Trams in Belgrade
|Number of lines||11 (daytime)|
|Began operation||1892 (horse tram)
1894 (first electric tram)
1904 fully electric tram grid
|Track gauge||1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge|
|Electrification||600 V DC|
The Belgrade tram system is a large 1000mm gauge network with 11 lines totaling 127.3 kilometres (79.1 mi) of route in the city of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is operated with around 200 trams, including ČKD Tatra KT4, CAF Urbos, and DUEWAG Be 4/6 vehicles. The first tram line was introduced in October 1892. In the late 2000s, complete reconstruction of the system commenced.
There are currently 11 lines in operation every day until around 12:00 am. There are currently no tram services throughout the night.
- Line 2 (circle line): Pristanište – Vukov Spomenik – Slavija – Pristanište
- Line 3: Kneževac – Rakovica – Railway Station – Omladinski Stadion
- Line 5: Kalemegdan – Vukov spomenik – Ustanička
- Line 6: Tašmajdan – Vukov spomenik – Ustanička
- Line 7: Blok 45 – Novi Beograd – Railway Station – Tašmajdan – Vukov spomenik – Ustanička
- Line 7L: Blok 45 – Novi Beograd – Railway Station – Tašmajdan
- Line 9: Blok 45 – Novi Beograd – Railway Station – Slavija - Banjica
- Line 10: Banjica - University of Belgrade Faculty of Law - Kalemegdan (Belgrade Fortress)
- Line 12: Banovo Brdo – Railway Station – Tašmajdan – Omladinski Stadion
- Line 13: Banovo Brdo – Railway Station – Novi Beograd - Blok 45
- Line 14: Banjica - Vukov Spomenik - Ustanička
Former lines on current infrastructure
These lines ran on the current tram network, all these services were discontinued in early 1990s.
- Line 1: Kalemegdan – Railway Station – Rakovica – Kneževac
- Line 4: Kalemegdan – Dorćol – Omladinski Stadion
- Line 8: Voždovac - Slavija - Omladinski Stadion
Another line was discontinued in 2010 after re-routing of the line 13 to New Belgrade:
- Line 11: Kalemegdan - New Belgrade Block 45
From 1892 to WWI
On the 14th of October 1892, the first tram line in Belgrade was opened. It went from Kalemegdan to Slavija. The first electric line was introduced in 1894. Then for about 10 years, from the end of 1894, there were no works on modernization and widening of the tram system. It was not until 1903, when the operations related to the construction and exploitation of tram transport and electric lighting were passed, that the electrification of tram lines sped up.
During 1904, electric trams replaced horse-drawn trams on the Kalemegdan – Slavija and Kafana Žagubica (Inn) – Električna centrala routes and in 1905 the last ones were replaced at Terazije - Novo groblje route. Apart from performing the function of public transport, “horse trams” were also a focus of great interest in Belgrade at the time and their striking image remained with their contemporaries for a long time.
Twenty years after the introduction of tram transport and 7 years after the electrification of the last line, in 1912 there were 8 tram lines in Belgrade on which a daily average of 24 tram motor cars and 12 trailers operated. That year 7.5 million passengers were transported.
World War I and occupation of Belgrade left the electric power plant, electric network and, consequently, city tram transport in a very bad state. Soon after the liberation of the city in 1919, the Belgrade Municipality took over the system, which was previously private. Most of what was left from the pre-war period was worn out. It was replaced in stages, by 1932.
At the end of 1932, Belgrade had 65,5 km of tracks, of which 2/3 were double-track and 1/3 single-track ones. During 1931 and 1932 the following new lines were opened: Knežev spomenik – Dedinje, Slavija – Dušanovac, Terazije – Pašino brdo and Smederevski drum – Cvetkova mehana – Prištinska Street (today Cara Nikolaja II street).
In 1940, there were ten lines, and there were 104 trams all together. The system and city sustained heavy damage during World War II. Bombing in 1941 destroyed 38 trams.
The system was steadily rebuilt after World War II. In 1955 there were eight lines with 162 trams. In the 1970s plans to build the Belgrade Metro appeared. They fell through in 1982, as the city opted to expand the tram network instead. In 1985, the system was extended by 42 km, and the tram connected Novi Beograd, across the Sava River.
In 1990 and 1991, the system reached its peak usage. This was to change, with the breakup of the former Yugoslavia. Sanctions on Serbia resulted in funding being slashed drastically. Investments in the purchase of new vehicles, spare parts and maintenance of infrastructure were minimal. During 1996 and 1997, tracks were reconstructed in Bulevar revolucije (from Cvetkova pijaca to Radio-industrija), as well as in Ruzveltova Street and Jurija Gagarina Street. The country was bombed in 1999, putting additional pressure on the system.
In the 2000s, funding for mass transit increased as the country slowly recovered. In 2004, some 150 trams were in service. Widespread reconstruction was announced approaching the end of the decade. Between 2005. and 2010. tracks were completely reconstructed and modernised in following streets: Treći bulevar, Milentija Popovića, Savska, Nemanjina, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra (from Vukov spomenik to Cvetkova pijaca), Požeška, Pariska, Bulevar vojvode Mišića, Tadeuša Košćuškog. Also,tracks on Autokomanda are reconstructed as well as Old Sava bridge (this bridge is used mostly by trams on lines connecting two parts of Belgrade).
CAF Urbos 3
- "Beograd to buy 30 CAF trams". Railway Gazette International. 6 November 2009. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
- Beobuild (29 July 2006). "Tracks to be purchased for reconstruction of tram system". Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- "Important Years in City History". City of Belgrade. Retrieved 2009-10-28.
- GSP – Public Transport Company "Belgrade" (under construction website) (English)
- Belgrade at UrbanRail.net (incl. system map)
- BelgradeMaps.com - Belgrade public transport maps