Kučuk bali-bega koji je u vreme Mohačke bitke bio beg Smedereva."
- Ćorović, Vladimir (1997), Istorija srpskog naroda, Ars Libri, retrieved 7 December 2012, "janjičari ga 15. decembra 1801. ubiše u beogradskom gradu. Potom uzeše vlast u svoje ruke, spremni da je brane svima sredstvima. Kao glavne njihove vođe istakoše se četiri dahije: Kučuk Alija, pašin ubica, Aganlija, Mula Jusuf i Mehmed-aga Fočić."